Notophthalmus viridescens (Rafinesque, 1820)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Caudata > Family: Salamandridae > Subfamily: Pleurodelinae > Genus: Notophthalmus > Species: Notophthalmus viridescens

Salamandra americana Houttuyn, 1782, Verh. Zeeuwsch. Genootsch. Wetensch. Vlissingen, 9: 330. Type(s): Animal figured by Seba, 1734, Locuplet. Rer. Nat. Thesaur. Descript. Icon. Exp. Univ. Phys. Hist., 1: Plate 89, fig. 4, 5. Type locality: Not definitely stated, but implied to be North American. Synonymy made here. Nomen oblitum.

Triturus (Diemictylus) viridescens Rafinesque, 1820, Ann. Nat., Lexington, 1: 5. Type(s): Not designated. Type locality: "in Lake George, Lake Champlain, the springs and brooks of the neighborhood".

Triturus (Notophthalmus) miniatus Rafinesque, 1820, Ann. Nat., Lexington, 1: 5, lines 26-27. Type(s): None designated or known to exist. Type locality: "states of New York, New Jersey, Connecticut, Vermont, etc."; restricted to "borders of Lake Champlain", Vermont-New York, USA, by Schmidt, 1953, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept., Ed. 6: 24, although this restriction seemingly was not based on evidence. Cope in Jordan, 1878, Man. Vert. North. U.S., Ed. 2: 191, suggested the synonymy. Synonymy by Gage, 1891, Am. Nat., 25: 1084.

Salamandra symmetrica Harlan, 1825, J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 5: 157. Syntypes: Not stated; ANSP 1582 and 1584, according to Malnate, 1971, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 123: 348. Type locality: "Inhabits South Carolinea"; given as "Near Camden, South Carolina", USA, by Schmidt, 1953, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept., Ed. 6: 24. Synonymy by Gray, 1850, Cat. Spec. Amph. Coll. Brit. Mus., Batr. Grad.: 23, and Baird, 1850 "1849", J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, Ser. 2, 1: 283 (with Notophthalmus miniatus); Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Grad. Batr. Apoda Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 20. Synonymy (with Triturus viridescens viridescens) by Bishop, 1941, Occas. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan, 451: 1.

Salamandra punctatissima Wood, 1825, J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 4: 306. Type(s): Not designated, though likely originally in the Philadelphia Museum or ANSP. Type locality: "Native place unknown". Synonymy by Duméril, Bibron, and Duméril, 1854, Erp. Gen., 9: 154.

Salamandra dorsalis Harlan, 1829, J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 6: 101. Syntypes: ANSP 1583, 1585, and 1586, according to Malnate, 1971, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 123: 347. Type locality: "South Carolina"; restricted to "northeastern South Carolina", USA, by Schmidt, 1953, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept., Ed. 6: 24. Synonymy by Baird, 1850 "1849", J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, Ser. 2, 1: 284;. Gray, 1850, Cat. Spec. Amph. Coll. Brit. Mus., Batr. Grad.: 23; Duméril, Bibron, and Duméril, 1854, Erp. Gen., 9: 142; Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Grad. Batr. Apoda Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 21.

Salamandra greeni Gray, 1831, in Cuvier, Animal Kingdom (Griffith), 9—Appendix: 107. Nomen nudum. Thought incorrectly to be a substitute name for Triturus (Diemictylus) viridescens (Rafinesque, 1820) by Schmidt, 1953, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept., Ed. 6: 24. Synonymy by Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Grad. Batr. Apoda Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 22.

Salamandra symmetricaHarlan, 1835, Med. Phys. Res.: 182.

Salamandra millepunctata Storer, 1840, Boston J. Nat. Hist., 3: 60. Syntypes: Numerous specimens, deposition unknown or known to still exist. Type locality: "from Roxbury and Amherst", Massachusetts, USA. Named coined provisionally in synonymy of Salamandra dorsalis Harlan. Synonymy by Baird, 1850 "1849", J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, Ser. 2, 1: 284; Gray, 1850, Cat. Spec. Amph. Coll. Brit. Mus., Batr. Grad.: 23; Duméril, Bibron, and Duméril, 1854, Erp. Gen., 9: 154; Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Grad. Batr. Apoda Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 22.

Salamandra stellio De Kay, 1842, Zool. New York, 1: 73. Confusing name formulation in reference to "stelio Catesby" (= Stellio aquaticus Americanus of Catesby, 1754, Nat. Hist. Carolina Florida Bahama Is.: pl. 10 [of Ardea criatata] of volume 2 (1771), also referred by Catesby in his appendix as the spotted eft, Lacerta punctata Linnaeus, in error.) Synonymy by Gray, 1850, Cat. Spec. Amph. Coll. Brit. Mus., Batr. Grad.: 23 (with Notophthalmus miniatus); Wied-Neuwied, 1865, Nova Acta Phys. Med. Acad. Caesar Leopold Carol., Halle, 32: 125 (with Salamandra symmetrica); Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Grad. Batr. Apoda Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 21. Possibly a sy

Triton millepunctatusDe Kay, 1842, Zool. New York, 1: 84.

Salamandra coccinea De Kay, 1842, Zool. New York, 1: 81. Type(s): Based in part on the animal figured in plate 21, fig. 54b, deposited in NYSM. Type localities: "Lake Pleasant, Hamilton county, in a forest", New York. Synonymy by Gage, 1891, Am. Nat., 25: 1084.

Triton dorsalisHolbrook, 1842, N. Am. Herpetol., Ed. 2, 5: 77.

Triton symetricusHolbrook, 1842, N. Am. Herpetol., Ed. 2, 5: 57. Incorrect subsequent spelling.

Notopthalmus viridescensBaird, 1850 "1849", J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, Ser. 2, 1: 284. First revisor.

Tristella symmetricaGray, 1850, Cat. Spec. Amph. Coll. Brit. Mus., Batr. Grad.: 23. Suggested as a junior synonym of Notophthalmus miniatus.

Molge ocellata Gray, 1850, Cat. Spec. Amph. Coll. Brit. Mus., Batr. Grad.: 23. Type(s): Presumably in the BMNH. Type locality: North America. Nomen nudum. Name attributed to Bell provided in synonymy by Gray, 1850, Cat. Spec. Amph. Coll. Brit. Mus., Batr. Grad.: 23 (with Notophthalmus miniatus).

Notophthalmus miniatus — Gray, 1850, Cat. Spec. Amph. Coll. Brit. Mus., Batr. Grad.: 22.

Notophthalmus viridescens — Gray, 1850, Cat. Spec. Amph. Coll. Brit. Mus., Batr. Grad.: 23.

Triton punctatissimus Duméril, Bibron, and Duméril, 1854, Erp. Gen., 9: 154. Types: Not stated, presumably MNHNP. Type locality: "l'Amerique septentrionale trouvé dans le Maine, la Pensylvanie et la Géorgie". Synonymy by Duméril, Bibron, and Duméril, 1854, Erp. Gen., 9: 154. Regarded in error as a substitute name for Salamandra millepunctata by Schmidt, 1953, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept., Ed. 6: 24.

Triton symetricus — Duméril, Bibron, and Duméril, 1854, Erp. Gen., 9: 154. Incorrect subsequent spelling.

Diemyctylus viridescensHallowell, 1856, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 8: 11.

Notophthalma viridescensGray, 1858, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1858: 138. Misspelling of generic name.

Triton viridescensStrauch, 1870, Mem. Acad. Imp. Sci. St. Petersbourg, Ser. 7, 16 (4): 50.

Salamandra ventralis Provancher, 1875, Nat. Canadien, 7: 251. Type(s): Not designated. Type locality: "le lac sur la montagne d'Yamaska", Quebec, Canada. Synonymy by Schmidt, 1953, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept., Ed. 6: 24.

Triturus (Triturus) viridescensBoulenger, 1878, Bull. Soc. Zool. France, 3: 307.

Molge viridescensBoulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Grad. Batr. Apoda Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 21.

Diemyctylus minatus miniatusYarrow, 1882, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 24: 22.

Diemyctylus minatus viridescensYarrow, 1882, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 24: 22.

Diemyctylus viridescens viridescensCope, 1889, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 34: 207.

Diemyctylus minutusGage and Norris, 1890, Proc. Am. Assoc. Adv. Sci., 39: 338. Incorrect subsequent spelling.

Diemyctylus viridescens var. vittatus Garman, 1896, J. Cincinnati Soc. Nat. Hist., 19: 49. Syntypes: MCZ (15 specimens) by original designation; now including USNM 23797–99 (according to Cochran, 1961, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 220: 13) and MCZ 1992 (2 specimens, likely syntypes, according to Barbour and Loveridge, 1929, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 69: 252). Remaining syntypes not traced. Type locality: "in shallow pools near Wilmington, [New Hanover County,] North Carolina", USA.

Notophthalmus viridescensGill, 1907, Science, 26: 256.

Diemictylus viridescensGill, 1907, Science, 26: 256.

Diemyctylus viridescens louisianensis Wolterstorff, 1914, Abh. Ber. Mus. Nat. Heimatkd. Magdeburg, 2: 383. Syntypes: None designated formally, presumably formerly in MM, now likely destroyed. Type locality: "New Orleans, Louisiana, N. Amerika", USA.

Notophthalmus viridescens viridescensStejneger and Barbour, 1917, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept.: 8.

Notophthalmus viridescens vittatusStejneger and Barbour, 1917, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept.: 8.

Triturus dorsalisDunn, 1918, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 62: 452.

Triturus viridescensDunn, 1918, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 62: 451.

Triturus viridescens symmetricaSchmidt, 1924, Copeia, 132: 67; Myers, 1927 "1926", Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci., 36: 337; Carr, 1940, Univ. Florida Biol. Sci. Ser., 3: 45.

Diemictylus viridescens louisianensisWolterstorff, 1925, Abh. Ber. Mus. Nat. Heimatkd. Magdeburg, 4: 293.

Diemictylus viridescens dorsalisWolterstorff, 1925, Abh. Ber. Mus. Nat. Heimatkd. Magdeburg, 4: 293.

Triturus viridescens louisianaeStrecker, 1928, Contr. Baylor Univ. Mus., 16: 8. Incorrect subsequent spelling.

Triturus viridescens louisianensisSchmidt and Necker, 1935, Bull. Chicago Acad. Sci., 5: 62.

Notophthalmus viridescens louisianensisHerre, 1936, Abh. Ber. Mus. Nat. Heimatkd. Magdeburg, 6: 196.

Diemictylus viridescens forma columbia Scharlinski, 1939, Abh. Ber. Mus. Nat. Heimatkd. Magdeburg, 7: 50. Nomen nudum.

Triturus louisianensisCarr, 1940, Univ. Florida Biol. Sci. Ser., 3: 45.

Triturus viridescens viridescensBishop, 1943, Handb. Salamanders: 99.

Triturus viridescens dorsalisBishop, 1943, Handb. Salamanders: 103.

Triturus viridescens louisianensisBishop, 1943, Handb. Salamanders: 106.

Diemictylus viridescens piaropicola Schwartz and Duellman, 1952, Bull. Chicago Acad. Sci., 9: 219 (September 30). Holotype: UMMZ 106333, by original designation. Type locality: "5.2 miles east of Monroe Station, Collier County, Florida", USA.

Diemictylus viridescens evergladensis Peterson, 1952, Herpetologica, 8: 103. Holotype: UIMNH 28740, by original designation. Type locality: "60 mi. W Miami, on U.S. Highway 94, Monroe County, Florida", USA (November 1).

Notophthalmus viridescensSmith, 1953, Herpetologica, 9: 95-99.

Diemictylus viridescensSchmidt, 1953, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept., Ed. 6: 24.

Notophthalmus viridescens viridescensSmith, 1953, Herpetologica, 9: 96.

Notophthalmus viridescens dorsalisSmith, 1953, Herpetologica, 9: 96.

Diemictylus viridescens dorsalisSchmidt, 1953, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept., Ed. 6: 24.

Notophthalmus viridescens louisianensisSmith, 1953, Herpetologica, 9: 97.

Diemictylus viridescens louisianensisSchmidt, 1953, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept., Ed. 6: 24.

Notophthalmus viridescens piaropicolaSmith, 1953, Herpetologica, 9: 97.

Notophthalmus viridescensMecham, 1967, Cat. Am. Amph. Rept., 53: 1.

Notophthalmus viridescens louisianensisMecham, 1967, Cat. Am. Amph. Rept., 53: 2-3.

Notophthalmus (Notophthalmus) viridescens dorsalisDubois and Raffaëlli, 2009, Alytes, 26: 67.

Notophthalmus (Notophthalmus) viridescens louisianensisDubois and Raffaëlli, 2009, Alytes, 26: 67.

Notophthalmus (Notophthalmus) viridescens piaropicolaDubois and Raffaëlli, 2009, Alytes, 26: 67.

Notophthalmus (Notophthalmus) viridescens viridescensDubois and Raffaëlli, 2009, Alytes, 26: 67.

English Names

Yellow-bellied Salamander (Salamandra symmetrica [no longer recognized]: De Kay, 1842, Zool. New York, 1: 73).

Punctate Salamander (Salamandra symmetrica [no longer recognized]: Gray, 1831, in Cuvier, Animal Kingdom (Griffith), 9—Appendix: 107).

Many-spotted Salamander (Salamandra dorsalis [no longer recognized]: Storer, 1839, Rep. Ichthyol. Herpetol. Massachusetts: 249; Storer, 1840, Boston J. Nat. Hist., 3: 59).

Symmetrical Salamander (Salamandra symmetrica [no longer recognized]: Storer, 1839, Rep. Ichthyol. Herpetol. Massachusetts: 246; Storer, 1840, Boston J. Nat. Hist., 3: 54).

Scarlet salamander (Salamandra coccinea [no longer recognized]: De Kay, 1842, Zool. New York, 1: 81).

Crimson-spotted Triton (Triton millepunctatus [no longer recognized]: De Kay, 1842, Zool. New York, 1: 84).

Symmetrical Salamander (Diemictylus miniatus [no longer recognized]: Verrill, 1863, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., 9: 199).

Dorsal Triton (Salamandra dorsalis [no longer recognized]: Gray, 1831, in Cuvier, Animal Kingdom (Griffith), 9—Appendix: 107).

Water Newt (Diemictylus viridescens: Verrill, 1863, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., 9: 199).

Eastern Water Lizard (Diemyctylus miniatus miniatus [no longer recognized]: Yarrow, 1882, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 24: 22).

Green Triton (Yarrow, 1882, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 24: 22 [Diemyctylus minatus viridescens]; Hay, 1892, Annu. Rep. Dept. Geol. Nat. Res. Indiana for 1891: 453 [Diemyctylus viridescens]).

Red Evet (Diemyctylus miniatus miniatus [no longer recognized]: Davis and Rice, 1883, Bull. Chicago Acad. Sci., 1: 27; Fowler, 1907, Annu. Rep. N.J. State Mus. for 1906: 79).

Red Evet (Diemyctylus miniatus [no longer recognized]: Jordan, 1878, Man. Vert. North. U.S., Ed. 2: 191).

Spotted Evet (Diemyctylus miniatus viridescens: Davis and Rice, 1883, Bull. Chicago Acad. Sci., 1: 27).

Spotted Triton (Notophthalmus viridescens: Jordan, 1878, Man. Vert. North. U.S., Ed. 2: 191; Fowler, 1907, Annu. Rep. N.J. State Mus. for 1906: 108); Rhoads, 1895, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 47: 405; Fowler, 1907, Annu. Rep. N.J. State Mus. for 1906: 79).

Small Red Lizard (Diemictylus viridescensFowler, 1907, Annu. Rep. N.J. State Mus. for 1906: 79).

Yellow Bellied Lizard (Diemictylus viridescensFowler, 1907, Annu. Rep. N.J. State Mus. for 1906: 79).

Water Newt (Diemictylus viridescensFowler, 1907, Annu. Rep. N.J. State Mus. for 1906: 79).

Red Foot (Diemyctilus viridescens var. miniatus [no longer recognized]: Britcher, 1903, Proc. Onondaga Acad. Sci., Syracuse, 1: 121).

Red Lizard (Diemictylus viridescensFowler, 1907, Annu. Rep. N.J. State Mus. for 1906: 79).

Water Lizard (Diemictylus viridescensFowler, 1907, Annu. Rep. N.J. State Mus. for 1906: 79; Viosca, 1949, Pop. Sci. Bull., Louisiana Acad. Sci., 1: 9 [Triturus viridescens louisianensis]).

American Newt (Notophthalmus viridescens: Brimley, 1907, J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc., 23: 152; Strecker, 1915, Baylor Univ. Bull., 18: 54).

Newt (Notophthalmus viridescensFowler, 1907, Annu. Rep. N.J. State Mus. for 1906: 79; Schmidt, 1953, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept., Ed. 6: 24; Conant, Cagle, Goin, Lowe, Neill, Netting, Schmidt, Shaw, Stebbins, and Bogert, 1956, Copeia, 1956: 174),

Common Newt (Notophthalmus viridescens: Stejneger and Barbour, 1917, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept.: 8).

Eastern Newt (Notophthalmus viridescens: Collins, Huheey, Knight, and Smith, 1978, Herpetol. Circ., 7: 7; Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 35; Collins, 1997, Herpetol. Circ., 25: 8; Collins and Taggart, 2009, Standard Common Curr. Sci. Names N. Am. Amph. Turtles Rept. Crocodil., ed. 6: 15; Tilley, Highton, and Wake, 2012, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 39: 29 Highton, Bonett, and Jockusch, 2017, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 43: 30).

Broken-striped Newt (Notophthalmus viridescens dorsalis [no longer recognized]: Bishop, 1943, Handb. Salamanders: 103; Schmidt, 1953, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept., Ed. 6: 24; Conant, Cagle, Goin, Lowe, Neill, Netting, Schmidt, Shaw, Stebbins, and Bogert, 1956, Copeia, 1956: 174; Conant, 1975, Field Guide Rept. Amph. E. Cent. N. Am., Ed. 2: 258; Collins, Huheey, Knight, and Smith, 1978, Herpetol. Circ., 7: 7; Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 35; Collins, 1997, Herpetol. Circ., 25: 8; Crother, Boundy, Campbell, de Queiroz, Frost, Highton, Iverson, Meylan, Reeder, Seidel, Sites, Taggart, Tilley, and Wake, 2001 "2000", Herpetol. Circ., 29: 25;; Collins and Taggart, 2009, Standard Common Curr. Sci. Names N. Am. Amph. Turtles Rept. Crocodil., ed. 6: 15; Tilley, Highton, and Wake, 2012, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 39: 29 Highton, Bonett, and Jockusch, 2017, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 43: 30).

Louisiana Newt (Notophthalmus viridescens louisianensis [no longer recognized]: Strecker, 1928, Contr. Baylor Univ. Mus., 16: 8; Bishop, 1943, Handb. Salamanders: 106)

Variable Newt (Notophthalmus viridescens louisianensis [no longer recognized]: Schmidt, 1953, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept., Ed. 6: 24).

Central Newt (Notophthalmus viridescens louisianensis [no longer recognized]: Conant, Cagle, Goin, Lowe, Neill, Netting, Schmidt, Shaw, Stebbins, and Bogert, 1956, Copeia, 1956: 174; Conant, 1975, Field Guide Rept. Amph. E. Cent. N. Am., Ed. 2: 258; Collins, Huheey, Knight, and Smith, 1978, Herpetol. Circ., 7: 7; Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 35; Collins, 1997, Herpetol. Circ., 25: 8; Crother, Boundy, Campbell, de Queiroz, Frost, Highton, Iverson, Meylan, Reeder, Seidel, Sites, Taggart, Tilley, and Wake, 2001 "2000", Herpetol. Circ., 29: 25; Collins and Taggart, 2009, Standard Common Curr. Sci. Names N. Am. Amph. Turtles Rept. Crocodil., ed. 6: 15; Tilley, Highton, and Wake, 2012, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 39: 29 Highton, Bonett, and Jockusch, 2017, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 43: 30).

Peninsula Newt (Notophthalmus viridescens piaropicola [no longer recognized]: Conant, Cagle, Goin, Lowe, Neill, Netting, Schmidt, Shaw, Stebbins, and Bogert, 1956, Copeia, 1956: 174; Conant, 1975, Field Guide Rept. Amph. E. Cent. N. Am., Ed. 2: 258; Collins, Huheey, Knight, and Smith, 1978, Herpetol. Circ., 7: 7; Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 35; Collins, 1997, Herpetol. Circ., 25: 8; Crother, Boundy, Campbell, de Queiroz, Frost, Highton, Iverson, Meylan, Reeder, Seidel, Sites, Taggart, Tilley, and Wake, 2001 "2000", Herpetol. Circ., 29: 25; Collins and Taggart, 2009, Standard Common Curr. Sci. Names N. Am. Amph. Turtles Rept. Crocodil., ed. 6: 15; Tilley, Highton, and Wake, 2012, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 39: 29 Highton, Bonett, and Jockusch, 2017, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 43: 30).

Spotted Newt (Notophthalmus viridescens viridescens: [no longer recognized] Bishop, 1943, Handb. Salamanders: 99).

Common Newt (Notophthalmus viridescens viridescens [no longer recognized]: Bishop, 1943, Handb. Salamanders: 99).

Eft (Notophthalmus viridescens viridescens [no longer recognized]: Bishop, 1943, Handb. Salamanders: 99).

Red-spotted Newt (Notophthalmus viridescens viridescens [no longer recognized]: Schmidt, 1953, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept., Ed. 6: 24; Conant, Cagle, Goin, Lowe, Neill, Netting, Schmidt, Shaw, Stebbins, and Bogert, 1956, Copeia, 1956: 174; Conant, 1958, Field Guide Rept. Amph. E. Cent. N. Am.: 214; Conant, 1975, Field Guide Rept. Amph. E. Cent. N. Am., Ed. 2: 257; Collins, Huheey, Knight, and Smith, 1978, Herpetol. Circ., 7: 7; Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 35; Collins, 1997, Herpetol. Circ., 25: 8; Crother, Boundy, Campbell, de Queiroz, Frost, Highton, Iverson, Meylan, Reeder, Seidel, Sites, Taggart, Tilley, and Wake, 2001 "2000", Herpetol. Circ., 29: 25; Collins and Taggart, 2009, Standard Common Curr. Sci. Names N. Am. Amph. Turtles Rept. Crocodil., ed. 6: 15; Tilley, Highton, and Wake, 2012, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 39: 29).

Red Eft (Diemyctylus miniatus [no longer recognized]: Jordan, 1878, Man. Vert. North. U.S., Ed. 2: 191).

Red Eft (Notophthalmus viridescens viridescens [no longer recognized]: Schmidt, 1953, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept., Ed. 6: 24; Conant, Cagle, Goin, Lowe, Neill, Netting, Schmidt, Shaw, Stebbins, and Bogert, 1956, Copeia, 1956: 174).

Wilmington Newt (Diemictylus viridescens vittatus [no longer recognized]: Brimley, 1907, J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc., 23: 152).

Distribution

Southeastern Canada and eastern USA.

Comment

See Mecham, 1967, Cat. Am. Amph. Rept., 53: 1–4, and Petranka, 1998, Salamand. U.S. Canada: 451–462, for acounts. Triturus viridescens was selected over Triturus miniata by action of first revisor. See Smith, 1953, Herpetologica, 9: 95-99. Gabor and Nice, 2004, Herpetologica, 60: 373–386, found a high level of discordance between the nominal subspecies (Notophthalmus viridescens piaropicola, Notophthalmus viridescens viridescnes, Notophthalmus viridescens dorsalis, Notophthalmus viridescens louisianensis) and allozyme variation; on this basis they rejected subspecies in Notophthalmus viridescens. Hunsinger and Lannoo, 2005, in Lannoo (ed.), Amph. Declines: 889–894, provided a detailed account that summarized the biology and conservation literature. Whitmore, Losee, Meyer, and Spradling, 2013, Conserv. Genetics, 14: 771–781, provided molecular evidence that the nominal subspecies Notophthalmus viridescens viridescens and Notophthalmus viridescens louisianensis are not rigorously differentiable. Raffaëlli, 2013, Urodeles du Monde, 2nd ed.: 172–174, provided brief accounts by subspecies, photographs, and range map. Altig and McDiarmid, 2015, Handb. Larval Amph. US and Canada: 134–135, provided an account of larval morphology and biology. See account of biology and life history in South Florida by Meshaka and Lane, 2015, Herpetol. Conserv. Biol., 10 (Monogr. 5): 15–16. Highton, Bonett, and Jockusch, 2017, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 43: 30, recognized subspecies for undisclosed reasons. 

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