Cynops ensicauda (Hallowell, 1861)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Caudata > Family: Salamandridae > Subfamily: Pleurodelinae > Genus: Cynops > Species: Cynops ensicauda

Triton ensicauda Hallowell, 1861 "1860", Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 12: 494. Syntypes: USNM 7410 (3 specimens), according to Stejneger, 1907, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 58: 21-23, and Cochran, 1961, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 220: 27. Type localities: "Paddyfields at the Amakarima Isle" and "Ralousima . . . the northern half of Ousima proper" (= Amami, Ryukyu Is., Japan, according to Inger, 1947, Fieldiana, Zool., 32: 316). See Stejneger, 1907, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 58: 23, for discussion of confusion surrounding the type localities.

Molge pyrrhogaster var. ensicaudaBoulenger, 1887, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1887: 150.

Molge pyrrhogastra var. ensicaudatusOkada, 1891, Cat. Vert. Animals Japan: 65. Incorrect subsequent spelling.

Molge pyrrhogaster ensicaudaBrown, 1902, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 54: 186.

Diemictylus ensicaudaStejneger, 1907, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 58: 21.

Triturus ensicaudusDunn, 1918, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 62: 450.

Triton pyrrhogaster subsp. ensicaudaWolterstorff, 1925, Abh. Ber. Mus. Nat. Heimatkd. Magdeburg, 4: 291.

Triton (Cynops) pyrrhogasterWolterstorff, 1927, Bl. Aquar. Terrarienkd., Stuttgart, 19: 484.

Cynops ensicaudaWolterstorff and Herre, 1935, Arch. Naturgesch., Leipzig, N. F., 4: 224.

Triturus ensicaudaSato, 1943, Monogr. Tailed Batr. Japan: 378.

Triturus ensicaudus popei Inger, 1947, Fieldiana, Zool., 32: 319. Holotype: FMNH 45039, by original designation. Type locality: "Kin, Okinawa", Ryukyu Islands, Japan.

Triturus ensicaudus ensicaudusInger, 1947, Fieldiana, Zool., 32: 319.

Triturus pyrrhogaster ensicaudusKawamura, 1950, J. Sci. Hiroshima Univ., B—Zool., 11: 78, by implication.

Triturus (Cynops) pyrrhogaster ensicaudusNakamura and Ueno, 1963, Japan. Rept. Amph. Color: 19.

Cynops pyrrhogaster popeiBrame, 1967, Herpeton, California, 2: 6.

Cynops ensicauda ensicaudaThorn, 1968, Salamand. Eur. Asie Afr. Nord: 281. Dubois and Raffaëlli, 2009, Alytes, 26: 65.

Cynops ensicauda popeiDubois and Raffaëlli, 2009, Alytes, 26: 65.

English Names

Swordtail Newt (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 35).

Sword-tailed Newt (Stuart, Hoffmann, Chanson, Cox, Berridge, Ramani, and Young, 2008, Threatened Amph. World: 600).

Yellow-bellied Newt (Ananjeva, Borkin, Darevsky, and Orlov, 1988, Dict. Amph. Rept. Five Languages: 31).

Okinawa Newt (Ananjeva, Borkin, Darevsky, and Orlov, 1988, Dict. Amph. Rept. Five Languages: 31).

Distribution

Amami and Okinawa Archipelagos, Ryukyu Islands, Japan.

Comment

See Nakamura and Ueno, 1963, Japan. Rept. Amph. Color: 19-20 (as Triturus pyrrhogaster), and Thorn and Raffaëlli, 2000, Salamand. Ancien Monde: 312-314. for accounts. Hayashi and Matsui, 1988, Zool. Sci., Tokyo, 5: 1121-1136, suggested that Cynops ensicauda is genetically well differentiated from Cynops pyrrhogaster and that Cynops ensicauda formed two well-differentiated geographic groups which correspond to Cynops ensicauda ensicauda and Cynops ensicauda popei. Goris and Maeda, 2004, Guide Amph. Rept. Japan: 40-42, provided account, map, and photograph. See photograph, map, description of geographic range and habitat, and conservation status in Stuart, Hoffmann, Chanson, Cox, Berridge, Ramani, and Young, 2008, Threatened Amph. World: 600. Raffaëlli, 2013, Urodeles du Monde, 2nd ed.: 153–154, provided brief accounts by subspecies, map, and photographs. 

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