Ichthyosaura alpestris (Laurenti, 1768)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Caudata > Family: Salamandridae > Subfamily: Pleurodelinae > Genus: Ichthyosaura > Species: Ichthyosaura alpestris

Triton alpestris Laurenti, 1768, Spec. Med. Exhib. Synops. Rept.: 38, 142. Type(s): By indication including specimen illustrated on Pl. 2, fig. 4 in the original publication. Type locality: "in Etschero monte" (= Etschero Mountain), northern Alps, west of Mariazell, Austria.

Proteus tritonius Laurenti, 1768, Spec. Med. Exhib. Synops. Rept.: 37, 140. Type(s): By indication including animal illustrated on Pl 2, Fig. 2 of the original publication. Type locality: "in lacu frigidissimo, qui est in alpe Etscher"; given as "Merano", Tyrol, Italy, by Eiselt, 1958, Abh. Ber. Naturkd. Magdeburg, 10: 130. Synonymy with Salamandra palustris by Schneider, 1799, Hist. Amph. Nat.: 60. Synonymy by Schreiber, 1875, Herpetol. Eur.: 75 (under Salamandra maculosa). Synonymy with Triton alpestris by Schmidtler, 2004, Sekretär, 4: 10-28, and Lescure, 2008, Bull. Soc. Herpetol.France, 126: 25-36.

Triton Wurfbainii Laurenti, 1768, Spec. Med. Exhib. Synops. Rept.: 38. Type(s): Not stated, but by indication including animal(s) described or figured in Wurffbainus, 1683, Salamandrologia: 54. Type locality: Not stated. Synonymy with Triton alpestris (as Triton wurfbeinii [sic]) by Schinz, 1833, Naturgesch. Abbild Rept.: 211 (presumably this first revision action gave Triton wurfbaini priority over Triton alpestris, but this conclusion awaits additional scrutiny; regardless, Triton wurfbainii is now a nomen oblitum—DRF). Synonymy by Bonaparte, 1840, Mem. Accad. Sci. Torino, Ser. 2, 2: 454; Gray, 1850, Cat. Spec. Amph. Coll. Brit. Mus., Batr. Grad.: 21; Dugès, 1852, Ann. Sci. Nat., Paris, Ser. 3, 17: 268; Duméril, Bibron, and Duméril, 1854, Erp. Gen., 9: 146.

Triton Salamandroides Laurenti, 1768, Spec. Med. Exhib. Synops. Rept.: 40. Type(s): By indication including specimen illustrated by "Wurfbain [= Wurffbainus, 1683, Salamandrologia], Tab. II, Fig. 4". Type locality: "Germania". Synonymy by Leydig, 1867, Arch. Naturgesch., 33: 198; Bonaparte, 1840, Mem. Accad. Sci. Torino, Ser. 2, 2: 454; Gray, 1850, Cat. Spec. Amph. Coll. Brit. Mus., Batr. Grad.: 21; Dugès, 1852, Ann. Sci. Nat., Paris, Ser. 3, 17: 268.

Lacerta (Triton) gyrinoides Merrem, 1789, Schr. Ges. Naturforsch. Freunde Berlin, 9: 194. Type(s): ZIUG by original designation, now in ZFMK if still extant. Type locality: "auf dem Heimberge in einem Sumpfe (das Lichtemeer genannt) gefunden bätte", near Duisberg, Germany. Synonymy with Triton wurfbainii by Merrem, 1820, Tent. Syst. Amph.: 187. Synonymy by Schinz, 1822, Thierr. Naturgesch., 2: 185 (under Triton wurfbainii), and Schinz, 1833, Naturgesch. Abbild Rept.: 211 (under Triton wurfbeinii [sic]); Bonaparte, 1840, Mem. Accad. Sci. Torino, Ser. 2, 2: 454; Gray, 1850, Cat. Spec. Amph. Coll. Brit. Mus., Batr. Grad.: 21.

Gecko gyrinoidesMeyer, 1795, Synops. Rept. Nov. Sist. Gen. Method.: 25.

Salamandra alpestrisSchneider, 1799, Hist. Amph. Nat.: 77; Bechstein, 1800, in Lacépède's Naturgesch. Amphib., 2: 260.

Salamandra ignea Bechstein, 1800, in Lacépède's Naturgesch. Amphib., 2: 260. Type(s): Not stated or known to exist. Type locality: Thüringen [Germany]. Synonymy by Leydig, 1867, Arch. Naturgesch., 33: 198; Schinz, 1833, Naturgesch. Abbild Rept.: 211; Bonaparte, 1840, Mem. Accad. Sci. Torino, Ser. 2, 2: 454; Gray, 1850, Cat. Spec. Amph. Coll. Brit. Mus., Batr. Grad.: 21.

Salamandra cincta Latreille, 1800 "An. VIII", Hist. Nat. Salamand. France: 31, 52. Type(s): Not stated but presumably originally in MNHNP. Type locality: "France". Named as a junior synonym or replacement name for Triton wurfbainii Laurenti, 1768 and Triton salamandroides Laurenti, 1768. Synonymy by Schinz, 1822, Thierr. Naturgesch., 2: 185; Leydig, 1867, Arch. Naturgesch., 33: 198; Gray, 1850, Cat. Spec. Amph. Coll. Brit. Mus., Batr. Grad.: 21.

Salamandra wurfbainiSonnini de Manoncourt and Latreille, 1801 "An. X", Hist. Nat. Rept., 2: 245.

Ichthyosaura tritonius —Latreille In Sonnini de Manoncourt and Latreille, 1801 "An. X", Hist. Nat. Rept., 4: 310.

Salamandra rubriventris Daudin, 1803 "An. XI", Hist. Nat. Gen. Part. Rept., 8: 239. Substitute name for Triton alpestris Laurenti, 1768. Synonymy by Leydig, 1867, Arch. Naturgesch., 33: 199; Gray, 1850, Cat. Spec. Amph. Coll. Brit. Mus., Batr. Grad.: 21; Dugès, 1852, Ann. Sci. Nat., Paris, Ser. 3, 17: 268; Duméril, Bibron, and Duméril, 1854, Erp. Gen., 9: 146.

Molge igneaMerrem, 1820, Tent. Syst. Amph.: 186.

Molge alpestrisMerrem, 1820, Tent. Syst. Amph.: 187. Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Grad. Batr. Apoda Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 12.

Molge wurfbainiMerrem, 1820, Tent. Syst. Amph.: 186.

Triton igneus Goldfuss, 1820, Handb. Zool., 2: 130. Substitute name for Triton alpestris Laurenti, 1768.

Triton zonarius Millet de la Turtaudière, 1828, Fauna de Maine et Loire: 691. Substitute name for Salamandra cincta Latreille, 1800.

Triton WurfbeiniiSchinz, 1833, Naturgesch. Abbild Rept.: 211. Incorrect subsequent spelling.

Triton apuanus Bonaparte, 1839, Iconograph. Fauna Ital., 2 (Fasc. 26): pl. , fig.3. Type(s): Not stated or known to exist, although clearly including animal in figure 3 of the original publication. Type locality: Serravezza, Apuanen, northwestern Italy. Synonymy by Gray, 1850, Cat. Spec. Amph. Coll. Brit. Mus., Batr. Grad.: 21; Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Grad. Batr. Apoda Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 12.

Triton alpestrisGray, 1850, Cat. Spec. Amph. Coll. Brit. Mus., Batr. Grad.: 21.

Triton alpestris apuanusGray, 1850, Cat. Spec. Amph. Coll. Brit. Mus., Batr. Grad.: 21.

Hemitriton alpestrisDugès, 1852, Ann. Sci. Nat., Paris, Ser. 3, 17: 263.

Triton neglectus Jan, 1857, Cenni Mus. Civ. Milano: 55. Type(s): MSNM. Type locality: "Apennini", Italy. Nomen nudum. Synonymy by Schreiber, 1875, Herpetol. Eur.: 39.

Triton (Hemitriton) alpestrisFatio, 1872, Fauna Vert. Suisse, 3: 541.

Molge alpestrisBoulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Grad. Batr. Apoda Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 12.

Triton alpestris var. immaculatus Dürigen, 1897, Deutschl. Amph. Rept.: 628. Substitute name for Triton apuanus Bonaparte, 1839.

Triton (Triton) alpestrisWolterstorff, 1901, Feuille Jeunes Nat., Ser. 4, 31: 75.

Molge alpestris var. reiseri Werner, 1902, Verh. Zool. Bot. Ges. Wien, 52: 7. Syntypes: NHMW 22902.1-2, according to Häupl and Tiedemann, 1978, Kat. Wiss. Samml. Naturhist. Mus. Wien, 2: 11, and Häupl, Tiedemann, and Grillitsch, 1994, Kat. Wiss. Samml. Naturhist. Mus. Wien, 9: 14, and ZSM (SLM) 3401/1-2, according to Glaw and Franzen, 2006, Spixiana, München, 29: 157. Type locality: "auf der Ostseite des Nadkrstac (2112 m) mit der Biela fromila (2071 m) in 1805 m Seehöhe gelegenen Lache, ferner in der Folge, und zwar bereits Anfans September, in völlig ausgebildeten Exemplaren längs der grasigen Ufer eines nahe der Schutzhütte am Prokosko jezero vorbeifliessenden Bächleins"; rendered as "See Prokosko bei Fojnica, Vranika Gebirge, Bosnien" by Mertens and Müller, 1928, Abh. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges., 41: 11. See comment by Glaw and Franzen, 2006, Spixiana, München, 29: 157, who regarded this a synonym of Mesotriton alpestris alpestris.

Triton alpestris var. apuanusSchreiber, 1912, Herpetol. Eur., Ed. 2: 95.

Triton alpestris var. ReiseriSchreiber, 1912, Herpetol. Eur., Ed. 2: 98.

Triturus alpestrisDunn, 1918, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 62: 453.

Molge ReiseriBolkay, 1919, Glasn. Zemaljskog Muz. Bosni Hercegov., 31: 3.

Triturus alpestris alpestrisMertens, 1923, Senckenb. Biol., 5: 213.

Triturus alpestris reiseriWolterstorff, 1925, Abh. Ber. Mus. Nat. Heimatkd. Magdeburg, 4: 266; Mertens and Müller, 1928, Abh. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges., 41: 11. Distinctiveness from Triturus alpestris alpestris rejected by Sotiropoulos, Tomovic, Džukić, and Kalezić, 2001, Herpetol. J., 11: 1-8.

Triton (Mesotriton) alpestrisBolkay, 1927, Glasn. Zemaljskog Muz. Bosni Hercegov., 39: 64; Bolkay, 1927, Zool. Anz., 72: 282.

Triton (Mesotriton) alpestris alpestrisBolkay, 1927, Glasn. Zemaljskog Muz. Bosni Hercegov., 39: 64; Bolkay, 1928, Z. Anat. Entwicklungesch., 86: 259.

Triton (Mesotriton) alpestris reiseriBolkay, 1927, Glasn. Zemaljskog Muz. Bosni Hercegov., 39: 64; Bolkay, 1928, Z. Anat. Entwicklungesch., 86: 259.

Triturus (= Triton) alpestris subsp. cyréni Wolterstorff, 1932, Zool. Anz., 97: 135. Holotype: MM NV39 a/31, destroyed in W.W.II, according to Brame, 1972, Checklist Living & Fossil Salamand. World (Unpubl. MS): 88. Type locality: "Ercinasee" (= Lake Ercina), 1000 meters elevation, near Covadonga, Cantabres Mountains, nothwestern Spain.

Triturus alpestris subsp. graeca Wolterstorff, 1934, Bl. Aquar. Terrarienkd., Stuttgart, 45: 253. Holotype: MM; destroyed in WWII; MNHNP 1985.472 designated neotype (of Triturus alpestris veluchiensis, the replacement name) by Breuil and Parent, 1988, Alytes, 7: 25. Type locality: "Veluchigebirge (westlich Lamia) aus ca. 2000 m. Höhe", Greece. Neotype from "mont Veluchi (1870 m)", Greece. Preocuppied by Triton vulgaris graeca Wolterstorff, 1905.

Triturus (= Triton) alpestris subsp. apuanaWolterstorff, 1934, Zool. Anz., 106: 34.

Triton alpestris subsp. ocellata Wolterstorff, 1934, Zool. Anz., 106: 36. Holotype: MM, by original designation; destroyed in W.W.II according to Brame, 1972, Checklist Living & Fossil Salamand. World (Unpubl. MS): 87. Type locality: "Genua [= Genoa]", Italy.

Triturus alpestris lacustris Seliskar and Pehani, 1935, Verh. Internatl. Ver. Limnol., Stuttgart, 7: 264, 268. Holotype: Not stated. Type locality: "Crno Jezero", territory of Triglav-stock, Julian Alps, Slovenia. Not Lacerta lacustris Blumenbach, 1821.

Triton alpestris lacusnigri Seliskar and Pehani, 1935, Verh. Internatl. Ver. Limnol., Stuttgart, 7: 267. Holotype: Not stated. Type locality: "Crno Jezero", territory of Triglav-stock, Julian Alps, Slovenia. Presumably a replacement name or alternative spelling for Triton alpestris lacustris (DRF).

Triturus alpestris veluchiensis Wolterstorff, 1935, Bl. Aquar. Terrarienkd., Stuttgart, 46: 164. Substitute name for Triturus alpestris graeca Wolterstorff, 1935.

Triturus alpestris apuanusMertens and Müller, 1940, Abh. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges., 451: 9.

Triturus alpestris lacus-nigriMertens and Müller, 1940, Abh. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges., 451: 9.

Triturus alpestris cyreniMertens and Müller, 1940, Abh. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges., 451: 9.

Triturus alpestris montenegrinus Radovanovic, 1951, Brit. J. Herpetol., 1: 94. Holotype: ZIUZ, by original designation. Type locality: "in the small lake of Bukumirsko, which lies south of the Komovi Mountains in Eastern Yugoslavia near the Albania border", now in Montenegro. Distinctiveness from Triturus alpestris alpestris rejected by Breuil and Guillaume, 1985 "1984", Bull. Soc. Zool. France, 109: 377-389, and Sotiropoulos, Tomovic, Džukić, and Kalezić, 2001, Herpetol. J., 11: 1-8.

Triturus alpestris winterli Sochurek, 1956, Lacerta, Den Haag, 14: 35. Syntypes: Not stated; ZMB 37723 (2 specimens) and NHMW 15204 according to Bauer, Good, and Günther, 1993, Mitt. Zool. Mus. Berlin, 69: 297, Häupl and Tiedemann, 1978, Kat. Wiss. Samml. Naturhist. Mus. Wien, 2: 13, and Häupl, Tiedemann, and Grillitsch, 1994, Kat. Wiss. Samml. Naturhist. Mus. Wien, 9: 17. Type locality: "Litzelhoferlacke Lacke tussen Stagor (2288 m) en het Törl (2052 m) in zuidoosten van de Kreuzeck-groep in Känten, Oostenrijk [= Austria]".

Triturus alpestris bükkiensis Dely, 1960, Acta Zool. Acad. Sci. Hungaricae, 5: 294, 300. Holotype: MNH 58.139.1. (formerly a13), by original designation. Type locality: "Montagne du Bükk Mountain, Jávorkút, Bolhás-patak", Hungary.

Triturus alpestris carpathicus Dely, 1960, Acta Zool. Acad. Sci. Hungaricae, 5: 295, 303. Holotype: MNH 58.63.1 (formerly a49), by original designation. Type locality: "Sinaïa, Roumanie [= Romania]".

Triturus alpestris sátoriensis Dely, 1960, Acta Zool. Acad. Sci. Hungaricae, 5: 295, 310. Holotype: MNH 57.262.1. (formerly a33) by original designation. Type locality: "mont Sátor, Istvánkút, István-patak", Hungary.

Triturus alpestris lacus-nigriDely, 1960, Acta Zool. Acad. Sci. Hungaricae, 5: 293.

Triturus alpestrisMertens and Wermuth, 1960, Amph. Rept. Europas: 23. 293.

Triturus alpestris lacusnigriMertens and Wermuth, 1960, Amph. Rept. Europas: 25.

Triturus alpestris serdarus Radovanovic, 1961, Zool. Anz., 166: 211. Holotype: ZIUZ, by original designation. Type locality: "Nur im Zminicko Jezero in Montenegro, [1788 meters elevation,]", Montenegro. Distinctiveness from Triturus alpestris alpestris rejected by Sotiropoulos, Tomovic, Džukić, and Kalezić, 2001, Herpetol. J., 11: 1-8.

Triturus alpestris piperianus Radovanovic, 1961, Zool. Anz., 166: 213. Holotype: ZIUZ, by original designation. Type locality: "Kapetanovo [Jezero, 1678 meters elevation] und Manito [Brnicko] Jezero [1773 meters elevation,] in Montenegro". Distinctiveness from Triturus alpestris alpestris rejected by Breuil and Guillaume, 1985 "1984", Bull. Soc. Zool. France, 109: 377-389, and Sotiropoulos, Tomovic, Džukić, and Kalezić, 2001, Herpetol. J., 11: 1-8.

Triturus alpestris montenigrusSteward, 1969, Tailed Amph. Eur.: 39. Incorrect subsequent spelling.

Triturus alpestris inexpectatus Dubois and Breuil, 1983, Alytes, 2: 11. Holotype: MNHNP 1982.1275, by original designation. Type locality: "Lago dei Due Uómini, á l'ouest de Fagnano Castello (Calábria), altitude 1077 m, latitude 39°33´08"N, longitude 03°34´15" E Roma", Italy.

Triturus (Triturus) alpestrisMacGregor, Sessions, and Arntzen, 1990, J. Evol. Biol., 3: 329.

Mesotriton alpestrisGarcía-París, Montori, and Herrero, 2004, Fauna Iberica, 24: 170.

Mesotriton alpestris alpestrisGarcía-París, Montori, and Herrero, 2004, Fauna Iberica, 24: 170; García-París, Monton, and Alonso-Zarazaga, 2004, in García-París et al. (eds.), Fauna Iberica, 24: 592; Litvinchuk, Zuiderwijk, Borkin, and Rosanov, 2005, Amphibia-Reptilia, 26: 317.

Mesotriton alpestris apuanusGarcía-París, Montori, and Herrero, 2004, Fauna Iberica, 24: 174.

Mesotriton alpestris cyreniGarcía-París, Montori, and Herrero, 2004, Fauna Iberica, 24: 174; García-París, Monton, and Alonso-Zarazaga, 2004, in García-París et al. (eds.), Fauna Iberica, 24: 592.

Ichthyosaura alpestrisSchmidtler, 2004, Sekretär, 4: 23.

Ichthyosaura alpestris (alpestris) alpestrisDubois and Raffaëlli, 2009, Alytes, 26: 66.

Ichthyosaura alpestris apuanaDubois and Raffaëlli, 2009, Alytes, 26: 37.

Ichthyosaura alpestris inexpectataDubois and Raffaëlli, 2009, Alytes, 26: 37.

Ichthyosaura alpestris cyreniDubois and Raffaëlli, 2009, Alytes, 26: 37.

Ichthyosaura alpestris alpestrisDubois and Raffaëlli, 2009, Alytes, 26: 37.

Ichthyosaura alpestris veluchiensisDubois and Raffaëlli, 2009, Alytes, 26: 37.

Ichthyosaura alpestris montenegrinaDubois and Raffaëlli, 2009, Alytes, 26: 37.

Ichthyosaura alpestris reiseriDubois and Raffaëlli, 2009, Alytes, 26: 38.

Ichthyosaura alpestris carpathicaDubois and Raffaëlli, 2009, Alytes, 26: 38.

Ichthyosaura alpestris (alpestris) apuanaDubois and Raffaëlli, 2009, Alytes, 26: 66.

Ichthyosaura alpestris (alpestris) cyreniDubois and Raffaëlli, 2009, Alytes, 26: 66.

Ichthyosaura alpestris (alpestris) inexpectataDubois and Raffaëlli, 2009, Alytes, 26: 66.

Ichthyosaura alpestris (reiseri) carpathicaDubois and Raffaëlli, 2009, Alytes, 26: 66.

Ichthyosaura alpestris (reiseri) montenegrinaDubois and Raffaëlli, 2009, Alytes, 26: 66.

Ichthyosaura alpestris (reiseri) reiseriDubois and Raffaëlli, 2009, Alytes, 26: 66.

Ichthyosaura alpestris (reiseri) veluchiensisDubois and Raffaëlli, 2009, Alytes, 26: 66.

English Names

Alpine Newt (Hellmich, 1962, Rept. Amph. Eur.: 39; Steward, 1969, Tailed Amph. Eur.: 39; Bruno, 1973, Natura, Milano, 64: 310; Arnold and Burton, 1978, Field Guide Rept. Amph. Brit. Eur.: 46; Ananjeva, Borkin, Darevsky, and Orlov, 1988, Dict. Amph. Rept. Five Languages: 33; Stumpel-Rienks, 1992, Ergänzungsband Handbuch Rept. Amph. Eur., Trivialnamen der Herpetofauna Eur.: 64; Kuzmin, 1999, Amph. Former Soviet Union: 170; Arnold, 2002, Rept. Amph. Eur., Ed. 2: 44).

Alpine Newt (Triturus alpestris alpestris: Steward, 1969, Tailed Amph. Eur.: 39).

Italian Alpine Newt (Triturus alpestris apuanus: Steward, 1969, Tailed Amph. Eur.: 39).

Spanish Alpine Newt (Triturus alpestris cyreni: Steward, 1969, Tailed Amph. Eur.: 39).

Balkan Alpine Newt (Triturus alpestris lacusnigri: Steward, 1969, Tailed Amph. Eur.: 39).

Montenegran Alpine Newt (Triturus alpestris montenigrinus: Steward, 1969, Tailed Amph. Eur.: 39).

Bosnian Alpine Newt (Triturus alpestris reiseri: Steward, 1969, Tailed Amph. Eur.: 39).

Greek Alpine Newt (Triturus alpestris veluchiensis: Steward, 1969, Tailed Amph. Eur.: 39).

Laurenti's Alpine Newt (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 36).

Distribution

Western Ukraine and central Romania through southern and central Poland, northern Slovakia, and central Germany to southern Denmark, northern, central, and eastern France, Belgium, Netherlands, northern Italy, and in Balkan Peninsula from western Bulgaria and Slovenia to central Greece; isolated populations in northwestern Spain and southern Italy; introduced in southern England, southern France and the North Island of New Zealand.

Comment

See Breuil and Guillaume, 1985 "1984", Bull. Soc. Zool. France, 109: 377-389, and Breuil and Parent, 1988, Alytes, 7: 19-43, for subspecies. See accounts by Kuzmin, 1999, Amph. Former Soviet Union: 170-174, and Thorn and Raffaëlli, 2000, Salamand. Ancien Monde: 275-287. See also discussion of relevant literature and distribution by Zuiderwijk, 1997, in Gasc et al. (eds.), Atlas Amph. Rept. Eur.: 72-73. Lanza, 1983, Guide Reconoscimento Spec. Animali, Anf. Rett.: 70-73, reported on the Italian populations. Barbadillo-Escrivá, 1987, Guia INCAFO Anf. Rept. Peninsula Iberica: 110-114, provided an account for the Iberian populations. Arnold, 2002, Rept. Amph. Eur., Ed. 2: 44-45, provided a brief account (informative about subspecies), figure, and map as did Obst IN Engelmann, Fritzsche, Günther, and Obst, 1993, Lurche Kriechtiere Eur.: 89-90. Nöllert and Nöllert, 1992, Die Amph. Eur.: 188-195, provided a brief account and polygon map. Denoël, Duguet, Džukić, Kalezić, and Mazzotti, 2001, J. Biogeograph., 28: 1271-1280, discussed the biogeography of paedomorphic populations. Arano and Astudillo, 1997, in Pleguezuelos (ed.), Dist. Biogeogr. Anf. Rep. Esp. Portugal: 115-116, provided a brief account, photograph, and detailed map for Iberia. Lever, 2003, Naturalized Rept. Amph. World: 228-229, discussed the introduced population in southern England. See account by Roček, Joly, and Grossenbacher, 2003, in Grossenbacher and Thiesmeier (eds.), Handbuch Rept. Amph. Eur., 4(IIA): 607-656. Naumov, 2005, Acta Zool. Bulgarica, 57: 391, provided records for Bulgaria. Raffaëlli, 2007, Les Urodèles du Monde: 110-111, provided brief accounts by subspecies, photographs, and a map. Sotiropoulos, Eleftherakos, Džukić, Kalezić, Legakis, and Polymeni, 2007, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 45: 740-747, reported on mtDNA-inferred biogeographic patterns among populations. Valakos, Pafilis, Sotiropoulos, Lymberakis, Maragou, and Foufopoulos, 2008, Amph. Rept. Greece: 155-158, provided an account for Greece. Dubois and Raffaëlli, 2009, Alytes, 26: 37-38, discussed the nominal subspecies. Ivanović, Sotiropoulos, Džukić, and Kalezić, 2009, Zoomorphology, 128: 157-167, reported on the noncorrespondence of skull morphology and molecular phylogeny. See detailed account (as Mesotriton alpestris) by Andreone, Tripepi, and Vanni, 2007, in Lanza et al. (eds.), Fauna d'Italia, 42 (Amph.): 254-265, for Italian population. Pabijan, Rożej, and Bonk, 2009, Herpetol. Notes, 2: 23-26: 23-26, reported on an isolated population in central Poland. Covaciu-Marcov, Cicort-Lucaciu, Sas-Kovács, Ilieș, and Josan, 2009, North-West. J. Zool., Romania, 5: 406-419, discussed biogeography in western Romania. Speybroeck, Beukema, and Crochet, 2010, Zootaxa, 2492: 4-5, discussed misgivings about the subspecific taxonomy of this taxon. Thiesmeier and Schulte, 2010, Der Bergmolch: 1-159, monographed the species. van Delft, 2009, in Creemers and van Delft (eds.), Amph. Rept. Nederland: 96-104, provided a detailed discussion of this species (as Mesotriton alpestris) in the Netherlands. Stojanov, Tzankov, and Naumov, 2011, Die Amph. Rept. Bulgariens: 97-103, provided a fairly detailed account and range map for Bulgaria. Raffaëlli, 2013, Urodeles du Monde, 2nd ed.: 127–130, provided a brief set of accounts, photos, and map. Arntzen, King, Denoël, Martínez-Solano, and Wallis: 49–56, discussed the origin of introduced populations in southern France and New Zealand as elucidated by mtDNA analysis. Heiss, 2017, Salamandra, 53: 137–141, reported on a neotenic/leucistic population in the Province of Bolzano, northern Italy. 

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