Salamandra atra Laurenti, 1768

Class: Amphibia > Order: Caudata > Family: Salamandridae > Subfamily: Salamandrinae > Genus: Salamandra > Species: Salamandra atra

Salamandra atra Laurenti, 1768, Spec. Med. Exhib. Synops. Rept.: 42, 149. Type(s): Including specimen illustrated by Laurenti, 1768, Spec. Med. Exhib. Synops. Rept.: Pl. 1, fig. 2. Type localities: "in alpe Etscher Austriae & Loibel inter Carinthiam & Carnioliam"; restricted by Mertens and Müller, 1928, Abh. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges., 41: 13, to "Loibelpass, zwischen Kärnten und Krain", Austria.

Salamandra fusca Laurenti, 1768, Spec. Med. Exhib. Synops. Rept.: 42. Type(s): Not designated. Type locality: "alpibus" (= Alps), presumably in Austria. Synonymy by Merrem, 1820, Tent. Syst. Amph.: 184; Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Grad. Batr. Apoda Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 3.

Lacerta atraSturm, 1828, Deutschl. Fauna, Amph.: 122.

Geotriton fuscusBonaparte, 1837, Iconograph. Fauna Ital., 2 (Fasc. 19): unnumbered. Based on misidentified material of Speleomantes italicus Dunn, 1923. Considered in error to be a new name by by several authors, most notably by Dunn, 1923, Proc. New England Zool. Club, 8: 40. See comments under Speleomantis italicus. Synonymy with Salamandra atra by Gené, 1838, Mem. Accad. Sci. Torino, Ser. 2, 1: 282; Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Grad. Batr. Apoda Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 69.

Salamandra maculosa var. atraGuérin-Méneville, 1838, Icon. Regne Animal, 3: 17.

Triton fuscusSchinz, 1840, Eur. Fauna, Rept. Fishe: 62.

Salamandra nigra Gray, 1850, Cat. Spec. Amph. Coll. Brit. Mus., Batr. Grad.: 16. Substitute name for Salamandra atra Laurenti, 1768.

Salamandra nera Dugès, 1852, Ann. Sci. Nat., Paris, Ser. 3, 17: 260. Replacement name for Salamandra atra attributed (apparently in error) to Bonaparte. Synonymy by Duméril, Bibron, and Duméril, 1854, Erp. Gen., 9: 63, who, in error, considered Bonaparte, 1837, Iconograph. Fauna Ital., 2 (Fasc. 19) to be the author.

Spelerpes fuscusStrauch, 1870, Mem. Acad. Imp. Sci. St. Petersbourg, Ser. 7, 16 (4): 77, 83. Probably based on misidentified material.

Salamandra atraBoulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Grad. Batr. Apoda Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 4.

Salamandra alpestris Knauer, 1878, Naturgesch. Lurche: 99. Type(s): Not stated or known to exist. Type locality: Alps [presumably in Austria]. Synonymy by XXX.

Salamandra (Salamandra) atraÖzeti, 1967, Copeia, 1967: 287.

Salamandra atra atraMiksic, 1969, Glasn. Zemaljskog Muz. Bosni Hercegov., 8: 84.

Salamandra atra prenjensis Miksic, 1969, Glasn. Zemaljskog Muz. Bosni Hercegov., 8: 84. Holotype: "Zemalskog muzeja u Sarajevu". Type locality: "Hercegovina: Prenj".

Salamandra atra aurorae Trevisan, 1982, Boll. Zool., Padua, 49: 235. Holotype: MZUF 13456, by original designation. Type locality: "Bosco del Dosso, near Vaio di Pian del Morto, between Val Remaloch and Val Rotta, N of road No. 249, about 17 km. NNW of Asiago (Prov. Of Vicenza, Veneto, NE Italy), 45° 56´ 59 N; 11° 24´ 4 E; I G.M. (1970) 25 000 36 I NE, 1 400 m". See comment on this publication by Razzetti, Andreone, Corti, and Sindaco, 2006, in Sindaco et al. (ed.), Atlas Ital. Amph. Rept.: 160.

Salamandra atra pasubiensis Bonato and Steinfartz, 2005, Ital. J. Zool., 72: 260. Holotype: MZUF 26139, by original designation. Type locality: "Pasubio Massif: Val Fontana d'Oro, UTM 32T 0671 5071, 1520 m a.s.l.", Italy.

Salamandra (Alpandra) atra atraDubois and Raffaëlli, 2009, Alytes, 26: 69.

Salamandra (Alpandra) atra pasubiensisDubois and Raffaëlli, 2009, Alytes, 26: 69.

Salamandra (Alpandra) atra prenjensisDubois and Raffaëlli, 2009, Alytes, 26: 69.

Salamandra auroraeDubois and Raffaëlli, 2009, Alytes, 26: 35. Status rejected by Speybroeck, Beukema, and Crochet, 2010, Zootaxa, 2492: 3-4.

Salamandra (Alpandra) auroraeDubois and Raffaëlli, 2009, Alytes, 26: 69.

English Names

Alpine Salamander (Hellmich, 1962, Rept. Amph. Eur.: 49; Steward, 1969, Tailed Amph. Eur.: 39; Bruno, 1973, Natura, Milano, 64: 254; Arnold and Burton, 1978, Field Guide Rept. Amph. Brit. Eur.: 34; Ananjeva, Borkin, Darevsky, and Orlov, 1988, Dict. Amph. Rept. Five Languages: 33; Stumpel-Rienks, 1992, Ergänzungsband Handbuch Rept. Amph. Eur., Trivialnamen der Herpetofauna Eur.: 60; Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 35; Grossenbacher, 1997, in Gasc et al. (eds.), Atlas Amph. Rept. Eur.: 64).

Black Salamander (Stumpel-Rienks, 1992, Ergänzungsband Handbuch Rept. Amph. Eur., Trivialnamen der Herpetofauna Eur.: 60).

Distribution

Alps of southern Bavaria (Germany), Austria, France, northern and northeastern sub-alpine Italy, and Switzerland; and high mountains of the western part of the Balkan Peninsula, Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Montenegro, and Albania.

Comment

Divided into three subspecies by Trevisan, 1982, Boll. Zool., Padua, 49: 235-239 (Salamandra atra aurorae Trevisan, 1982 [northeastern Italy]; Salamandra atra prenjensis Miksic, 1969 (Cvrsnica and Prenj Mountains, Bosnia and Herzegovina), and Salamandra atra atra (Alps of western Europe). Thorn and Raffaëlli, 2000, Salamand. Ancien Monde: 184-190, provided an account. See also discussion of relevant literature and distribution by Grossenbacher, 1997, in Gasc et al. (eds.), Atlas Amph. Rept. Eur.: 64-65. Obst in Engelmann, Fritzsche, Günther, and Obst, 1993, Lurche Kriechtiere Eur.: 78-80, provided a brief account, figure, and map. See account by Guex and Grossenbacher, 2003, in Grossenbacher and Thiesmeier (eds.), Handbuch Rept. Amph. Eur., 4(IIB): 975-1028. Bonato and Steinfartz, 2005, Ital. J. Zool., 72: 253-260, discussed geographic variation in body coloration. Raffaëlli, 2007, Les Urodèles du Monde: 159-161, provided brief accounts, figures, and map. Razzetti, Andreone, Corti, and Sindaco, 2006, in Sindaco et al. (ed.), Atlas Ital. Amph. Rept.: 160, commented on variation in Italy (including populations referred by some to Salamandra aurorae). Nöllert and Nöllert, 1992, Die Amph. Eur.: 180-184, provided a brief account and polygon map. Salamandra atra aurorae may be a distinct species, according to Joger, 1986, Salamandra, 22: 218-220. Dubois and Raffaëlli, 2009, Alytes, 26: 35, provided their rationale for recognizing Salamandra aurorae as a distinct species. However, Riberon, Miaud, Grossenbacher, and Taberlet, 2001, Mol. Ecol., 10: 2555-2560, reported on the molecular phylogeography of the species and considered Salamandra atra aurorae to be imbedded phylogenetically within Salamandra atra atra. Bonato, 2000 "1999", Boll. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Venezia, 50: 231-237, described a population from the Venetian pre-Alps that is intermediate between Salamandra atra aurorae and Salamandra atra atra. Beukema and Brakels, 2008, Acta Herpetol., Firenze, 3: 77-81, discussed Salamandra atra aurorae in northeastern Italy. Speybroeck, Beukema, and Crochet, 2010, Zootaxa, 2492: 3-4, discussed the reasons for retaining Salamandra aurorae as part of Salamandra atraRaffaëlli, 2013, Urodeles du Monde, 2nd ed.: 205–206, provided brief accounts by subspeciest (and as Salamandra aurorae), photographs, and map. Romanazzi and Bonato, 2014, Amphibia-Reptilia, 35: 123-128, discussed the physical isolated of Salamandra atra pasubiensis from Salamandra atra aurorae. Razpet, Šunje, Kalamujić, Tulić, Pojskić, Stanković, Krizmanić, and Marić, 2016, Herpetol. J., 26: 109–117. reported on molecular phylogeography of the populations in western montane Balkan Peninsula. 

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