Lissotriton vulgaris (Linnaeus, 1758)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Caudata > Family: Salamandridae > Subfamily: Pleurodelinae > Genus: Lissotriton > Species: Lissotriton vulgaris

Lacerta vulgaris Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., Ed. 10, 1: 206. Type(s): Not stated or known to exist. Type locality: "Europa"; restricted to "Schweden" by Mertens and Müller, 1928, Abh. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges., 41: 13.

Lacerta aquatica Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., Ed. 10, 1: 206. Type(s): Including animal figured by Seba, 1734, Locuplet. Rer. Nat. Thesaur. Descript. Icon. Exp. Univ. Phys. Hist., 2: 15, pl. 12, fig. 7. Type locality: "Europae". Synonymy by Gray, 1850, Cat. Spec. Amph. Coll. Brit. Mus., Batr. Grad.: 25; Camerano, 1885, Mem. Accad. Sci. Torino, Ser. 2, 36: 438. Synonymy with Triton cristatus by Schinz, 1833, Naturgesch. Abbild Rept.: 209.

Lacerta palustris Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., Ed. 10, 1: 201. Type(s): Not designated, though likely including specimens from ZMUU, also including specimens noted by indication, including salamanders figured by Seba, 1734, Locuplet. Rer. Nat. Thesaur. Descript. Icon. Exp. Univ. Phys. Hist., 1: pl. 89, fig. 4-5. Type locality: "Europae". Synonymy with Triton palmatus by Schinz, 1833, Naturgesch. Abbild Rept.: 211. Synonymy (with Lacerta vulgaris) by Gray, 1850, Cat. Spec. Amph. Coll. Brit. Mus., Batr. Grad.: 19. Synonym (with Triton cristatus Laurenti, 1768) by Schinz, 1833, Naturgesch. Abbild Rept.: 209; Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Grad. Batr. Apoda Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 8; Hecht, 1933 "1932", Sitzungsber. Ges. Naturforsch. Freunde Berlin, 1932: 377-380.

Triton palustris Laurenti, 1768, Spec. Med. Exhib. Synops. Rept.: 39, 145. Types: Including animal figured on pl. 4, fig. 2 of the original and specimens in the "Museo Turriano". Type locality: "circa Viennam in aquis stagnantibus. b [beta] in Martinica" (p. 39) and "stagnis Danubialibus" (p. 146). Questionable whether this name represents a new name or merely a use of Triton palustris Linnaeus (DRF). Synonymy with Triton taeniatus by Leydig, 1867, Arch. Naturgesch., 33: 212.

Triton parisinus Laurenti, 1768, Spec. Med. Exhib. Synops. Rept.: 40. Type(s): By indication including specimens described in "Act. Reg. Paris. 1729" [publication not yet traced--DRF]. Type locality: Not stated, although in the Paris region by implication of the name. Synonymy with Salamandra taeniata Schneider by Gravenhorst, 1807, Vergleich. Uebersicht Linn. Neuern Zool. Syst.: 431, and Leydig, 1867, Arch. Naturgesch., 33: 212; (with Molge punctata by Merrem, 1820, Tent. Syst. Amph.: 186, and Schinz, 1822, Thierr. Naturgesch., 2: 184; with Lophinus punctatus by Gray, 1850, Cat. Spec. Amph. Coll. Brit. Mus., Batr. Grad.: 25. Synonymy by Duméril, Bibron, and Duméril, 1854, Erp. Gen., 9: 142; Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Grad. Batr. Apoda Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 14.

Salamandra exigua Laurenti, 1768, Spec. Med. Exhib. Synops. Rept.: 41, 148. Type(s): Including specimen illustrated by Laurenti, 1768, Spec. Med. Exhib. Synops. Rept.: Pl. 3, fig. 4. Type locality: "vallis humidis, & ad sepes fruticosas, subtus lutosas circa Viennam", Austria. Synonymy with Triton taeniatus by Leydig, 1867, Arch. Naturgesch., 33: 212. Synonymy with Lophinus punctatus by Gray, 1850, Cat. Spec. Amph. Coll. Brit. Mus., Batr. Grad.: 27. Synonymy with Molge vulgaris by Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Grad. Batr. Apoda Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 14.

Gecko triton Meyer, 1795, Synops. Rept. Nov. Sist. Gen. Method.: 24. Types: XXX. Type locality: XXX. Synonymy by Schreiber, 1875, Herpetol. Eur.: 24.

Gecko aquaticusMeyer, 1795, Synops. Rept. Nov. Sist. Gen. Method.: 22.

Salamandra taeniata Schneider, 1799, Hist. Amph. Nat.: 58. Substitute name for Triton parisinus Laurenti, 1768; not Salamandra maculosa var. taeniata Dürigen, 1897. Synonymy by Merrem, 1820, Tent. Syst. Amph.: 186; Schinz, 1822, Thierr. Naturgesch., 2: 178 (with Salamandra punctata); Duméril, Bibron, and Duméril, 1854, Erp. Gen., 9: 142; Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Grad. Batr. Apoda Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 14. Synonymy with Triton exiguus by Schinz, 1833, Naturgesch. Abbild Rept.: 212.

Salamandra palustrisSchneider, 1799, Hist. Amph. Nat.: 60. Based on specimens of Triturus cristatus according to Gray, 1850, Cat. Spec. Amph. Coll. Brit. Mus., Batr. Grad.: 19. S

Salamandra abdominalis Latreille, 1800 "An. VIII", Hist. Nat. Salamand. France: 29, 50. Type(s): Not stated; presumably MNHNP, but including animals figured in the original publication. Type locality: Not stated but clearly within France. Synonymy (with Lophinus punctatus) by Gray, 1850, Cat. Spec. Amph. Coll. Brit. Mus., Batr. Grad.: 25. Synonymy with Triton exiguus by Schinz, 1833, Naturgesch. Abbild Rept.: 212. Synonymy with Triton taeniatus by Leydig, 1867, Arch. Naturgesch., 33: 212. Synonymy with Triturus vulgaris by Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Grad. Batr. Apoda Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 14, and Thireau, 1987, Bull. Liaison Mus. Hist. Nat., Suppl., 71: 1.

Salamandra punctata Latreille, 1800 "An. VIII", Hist. Nat. Salamand. France: 31, 53. Substitute name for Triton parisinus Laurenti, 1768). Synonymy by Duméril, Bibron, and Duméril, 1854, Erp. Gen., 9: 142.

Lacerta triton Retzius, 1800, Fauna Svec., ed. 3, 1: 288. Substitute name for Triton cristatus Laurenti, 1768 and Triton parisinus Laurenti, 1768).

Salamandra elegans Daudin, 1803 "An. XI", Hist. Nat. Gen. Part. Rept., 8: 255. Type(s): In Daudin's personal collection; presumably to MNHNP. Type locality: "environs de Beauvais", France. Not Salamandra elegans Lesson, 1839. Tentative synonymy with Salamandra palmata by Merrem, 1820, Tent. Syst. Amph.: 187. Synonymy with Triton taeniatus by Leydig, 1867, Arch. Naturgesch., 33: 212.

Molge punctataMerrem, 1820, Tent. Syst. Amph.: 186.

Molge palustrisMerrem, 1820, Tent. Syst. Amph.: 187. Based on specimens of Triturus cristatus according to Gray, 1850, Cat. Spec. Amph. Coll. Brit. Mus., Batr. Grad.: 19.

Molge cinerea Merrem, 1820, Tent. Syst. Amph.: 183. Substitute name for Lacerta vulgaris Linnaeus, 1758. Synonymy by Gray, 1850, Cat. Spec. Amph. Coll. Brit. Mus., Batr. Grad.: 25; Duméril, Bibron, and Duméril, 1854, Erp. Gen., 9: 142.

Triton taeniatusGoldfuss, 1820, Handb. Zool., 2: 130. Wagler, 1830, Nat. Syst. Amph.: 208; Leydig, 1867, Arch. Naturgesch., 33: 169.

Lacerta taeniataSturm, 1828, Deutschl. Fauna, Amph.: tab. a, b, c.

Triton abdominalisMillet de la Turtaudière, 1828, Fauna de Maine et Loire: 690. Bibron and Bory de Saint-Vincent, 1833, in Bory de Saint Vincent (ed.), Exped. Morée, 3(Part 1, Zool. 1): 15.

Triton vulgarisFleming, 1828, Hist. Brit. Animals: 158. Schreiber, 1912, Herpetol. Eur., Ed. 2: 85.

Triton aquaticusFleming, 1828, Hist. Brit. Animals: 158.

Triton punctatusMillet de la Turtaudière, 1828, Fauna de Maine et Loire: 687. Bonaparte, 1832, Iconograph. Fauna Ital., 2 (Fasc. 1): 4.

Molge taeniataGravenhorst, 1829, Delic. Mus. Zool. Vratislav., 1: 76.

Salamandra vulgaris —Gray In Cuvier, 1831, Animal Kingdom (Griffith), 9: 106.

Salamandra lacepedii Andrzejowski, 1832, Nouv. Mem. Soc. Imp. Nat. Moscou, 2: 345. Type(s): Not known to exist. Type locality: Wolhynien [Ukraine].

Triton (Geotriton) exiguusBonaparte, 1832, Iconograph. Fauna Ital., 2 (Fasc. 1): pl. 83.

Triton exiguus —  Schinz, 1833, Naturgesch. Abbild Rept.: 212.

Triton lobatus Otth In Tschudi, 1838, Classif. Batr.: 95. Nomen nudum. Synonymy (with Lacerta taeniata Wolf, 1828) by Leydig, 1867, Arch. Naturgesch., 33: 212, and Schreiber, 1875, Herpetol. Eur.: 24; with Triton vulgaris by Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Grad. Batr. Apoda Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 14; Camerano, 1885, Mem. Accad. Sci. Torino, Ser. 2, 36: 438.

Lissotriton punctatusBell, 1839, Hist. Brit. Rept.: 132.

Lophinus punctatusGray, 1850, Cat. Spec. Amph. Coll. Brit. Mus., Batr. Grad.: 27.

Triton laevis Higginbottom, 1853, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., Ser. 2, 12: 370. Type(s): Not stated, but possibly deposted in BMNH. Type locality: "England". Name coined explicitly as a descriptive name and as a junior synonym of Triton palmipes—Bell.

Pyronicia punctataGray, 1858, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1858: 141.

Triton (Lissotriton) lobatusFatio, 1872, Fauna Vert. Suisse, 3: 557.

Molge vulgarisBoulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Grad. Batr. Apoda Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 14.

Triton (Triton) vulgarisWolterstorff, 1901, Feuille Jeunes Nat., Ser. 4, 31: 76.

Triton vulgaris dalmatica Kolombatovic, 1907, Glasn. Hrvatsk. Naravosl. Drustva, Zagreb, 19: 11. Type(s): Not stated or known to exist. Type locality: "valle del Fiume Cetina", near Sinj, Dalmatia, Croatia. Distinctiveness from Lissotriton vulgaris vulgaris rejected by Dubois and Raffaëlli, 2009, Alytes, 26: 40.

Triton vulgaris subsp. typica forma kammereri Wolterstorff, 1907, Zool. Anz., 31: 710. Type(s): MM; by implication; destroyed in W.W.II according to Brame, 1972, Checklist Living & Fossil Salamand. World (Unpubl. MS): 107. Type locality: "Am Semmering befindet sich an der alten Semmeringstrasse in etwa 850 m Meereshöhe" (= Pool on Semmering Street [850 meters elevation] in in Semmering), northern Austrian Alps. Unavailable tetranomial.

Triton (=Molge) vulgaris subsp. typica forma kammereriWolterstorff, 1908, Lacerta, 5: 19.

Gekko triedrus Schreiber, 1912, Herpetol. Eur., Ed. 2: 85. Nomen nudum in synonymy attributed in error to Meyer.

Triturus vulgarisDunn, 1918, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 62: 452. Herre, 1935, Zoologica, Stuttgart, 33: 63.

Molge vulgaris vulgarisNikolskii, 1918, Fauna Rossii, Zemnovodnye: 224.

Molge vulgaris kammereriNikolskii, 1918, Fauna Rossii, Zemnovodnye: 233. Triton vulgaris subsp. Typica forma dalmaticaWolterstorff, 1925, Abh. Ber. Mus. Nat. Heimatkd. Magdeburg, 4: 275.

Triturus (Palaeotriton) vulgarisBolkay, 1927, Glasn. Zemaljskog Muz. Bosni Hercegov., 39: 63. Bolkay, 1928, Z. Anat. Entwicklungesch., 86: 259.

Triton (Palaeotriton) vulgaris vulgarisBolkay, 1928, Z. Anat. Entwicklungesch., 86: 259.

Triturus vulgaris vulgarisMertens and Müller, 1928, Abh. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges., 41: 12.

Triton intermedius Szeliga-Mierzeyewksi and Ulasiewicz, 1931, Trav. Soc. Sci. Wilno, Class. Sci. Math. Nat., 6: 19. Type(s): Not designated. Type locality: "Molodeczno" Province, Wojewodschaft, Vilnius, Lithuania. Name provided for Triturus cristatus X Triturus vulgaris hybrid. Unavailable name for a hybrid and preoccupied by Triton vulgaris intermedia Kolombatovic, 1907, and Triturus cristatus danubialis var. intermedia Fuhn, 1953).

Triton hoffmanni Szeliga-Mierzeyewksi and Ulasiewicz, 1931, Trav. Soc. Sci. Wilno, Class. Sci. Math. Nat., 6: 19. Type(s): Not designated or known to exist. Type locality: "Molodeczno" province, Vilnius, Lithuania. Name provided for hybrid of Triturus montandoni X Triturus vulgaris, hybrid).

Triturus vulgarisWolterstorff and Herre, 1935, Arch. Naturgesch., Leipzig, N. F., 4: 224.

Triturus vulgaris ampelensis Fuhn, 1951, Bul. Stiint. Sect. Biol. Agron. Geol. Geogr., Bucuresti, 3: 505. Syntypes: Deposition not stated, though presumably MGAB. Type locality: "Valea Dosului, raionul Alba-Iulia, basinul Ampoiului, la o altiduine de circa 1350 m", Apuseni Mountains, Romania. Taxonomic distinctiveness from Triturus vulgaris vulgaris rejected by Fuhn and Freytag, 1952, Mitt. Naturkd. Vorgesch. Mus. Magdeburg, 3: 92; but see Iftime and Iftime, 2008, Russ. J. Herpetol., 15: 93-96.

Triturus vulgaris borealis Kauri In Gislén and Kauri, 1959, Acta Vert., Stockholm, 1: 226. Holotype: ZMLU 86.1, by original designation. Type locality: "Lockne, Jämtland, Ångermanland", Sweden. Distinctiveness from Triturus vulgaris vulgaris rejected by Raxworthy, 1990, Herpetol. J., 1: 481.

Triturus vulgaris ampelensisMertens and Wermuth, 1960, Amph. Rept. Europas: 32.

Triturus vulgaris tataiensis Dely, 1967, Acta Zool. Acad. Sci. Hungaricae, 13: 265. Holotype: MNH v.490, by original designation. Type locality: "Tata (Komitat Komarom), Fényes-Quelle und 'Teich der Froschmänners'", Hungary. Distinctiveness from Triturus vulgaris vulgaris rejected by Raxworthy, 1990, Herpetol. J., 1: 481.

Triturus vulgaris schmidtleri Raxworthy, 1988, J. Zool., London, 215: 754. Holotype: BMNH 1987.1035, by original designation. Type locality: "Karacabey, 40° 12´ N, 28° 22´ E, 50 m altitude", western Anatolia, Turkey.

Triturus (Palaeotriton) vulgarisMacGregor, Sessions, and Arntzen, 1990, J. Evol. Biol., 3: 329.

Triturus vulgaris schmidtlerorumThorn and Raffaëlli, 2000, Salamand. Ancien Monde: 262. Unjustified emendation.

Lissotriton vulgarisGarcía-París, Montori, and Herrero, 2004, Fauna Iberica, 24: 50, by implication.

Lophinus vulgarisLitvinchuk, Zuiderwijk, Borkin, and Rosanov, 2005, Amphibia-Reptilia, 26: 317, by implication.

Lissotriton (Lissotriton) (vulgaris) vulgarisDubois and Raffaëlli, 2009, Alytes, 26: 66.

Lissotriton (Lissotriton) (vulgaris) vulgaris vulgarisDubois and Raffaëlli, 2009, Alytes, 26: 66.

Lissotriton (Lissotriton) (vulgaris) vulgaris ampelensisDubois and Raffaëlli, 2009, Alytes, 26: 66.

English Names

Common Newt (Shaw, 1802, Gen. Zool., 3(1): 295; Hellmich, 1962, Rept. Amph. Eur.: 42; Ananjeva, Borkin, Darevsky, and Orlov, 1988, Dict. Amph. Rept. Five Languages: 34; Arnold, 2002, Rept. Amph. Eur., Ed. 2: 46).

Great Water-Newt (Lacerta palustris [no longer recognized]: Shaw, 1802, Gen. Zool., 3(1): 296).

Common Water-Newt (Lacerta aquatica [no longer recognized]: Shaw, 1802, Gen. Zool., 3(1): 298).

Warty Eft (Triton palustris [no longer recognized]; Fleming, 1828, Hist. Brit. Animals: 157).

Water Eft (Triton aquaticus [no longer recognized]; Fleming, 1828, Hist. Brit. Animals: 158).

Common Eft (Triton punctatus [no longer recognized]: Jenyns, 1835, Manual Brit. Vert. Animals: 304).

Common Eft (Triton punctatus [no longer recognized]: Jenyns, 1835, Manual Brit. Vert. Animals: 304).

Common Smooth-newt (Lissotriton punctatus: Bell, 1839, Hist. Brit. Rept.: 132).

Small Newt (Lissotriton punctatus: Bell, 1839, Hist. Brit. Rept.: 132).

Small Eft (Lissotriton punctatus: Bell, 1839, Hist. Brit. Rept.: 132).

Small Evet (Lissotriton punctatus: Bell, 1839, Hist. Brit. Rept.: 132).

Brown Eft (Fleming, 1828, Hist. Brit. Animals: 158).

Smooth Newt (Wood, 1863, Illust. Nat. Hist., 3: 179 (as Lophinus punctatus); Flower, 1933, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1933: 837; Hellmich, 1962, Rept. Amph. Eur.: 42;Steward, 1969, Tailed Amph. Eur.: 40; Bruno, 1973, Natura, Milano, 64: 344; Arnold and Burton, 1978, Field Guide Rept. Amph. Brit. Eur.: 47; Ananjeva, Borkin, Darevsky, and Orlov, 1988, Dict. Amph. Rept. Five Languages: 34; Stumpel-Rienks, 1992, Ergänzungsband Handbuch Rept. Amph. Eur., Trivialnamen der Herpetofauna Eur.: 68; Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 36).

Smooth Newt (Triturus vulgaris vulgaris: Steward, 1969, Tailed Amph. Eur.: 40).

Rumanian Smooth Newt (Triturus vulgaris ampelensis: Steward, 1969, Tailed Amph. Eur.: 40).

North Swedish Smooth Newt (Triturus vulgaris borealis: Steward, 1969, Tailed Amph. Eur.: 40).

Dalmatian Smooth Newt (Triturus vulgaris dalmaticus: Steward, 1969, Tailed Amph. Eur.: 40).

Distribution

British Isles and western France west through southern Norway and southern Finland to the Urals and south to the northern Balkans, northwestern Turkey, and Kazakhstan; introduced and feral in Victoria, southeastern Australia. 

Comment

See account by Kuzmin, 1999, Amph. Former Soviet Union: 146-160, for area of former USSR. Raxworthy, 1990, Herpetol. J., 1: 481-492, provided an account and key to the subspecies (several of which are now recognized as distinct species). See also discussion of relevant literature and distribution by Kuzmin and Zuiderwijk, 1997, in Gasc et al. (eds.), Atlas Amph. Rept. Eur.: 88-89. Gislén and Kauri, 1959, Acta Vert., Stockholm, 1: 209-242, reported on northern populations. Arnold, 2002, Rept. Amph. Eur., Ed. 2: 46-47, provided a brief account, figure, and map, as did Obst IN Engelmann, Fritzsche, Günther, and Obst, 1993, Lurche Kriechtiere Eur.: 96-99, in both cases in the sense of including populations now assigned to other species of Lissotriton. Pikulik, 1996, Zemnavodnyia Pauzuny: 123-126, provided an account for the Belarus population. Nöllert and Nöllert, 1992, Die Amph. Eur.: 202-209, provided a brief account and polygon map. See account by Schlüpmann and Van Gelder, 2003, in Grossenbacher and Thiesmeier (eds.), Handbuch Rept. Amph. Eur., 4(IIB): 847-967 (including populations now assigned to Lissotriton graecus, Lissotriton kosswigi, Lissotriton lantzi, Lissotriton meridionalis, and Lissotriton schmidtleri. Naumov, 2005, Acta Zool. Bulgarica, 57: 391, provided records for Bulgaria. Babik, Branicki, Crnobrnja-Isailovic, Cogǎlniceanu, Sas-Kovács, Olgun, Poyarkov, García-París, and Arntzen, 2005, Mol. Ecol., 14: 2475-2491, reported on mtDNA and a comparison with morphological variation among populations (most now recognized as distinct species). Raffaëlli, 2007, Les Urodèles du Monde: 106-108, provided accounts by subspecies (most of which are now regarded as distinct species). Iftime and Iftime, 2008, Russ. J. Herpetol., 15: 93-96, discussed morphological variation in southwestern Romania and evidence of intergradation among named populations. Skorinov, Kuranova, Borkin, and Litvinchuk, 2010, Russ. J. Herpetol., 15: 157-165, discussed range and conservation status in western Siberia and Kazakhstan. Dubois and Raffaëlli, 2009, Alytes, 26: 39-40, discussed their rationale for considering several former subspecies of Lissotriton vulgaris to be species; see account for Lissotriton graecus, Lissotriton kosswigi, Lissotriton lantzi, and Lissotriton meridionalis. Introgresses with Lissotriton graeca in Serbia and Bosnia and Herzegovina, with Lissotriton kosswigi in northwestern Turkey according to Babik, Branicki, Crnobrnja-Isailovic, Cogǎlniceanu, Sas-Kovács, Olgun, Poyarkov, García-París, and Arntzen, 2005, Mol. Ecol., 14: 2488. Başoğlu and Özeti, 1973, Türkiye Amphibileri: 44-50, and Özeti and Yilmaz, 1994, Türkiye Amfibileri: 68-79, provided accounts for the Turkish populations (now Lissotriton kosswigi and Lissotriton vulgaris schmidtleri). Maanen, 2009, in Creemers and van Delft (eds.), Amph. Rept. Nederland: 124-131 provided a detailed account for the species in the Netherlands. Stojanov, Tzankov, and Naumov, 2011, Die Amph. Rept. Bulgariens: 131-143, provided a fairly detailed account and range map for Bulgaria. Ivanović, Sotiropoulos, Üzüm, Džukić, Olgun, Cogǎlniceanu, and Kalezić, 2011, J. Zool. Syst. Evol. Res., 50: 116-124, reported on skull size and shape within a phylogenetic framework. Gherghel, Strgariu, Ambrosă, and Zamfirescu, 2012, Acta Herpetol., Firenze, 7: 49-55, documented the hybrid zone in Romania with Lissotriton montandoni. Nöllert, Kwet, Grosse, and Hill, 2013, Mertensiella, 19: 1-21, reviewed the biology of German populations. Bringsøe and Fog, 2013, Mertensiella, 19: 22-25, reported on the ecological distribution throughout Denmark. Raffaëlli, 2013, Urodeles du Monde, 2nd ed.: 119–121, provided a brief account, photos, and map. Pabijan, Zieliński, Dudek, Chloupek, Sotiropoulos, Liana, and Babik, 2015, J. Biogeograph., 42: 671–683, reported on mtDNA phylogeography in the Balkans, revealing several Pleistocene refugia.  Wielstra, Bozkurt, and Olgun, 2015, ZooKeys, 484: 11–23, provided a map of Lissotriton vulgaris schmidtleri in Turkey, suggested that it might be a distinct species, and discussed the species range and allopatry from Lissotriton kosswigi in that country. Sos and Hegyeli, 2015, North-west. J. Zool., 11: 34–40, discussed the range of Lissotriton vulgaris ampelensis in Romania. Tingley, Weeks, Smart, van Rooyen, Woolnough, and McCarthy, 2015, Biol. Invasions, 17: 31–37, reported an introduced population in Victoria, southeastern Australia. 

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