Cynops pyrrhogaster (Boie, 1826)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Caudata > Family: Salamandridae > Subfamily: Pleurodelinae > Genus: Cynops > Species: Cynops pyrrhogaster

Molge pyrrhogaster Boie, 1826, Isis von Oken, 18: 215. Syntypes: Including specmens in ZMA; ZMA 7286 designated lectotype by Hoogmoed, 1978, Zool. Meded., Leiden, 53: 99. Type locality: "Japan"; restricted to "Tokyo, Japan" by Okada, 1934, Copeia, 1934: 17; restricted to the "environs of Nagasaki" by Hoogmoed, 1978, Zool. Meded., Leiden, 53: 99.

Molga pyrrhogatraBoie, 1827, Bijdr. Naturkd. Wet., 2: 270. Incorrect subsequent spelling of generic name.

Salamandra subcristata Temminck and Schlegel, 1838, Fauna Japonica, 3: 125-127. Syntypes: Not stated, but clearly including animals figured on pl. 4, figs. 1-3, and pl. 5, figs. 7-8 of the original. Syntypes: Including RMNH 2397 (17 specimens) and 18561 according to Gassó Miracle, van den Hoek Ostende, and Arntzen, 2007, Zootaxa, 1482: 58), and MNHNP according to Hoogmoed, 1978, Zool. Meded., Leiden, 53: 93. RMNH 2397A designated lectotype by Hoogmoed, 1978, Zool. Meded., Leiden, 53: 98. See discussion of types by Thireau, 1986, Cat. Types Urodeles Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat., Rev. Crit.: 71-72. Type locality: "Japon"; restricted to "environs of Nagasaki" Japan, by Hoogmoed, 1978, Zool. Meded., Leiden, 53: 98. Synonymy by Geerts, 1881, Nouv. Arch. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. Paris, Ser. 2, 5: 275; Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Grad. Batr. Apoda Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 19; Stejneger, 1907, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 58: 16.

Cynops subcristatusTschudi, 1838, Classif. Batr.: 94.

Cynops pyrrhogasterGray, 1850, Cat. Spec. Amph. Coll. Brit. Mus., Batr. Grad.: 25.

Triton subcristatusDuméril, Bibron, and Duméril, 1854, Erp. Gen., 9: 140.

Triton pyrrhogasterStrauch, 1870, Mem. Acad. Imp. Sci. St. Petersbourg, Ser. 7, 16 (4): 51.

Salamandra pyrrhogastraGeerts, 1881, Nouv. Arch. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. Paris, Ser. 2, 5: 275.

Molge pyrrhogastraBoulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Grad. Batr. Apoda Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 19.

Diemyctylus pyrrhogasterCope, 1889, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 34: 201.

Triton subcristatus var. typicaKrefft, 1898, Fest-Gruss gewidmet der 69. Versamml. Deutsch. Naturforscher Aerzte Ver, Naturwissenschaft zu Braunschweig, 2: 187.

Triton subcristatus var. immaculiventris Krefft, 1898, Fest-Gruss gewidmet der 69. Versamml. Deutsch. Naturforscher Aerzte Ver, Naturwissenschaft zu Braunschweig, 2: 187. Type(s): Not designated or known to exist. Type locality: "Insel Kiu-Siu" (= Kyushu), Japan.

Triton pyrrhogaster subsp. typicaWolterstorff, 1906, Abh. Ber. Mus. Nat. Heimatkd. Magdeburg, 1: 162.

Diemictylus pyrrhogasterStejneger, 1907, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 58: 16. Fowler and Dunn, 1917, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 69: 28.

Triturus pyrrhogasterDunn, 1918, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 62: 451.

Triton (Cynops) pyrrhogasterWolterstorff, 1925, Abh. Ber. Mus. Nat. Heimatkd. Magdeburg, 4: 290.

Cynops pyrrhogasterWolterstorff and Herre, 1935, Arch. Naturgesch., Leipzig, N. F., 4: 224.

Triturus pyrrhogaster sasayamae Mertens, 1969, Aquar. Terrar. Z., 22: 115. Holotype: SMF 56226, by original designation. Type locality: "Tottori, Inaba, Honshu [Island]", Japan.

Cynops shataukokensis Freytag and Eberhardt, 1977, Salamandra, 13: 151. Holotype: SMF 69000, by original designation. Type locality: "Umbegung nördlich Sha Tau Kok, Kwangtung"(= Surroundings north of Shau Tau Kok [=Shatoujiao], Guangdong), China; in error, according to Risch and Romer, 1980, J. Herpetol., 14: 337, who suggested that the correct type locality is southern Japan. Synonymy by Risch and Romer, 1980, J. Herpetol., 14: 337; and Zhao and Adler, 1993, Herpetol. China: 110. But see Böhme and Bischoff, 1984, Bonn. Zool. Monogr., 19: 151-213, who doubted this synonymy.

Cynops sasayamae — Raffaëlli, 2013, Urodeles du Monde, 2nd ed.: 151. See comment. 

Cynops immaculiventris — Raffaëlli, 2013, Urodeles du Monde, 2nd ed.: 151. See comment. 

English Names

Japanese Newt (Cochran, 1961, Living Amph. World: 69; Ananjeva, Borkin, Darevsky, and Orlov, 1988, Dict. Amph. Rept. Five Languages: 31).

Japanese Firebelly Newt (Cynops pyrrhogaster: Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 35).

Japanese Fire-bellied Newt (Ananjeva, Borkin, Darevsky, and Orlov, 1988, Dict. Amph. Rept. Five Languages: 31; Goris and Maeda, 2004, Guide Amph. Rept. Japan: 42).

Shau Tau Kok Newt (Cynops shataukokensis: Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 35).

Distribution

Honshu, Shikoku, and Kyushu Islands and many nearby smaller islands, Japan.

Comment

Highton, 2000, in Bruce et al., Biol. Plethodontid Salamanders: 224, discussed previously published allozyme data and on that basis suggested that possibly two species with a narrow hybrid zone would be found on Kyushu. Raffaëlli, 2013, Urodeles du Monde, 2nd ed.: 148–149, provided a brief account, photo, and map.  Hayashi and Matsui, 1988, Zool. Sci., Tokyo, 5: 1121–1136, noted that allozyme 149–151 is not consistent with previously morphologically recognized races. Goris and Maeda, 2004, Guide Amph. Rept. Japan: 42–44, provided an account, map, and photograph. Tominaga, Matsui, Yoshikawa, Nishikawa, Hayashi, Misawa, Tanabe, and Ota, 2013, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 66: 654–667, delimited four mtDNA species in Japan: Northern (Tohuoku and Kanto districts of the northern half of Honshu), Southern (southern and western Kyushu), Central (Chubu, northern Kinki, and eastern Chugoku districts of Honshu), and Western (southern Kinki and western Chugoku on Honshu, Shikoku and northeastern and central Kyushu). Raffaëlli, 2013, Urodeles du Monde, 2nd ed.: 151–152, provided accounts under his nomenclatural interpretation of these mtDNA data. Given the inherent controversy surrounding species-level conclusions based solely on a dataset notorious for its reflecting hybridization and introgressoin because of its maternal inheritance, and because Tominaga et al. (2013) did not take the step to providing a Linnean framework even though this work-group certainly contains competent taxonomists, my inclination is to report on Raffaell's taxonomy (which may well be correct) but retain this record under Cynops pyrrhogater sensu lato pending nuDNA data. I first report the numbered major mtDNA clade of Tominaga et al. (2013), followed by the lettered species recognized by Raffaelli: 1) Northern (Tohuoku and Kanto districts of the northern half of Honshu): a) Cynops sp. "Kanto", b) Cynops sp. "Tohuko"; 2) Southern (southern and western Kyushu): a) Cynops immaculiventris; 3) Central (Chubu, northern Kinki, and eastern Chugoku districts of Honshu): a) Cynops sasayamae (and likely b) Cynops sp. "Atsumi"); 4) Western (southern Kinki and western Chugoku on Honshu, Shikoku and northeastern and central Kyushu): a) Cynops pyrrhogaster (sensu stricto). Tominaga, Matsui, and Kokuryo, 2015, Curr. Herpetol., Kyoto, 34: 19–27, confirmed the existence of the four lineages on the basis of additional molecular evidence and provided evidence for a fifth lineage, termed the "southern Izu lineage" that may have developed on an island that subsequently joined Honshu. 

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