Salamandra infraimmaculata (Martens, 1885)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Caudata > Family: Salamandridae > Subfamily: Salamandrinae > Genus: Salamandra > Species: Salamandra infraimmaculata

Salamandra maculosa var. infraimmaculata Martens, 1885, Sitzungsber. Ges. Naturforsch. Freunde Berlin, 1884: 195. Type(s): Not stated although likely originally in ZMB. NHMW 15501 designated neotype by Eiselt, 1958, Abh. Ber. Naturkd. Magdeburg, 10: 131. Type locality: "Syrien"; restricted by neotype designation by Eiselt, 1958, Abh. Ber. Naturkd. Magdeburg, 10: 131, to "Bscherreh (Becharreh) in nördlichen Libanon".

Salamandra semenovi Nesterov, 1916, Annu. Mus. Zool. Acad. Sci. Petrograd, 21: 21. Holotype: ZISP. Type locality: "montibus Kurdistani persio-turcici altitudine 5000 pedum supra maris uperfciem" = Sjah (Siyah) Güves, 1500 meters elevation, mountain land of Kurdistan. Synonymy by Wolterstorff, 1932, Bl. Aquar. Terrarienkd., Stuttgart, 43: 43.

Salamandra maculosa var. orientalis Wolterstorff, 1925, Abh. Ber. Mus. Nat. Heimatkd. Magdeburg, 4: 235. Syntypes: 12 specimens, including MM NV423, which was considered "typus" (lectotype by implication) by Wolterstorff, 1932, Bl. Aquar. Terrarienkd., Stuttgart, 43: 42; destroyed in 1945, W.W.II. NHMW 15501 designated neotype by Eiselt, 1958, Abh. Ber. Naturkd. Magdeburg, 10: 131. Type localities: "Balkanhabinsel und Kleinasiens"; restricted by lectotype designation of Wolterstorff, 1932, Bl. Aquar. Terrarienkd., Stuttgart, 43: 42; to "Gulek Boghaz (Pyles ciliciennes) bei Adana". Restricted by neotype designation by Eiselt, 1958, Abh. Ber. Naturkd. Magdeburg, 10: 131, to "Bscherreh (Becharreh) in nördlichen Libanon". (Not Salamandra maculosa orientalis Prazák, 1898)

Salamandra maculosa subsp. semenoviWolterstorff, 1925, Abh. Ber. Mus. Nat. Heimatkd. Magdeburg, 4: 241.

Salamandra maculosa forma orientalisWolterstorff, 1932, Bl. Aquar. Terrarienkd., Stuttgart, 43: 41.

Salamandra salamandra semenovi — Wolterstorff, 1932, Bl. Aquar. Terrarienkd., Stuttgart, 43: 43.

Salamandra salamandra orientalisBodenheimer, 1944, Istanbul Univ. Fen. Fak. Mec., Seri B, 9: 4. Status questioned.

Salamandra salamandra infraimmaculataMertens, 1948, Senckenb. Biol., 28: 187 (placed Salamandra salamandra orientalis in synonymy of Salamandra salamandra infraimmaculata).

Salamandra infraimmaculata immaculataJoger and Steinfartz, 1995, in Llorente et al. (eds.), Scientia Herpetol.: 33.

Salamandra infraimmaculata orientalisJoger and Steinfartz, 1995, in Llorente et al. (eds.), Scientia Herpetol.: 33.

Salamandra infraimmaculata semenoviJoger and Steinfartz, 1995, in Llorente et al. (eds.), Scientia Herpetol.: 33.

Salamandra (Oriandra) infraimmaculata infraimmaculataDubois and Raffaëlli, 2009, Alytes, 26: 69.

Salamandra (Oriandra) infraimmaculata orientalisDubois and Raffaëlli, 2009, Alytes, 26: 69.

Salamandra (Oriandra) infraimmaculata semenoviDubois and Raffaëlli, 2009, Alytes, 26: 69.

Salamandra (Oriandra) semenovi —  Raffaëlli, 2013, Urodeles du Monde, 2nd ed.: 202. 

English Names

Spot-bellied Salamander (Safaei-Mahroo, Ghaffari, Fahimi, Broomand, Yazdanian, Najafi-Majd, Hosseinian Yousefkani, Rezazadeh, Hosseinzadeh, Nasrabadi, Rajabizadeh, Mashayekhi, Motesharei, Naderi, and Kazemi, 2015, Asian Herpetol. Res., 6: 268).

Distribution

South-central coastal Turkey south along the coast through Syria and Lebanon to northern Israel; isolated populations in southwestern and eastern Turkey, northern Iraq, and northwestern Iran (Kordestan and Kermanshah provinces).

Comment

Joger and Steinfartz, 1995, in Llorente et al. (eds.), Scientia Herpetol.: 33-36, discussed and recognized Salamandra infraimmaculata for the former East Mediterranean populations of Salamandra salamandra. Başoğlu and Özeti, 1973, Türkiye Amphibileri: 30-35, provided an account for the Turkish populations (as Salamandra salamandra). Thorn and Raffaëlli, 2000, Salamand. Ancien Monde: 163-187, provided an account. Özeti and Yilmaz, 1994, Türkiye Amfibileri: 43-50, provided an account for Turkish populations (as subspecies of Salamandra salamandra). Hraoui-Bloquet, Sadek, Sindaco, and Venchi, 2002, Zool. Middle East, 27: 36, provided definitive records for Lebanon. Baloutch and Kami, 1995, Amph. Iran: 102-103, provided an account (for Salamandra salamandra semenovi) for Iran. See statement of geographic range, habitat, and conservation status in Stuart, Hoffmann, Chanson, Cox, Berridge, Ramani, and Young, 2008, Threatened Amph. World: 642. Dubois and Raffaëlli, 2009, Alytes, 26: 35, discussed the murky taxonomy of populations within this nominal species. Leviton, Anderson, Adler, and Minton, 1992, Handb. Middle East Amph. Rept.: 140, gave a brief account of Salamandra infraimmaculata semenovi (as Salamandra salamandra semenovi). Goldberg, Pearlson, Nevo, and Degani, 2009, S. Am. J. Herpetol., 4: 268-274, reported on sequence divergence among populations in Israel, correlated with ecological divergence. Bogaerts, Sparreboom, Pasmans, Almasri, Beukema, Shehab, and Amr, 2013, Salamandra, 49: 87-96, reported on the range and life history in Syria. Böhme, Hartmann, Fleck, and Schöttler, 2013, Russ. J. Herpetol., 20: 66-72, reported on pattern variability in Salamandra infraimmaculata semenovi and characters to distinguish Salamandra infraimmaculata from relatives in areas of approach. Raffaëlli, 2013, Urodeles du Monde, 2nd ed.: 201–202, provided brief accounts by subspecies, photographs, and map and (p. 202) recognized Salamandra semenovi as a distinct species although the rationale for this novelty is unclear. Safaei-Mahroo, Ghaffari, Fahimi, Broomand, Yazdanian, Najafi-Majd, Hosseinian Yousefkani, Rezazadeh, Hosseinzadeh, Nasrabadi, Rajabizadeh, Mashayekhi, Motesharei, Naderi, and Kazemi, 2015, Asian Herpetol. Res., 6: 257–290, reported on distribution and conservation status in Iran.  

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