Tylototriton verrucosus Anderson, 1871

Class: Amphibia > Order: Caudata > Family: Salamandridae > Subfamily: Pleurodelinae > Genus: Tylototriton > Species: Tylototriton verrucosus

Tylototriton verrucosus Anderson, 1871, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1871: 423. Types: Not designated athough syntypes evident. Sclater, 1892, List Batr. Indian Mus.: 36, considered ZSIC 10397, 11396, 10366–81 to be syntypes, as is BMNH 1874.6.1.3 (according to Fei, Hu, Ye, and Huang, 2006, Fauna Sinica, Amph. 1: 280); see discussion by Nussbaum, Brodie, and Yang, 1995, Herpetologica, 51: 264, who designated as neotype KIZ 74II0061 VI.6. Type locality: "Nantin, Momien, and Hotha valleys, Western Yunan [sic], China." Neotype from "Gongwa, 1600 m elevation, Longchuan County, Yunnan Province, People's Republic of China".

Triturus (Tylototriton) verrucosusBoulenger, 1878, Bull. Soc. Zool. France, 3: 308.

Tylotriton verrucosusBoettger, 1885, Ber. Offenbach. Ver. Naturkd., 24–25: 165; Bourret, 1927, Fauna Indochine, Vert., 3: 255. Spelling error.

Glossolega verrucosaCope, 1889, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 34: 201. Incorrect subsequent spelling of generic name.

Tylototriton verrucosusDunn, 1918, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 62: 450; Wolterstorff and Herre, 1935, Arch. Naturgesch., Leipzig, N. F., 4: 224.

Tylototriton (Tylototriton) verrucosusZhao and Hu, 1984, Stud. Chinese Tailed Amph.: 9.

Pleurodeles (Tylototriton) verrucosusRisch, 1985, J. Bengal Nat. Hist. Soc., N.S.,, 4: 141; Dubois, 1987 "1986", Alytes, 5: 11.

Tylototriton verrucosus verrucosusYang, 2008, in Yang and Rao (ed.), Amph. Rept. Yunnan: 19.

Tylototriton verrucosus shanjingYang, 2008, in Yang and Rao (ed.), Amph. Rept. Yunnan: 19.

Tylototriton (Tylototriton) verrucosusDubois and Raffaëlli, 2009, Alytes, 26: 68.

Tylototriton (Tylototriton) verrucosus verrucosusHou, Li, and Lü, 2012, J. Huangshan Univ., 14: 63.

English Names

Crocodile Newt (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 36; Chan-ard, 2003, Photograph. Guide Amph. Thailand: 72).

Crocodile Salamander (Nutphund, 2001, Amph. Thailand: 50).

Himalayan Newt (Das and Dutta, 1998, Hamadryad, 23: 68; Schleich, Anders, and Kästle, 2002, in Schleich and Kästle (eds.), Amph. Rept. Nepal: 78; Ahmed, Das, and Dutta, 2009, Amph. Rept. NE India: 52; Dinesh, Radhakrishnan, Gururaja, and Bhatta, 2009, Rec. Zool. Surv. India, Occas. Pap., 302: 123; Mathew and Sen, 2010, Pict. Guide Amph. NE India: 123).

Red Knobby Newt (Fei, 1999, Atlas Amph. China: 44).

Orange-warted Salamander (Nutphund, 2001, Amph. Thailand: 50).

Inthanon Salamander (Nutphund, 2001, Amph. Thailand: 50).

Crocodile Newt (Nguyen, Ho, and Nguyen, 2005, Checklist Amph. Rept. Vietnam: 10).

Distribution

Provisional; see comments. Moderate (1200 m) to high (2150 m) elevations in extreme western Yunnan and eastern Xizang (China), hills of Arunachal Pradesh, West Bengal, , and Manipur in India; Danaga, Punakha, Wangdue Phodrang, and Sarpang Districts, Bhutan; northern Thailand.

Comment

With the recognition of Tylototriton shanjing, Tylototriton panhai, and Tylototriton yangi, and the recognition that additional species remain to be named, it is not clear what the geographic limits of Tylototriton verrucosus actually are. Inasmuch as the type locality of Tylototriton verrucosus is in Yunnan, China, hard on the border of northeastern Myanmar, within or near the range of Tylototriton shanjing, it is entirely possible that we will see significant taxonomic rearrangements in the future (DRF). See accounts (all of which may include taxa that were subsequently named) by Taylor, 1962, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull., 43: 279-282; Anders, Schleich, and Shah, 1998, in Schleich and Kästle (eds.), Contr. Herpetol. S. Asia Nepal India, 4: 1-26; Ye, Fei, and Hu, 1993, Rare and Economic Amph. China 79; Fei, 1999, Atlas Amph. China: 44; and Thorn and Raffaëlli, 2000, Salamand. Ancien Monde: 222-226. Chanda, 2002, Handb. Indian Amph.: 183, provided a brief account for India. Wongratana, 1984, Nat. Hist. Bull. Siam Soc., 32: 107-110, discussed the range in Thailand. Zhang and Wen, 2000, Amph. Guangxi: 31, provided an account (for Guangxi), although this record requires verification. Panigrahi, 2000, Indian Biol., 32: 41-43, noted that the Darjeeling population differed distinctly in morphology and coloration from populations elsewhere in Asia. Anders, 2002, in Schleich and Kästle (eds.), Amph. Rept. Nepal: 134-140, provided an extensive account for Nepalese population. See account by Shrestha, 2001, Herpetol. Nepal: 62-71. Seglie, Roy, Giacoma, and Mushahiddunnabi, 2003, Russ. J. Herpetol., 10: 157-162, discussed range in the Darjeeling District of India. Palden, 2003, Hamadryad, 27: 286-287, provided records for Bhutan. Sarkar, Biswas, and Ray, 1992, State Fauna Ser., 3: 94-95, provided a brief account for West Bengal, India. Sarkar and Ray, 2006, In Alfred (ed.), Fauna of Arunachal Pradesh, Part 1: 313, provided a brief report for Arunachal Pradesh.Nutphund, 2001, Amph. Thailand: 50-51, provided a very brief account and photo. Chan-ard, 2003, Photograph. Guide Amph. Thailand: 72, provided a very brief account, map for Thailand, and photograph. Nguyen, Ho, and Nguyen, 2005, Checklist Amph. Rept. Vietnam: 10, provided a specific locality for Vietnam. In the Tylototriton verrucosus group of Fei, Ye, Huang, Jiang, and Xie, 2005, in Fei et al. (eds.), Illust. Key Chinese Amph.: 42 (although they only addressed Chinese species). Fei, Hu, Ye, and Huang, 2006, Fauna Sinica, Amph. 1: 280-283, provided an account and range map. Raffaëlli, 2007, Les Urodèles du Monde: 145, provided a brief account, figure, and map. Devi and Shamungou, 2006, J. Exp. Zool. India, 9: 317-324, provided specific localities within Manipur, India (as Pleurodeles verrucsosus). Hegde and Deuti, 2007, Cobra, Chennai, 1 (2): 29-36, provided specific localities from West Bengal, northeastern India. Chuaynkern, Chantipinthara, Songchan, and Duengkae, 2008, Herpetol. Rev., 39: 361, described range in Thailand. Ahmed, Das, and Dutta, 2009, Amph. Rept. NE India: 52, provided a brief account for northeastern India. Chuaynkern, Chantipinthara, Songchan, and Duengkae, 2008, Herpetol. Rev., 39: 361, provided a range extension in Thailand and discussed the range within that country. Mathew and Sen, 2010, Pict. Guide Amph. NE India: 123, provided a brief characterization and photograph. Nguyen, Nguyen, Hồ, Lê, and Nguyen, 2009, Tạp chí Công nghệ Sinh học, 7: 325–333, discussed the species in Vietnam, although  Raffaëlli, 2013, Urodeles du Monde, 2nd ed.: 181, suggested that these specimens are referrable to other species. Fei, Ye, and Jiang, 2010, Colored Atlas of Chinese Amph.: 81, provided a brief account including photographs. Li, Zhao, and Dong, 2010, Amph. Rept. Tibet: 11–12, provided an account for Xizang, China. See Shah and Tiwari, 2004, Herpetofauna Nepal: 31, for brief account for Nepal. Fei, Ye, and Jiang, 2012, Colored Atlas Chinese Amph. Distr.: 82–83, provided an account, photographs, and a map. Wangyal, 2013, J. Threatened Taxa, 5: 4776, provided records from south-central Bhutan.  Raffaëlli, 2013, Urodeles du Monde, 2nd ed.: 181–182, provided a brief account, photographs, and range map. Records from Myanmar were referred to Tylototriton shanorum by Nishikawa, Matsui, and Rao, 2014, Nat. Hist. Bull. Siam Soc., 60: 9–22. Wangyal and Gurung, 2012, J. Threatened Taxa, 4: 3218–3222, reported on the range in the Punakha-Wangdue Valley, Bhutan. Records for Laos now have been referred to Tylototriton podichthys. Wangyal, 2014, J. Bhutan Ecol. Soc., 1: 29, discussed the range in Bhutan.  Subba, Aravind, and Ravikanth, 2016, Check List, 13(1: 2033): 12, considered the presence of this species in Sikkim, India, to be doubtful and confused with another species. 

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