Proteus anguinus Laurenti, 1768

Class: Amphibia > Order: Caudata > Family: Proteidae > Genus: Proteus > Species: Proteus anguinus

Proteus anguinus Laurenti, 1768, Spec. Med. Exhib. Synops. Rept.: 37. Type(s): By indication including animal figured in Laurenti, 1768, Spec. Med. Exhib. Synops. Rept.: 37, Pl. 4, fig. 3. Type locality: "in lacu Tschirnicensi, Carnioliae"; rendered as "Zirknitz [lake], Krain". Slovenia, by Mertens and Müller, 1928, Abh. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges., 41: 9; restricted by Fejérváry, 1926, Ann. Hist. Nat. Mus. Natl. Hungarici, 24: 231, to Magdalene Cave, near Adelsberg Cave, Slovenia.

Siren anguinaShaw, 1802, Gen. Zool., 3(1): 608.

Protaeus anguinusOppel, 1811, Ordn. Fam. Gatt. Rept.: 80.

Hypochthon Laurentii Merrem, 1820, Tent. Syst. Amph.: 188. Sustitute name for Proteus anguinus. Brame, 1972, Checklist Living & Fossil Salamand. World (Unpubl. MS): 40, regarded this as a new name with a holotype of BMNH 1847.10.19.1 (formerly from NHMW) and a type locality of Kärnthen, Austria.

Caledon anguinusGoldfuss, 1820, Handb. Zool., 2: 127, by implication.

Phanerobranchus platyrhynchus Leuckart, 1821, Isis von Oken, 9: 260. Substitute name for Proteus anguinus Laurenti, 1768.

Apneumona anguinaFleming, 1822, Philos. Zool., 2: 303.

Hypochthon anguinusWagler, 1830, Nat. Syst. Amph.: 210. Bonaparte, 1840, Mem. Accad. Sci. Torino, Ser. 2, 2: 456.

Hemitriton (Hypochthon) laurentiiVan der Hoeven, 1833, Handb. Dierkd., 2: 305, by implication.

Hemitriton (Proteus) anguineusVan der Hoeven, 1833, Handb. Dierkd., 2: 305, by implication.

Hypochthon anguinusTschudi, 1838, Classif. Batr.: 97.

Hypochthon Laurentii Freyer, 1846, Arch. Naturgesch., 12: 290. Types: Not designated, through presumably the same as Hypochthon laurentii Fitzinger, 1850. Type locality: "Rup bei Sittich im Neustedler Kreise", Slovenia. Name attributed to Fitzinger, but Freyer was clearly responsible for publication. Preoccupied by Hypochthon laurentii Merrem 1820 (not mentioned by Freyer).

Hypochthon zoisii Fitzinger, 1850, Sitzungsber. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Phys. Math. Naturwiss. Kl., 5: 298. Type(s): Not stated other than clearly NHMW; including BMNH 1946.9.6.74., originally from NHMW and NHMW 19959.2-5, according to Häupl, Tiedemann, and Grillitsch, 1994, Kat. Wiss. Samml. Naturhist. Mus. Wien, 9: 14. Type locality: "Rupa" near Schweinsdorf, Krain, Slovenia. Synonymy by Gray, 1850, Cat. Spec. Amph. Coll. Brit. Mus., Batr. Grad.: 65; Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Grad. Batr. Apoda Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 85. Validity doubted by implication of Schreiber, 1875, Herpetol. Eur.: 13-14.

Hypochthon Schreibersii Fitzinger, 1850, Sitzungsber. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Phys. Math. Naturwiss. Kl., 5: 299. Syntypes: Not stated other than clearly NHMW; including BMNH 1946.9.6.72-73 (originally from the NHMW) and NHMW 19962, 19966 (9 specimens), according to Häupl, Tiedemann, and Grillitsch, 1994, Kat. Wiss. Samml. Naturhist. Mus. Wien, 9: 14. Type locality: "Vir", Slovenia. Synonymy by Gray, 1850, Cat. Spec. Amph. Coll. Brit. Mus., Batr. Grad.: 65; Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Grad. Batr. Apoda Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 85. Validity doubted by implication of Schreiber, 1875, Herpetol. Eur.: 13-14.

Hypochthon freyeri Fitzinger, 1850, Sitzungsber. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Phys. Math. Naturwiss. Kl., 5: 299. Syntypes: Not stated although clearly NHMW; including BMNH 1946.9.6.75 (originally NHMW), NHMW 19969 (12 specimens), according to Häupl, Tiedemann, and Grillitsch, 1994, Kat. Wiss. Samml. Naturhist. Mus. Wien, 9: 13. Type locality: "Kumpole [= Kumpolje] und Potiskavz", Slovenia. Synonymy by Gray, 1850, Cat. Spec. Amph. Coll. Brit. Mus., Batr. Grad.: 65; Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Grad. Batr. Apoda Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 85. Validity doubted by implication of Schreiber, 1875, Herpetol. Eur.: 13-14.

Hypochthon Carrarae Fitzinger, 1850, Sitzungsber. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Phys. Math. Naturwiss. Kl., 5: 300. Syntypes: Not stated, atlghouth clearly NHMW; including NHMW 19980, according to Häupl, Tiedemann, and Grillitsch, 1994, Kat. Wiss. Samml. Naturhist. Mus. Wien, 9: 13. Type locality: "Sign [= Sinj ] und der Narenta", Slovenia. Validity doubted by implication of Schreiber, 1875, Herpetol. Eur.: 13-14. Synonymy by Gray, 1850, Cat. Spec. Amph. Coll. Brit. Mus., Batr. Grad.: 65; Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Grad. Batr. Apoda Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 85. Validity doubted by implication of Schreiber, 1875, Herpetol. Eur.: 13-14.

Hypochthon Haidingeri Fitzinger, 1850, Sitzungsber. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Phys. Math. Naturwiss. Kl., 5: 300. Syntypes: Not stated although clearly NHMW; NHMW 19963 (7 specimens), according to Häupl, Tiedemann, and Grillitsch, 1994, Kat. Wiss. Samml. Naturhist. Mus. Wien, 9: 13. Type locality: "Kleinhäusler-Grotte", Slovenia. Validity doubted by implication of  Schreiber, 1875, Herpetol. Eur.: 13-14. Synonymy by Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Grad. Batr. Apoda Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 85. Validity doubted by implication of  Schreiber, 1875, Herpetol. Eur.: 13-14.

Hypochthon Laurentii Fitzinger, 1850, Sitzungsber. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Phys. Math. Naturwiss. Kl., 5: 301. Syntypes: Not stated although clearly NHMW; NHMW 19957 (15 specimens), according to Häupl, Tiedemann, and Grillitsch, 1994, Kat. Wiss. Samml. Naturhist. Mus. Wien, 9: 14. Type locality: "Magdalena-Grotte", Slovenia. Validity doubted by implication of Schreiber, 1875, Herpetol. Eur.: 13-14. Synonymy by Mertens and Wermuth, 1960, Amph. Rept. Europas: 35-36. Preoccupied by Hypochthon laurentii Merrem 1820 (not mentioned by Fitzinger).

Hypochthon xanthostictus Fitzinger, 1850, Sitzungsber. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Phys. Math. Naturwiss. Kl., 5: 301. Syntypes: Not stated although clearly NHMW; including NHMW 19959, according to Häupl, Tiedemann, and Grillitsch, 1994, Kat. Wiss. Samml. Naturhist. Mus. Wien, 9: 14. Type locality: "Bedén", Slovenia. Synonymy by Gray, 1850, Cat. Spec. Amph. Coll. Brit. Mus., Batr. Grad.: 65; Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Grad. Batr. Apoda Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 85. Validity doubted by implication of Schreiber, 1875, Herpetol. Eur.: 13-14.

Proteus zoisiiCope, 1866, J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, Ser. 2, 6: 103.

Proteus carraraeCope, 1866, J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, Ser. 2, 6: 103.

Proteus xanthostictusCope, 1866, J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, Ser. 2, 6: 103.

Proteus schreibersiiCope, 1866, J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, Ser. 2, 6: 104.

Proteus anguinusBoulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Grad. Batr. Apoda Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 85.

Proteus anguinus var. carraraeBoulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Grad. Batr. Apoda Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 86.

Proteus anguinus var. zoisiiBoulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Grad. Batr. Apoda Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 86.

Proteus anguinus freyeriAnonymous, 1922, Allatt. Kozl., Budapest, 22: 86, 101. Fejérváry, 1926, Ann. Hist. Nat. Mus. Natl. Hungarici, 24: 234.

Proteus anguinus anguinusMertens and Müller, 1940, Abh. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges., 451: 14.

Proteus anguinus zoisiiMertens and Müller, 1940, Abh. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges., 451: 14.

Proteus zoisiiMcCrady, 1954, Copeia, 1954: 200-206. (In context considered "probably a subspecies of anguinus").

Proteus anguinus parkelj Sket and Arntzen, 1994, Bijdr. Dierkd., 64: 37. Holotype: ULBF J8. Type locality: "Na Trati, Jelsevnik near Crnomelj, Slovenia". Status rejected by Grillitsch and Tiedemann, 1994, Herpetozoa, Wien, 7G: 139-148, but see Arntzen and Sket, 1996, Herpetozoa, Wien, 8: 165-166.

English Names

Olm (Hellmich, 1962, Rept. Amph. Eur.: 54; Steward, 1969, Tailed Amph. Eur.: 40; Bruno, 1973, Natura, Milano, 64: 235; Arnold and Burton, 1978, Field Guide Rept. Amph. Brit. Eur.: 54; Stumpel-Rienks, 1992, Ergänzungsband Handbuch Rept. Amph. Eur., Trivialnamen der Herpetofauna Eur.: 54; Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 34; Arnold, 2002, Rept. Amph. Eur., Ed. 2: 53).

Cave Salamander (Hellmich, 1962, Rept. Amph. Eur.: 54).

Common Proteus (Gray, 1831, in Cuvier, Animal Kingdom (Griffith), 9—Appendix: 108).

Distribution

Adriatic seaboard as far inland as the headwaters of the Black Sea drainages, as far north as Istrian region (Slovenia) and as far south as Montenegro; isolated population in northeastern Italy (possibly introduced).

Comment

Sket and Arntzen, 1994, Bijdr. Dierkd., 64: 33-53, presented an allozyme tree for populations of Proteus anguinus. Grillitsch and Tiedemann, 1994, Herpetozoa, Wien, 7: 139-148, rejected subspecies and discussed Fitzinger's various types. Arntzen and Sket, 1996, Herpetozoa, Wien, 8: 165-166, defended the status of Proteus anguinus parkelj. Arntzen and Sket, 1997, J. Zool., London, 241: 699-707, rejected the findings of Grillitsch and Tiedemann. Sket, 1997, J. Biogeograph., 24: 263-280, provided a biogeographic scenario that implies that the different populations may represent several species. See Mertens and Wermuth, 1960, Amph. Rept. Europas: 35-36, and Thorn, 1968, Salamand. Eur. Asie Afr. Nord: 115-121. Thorn and Raffaëlli, 2000, Salamand. Ancien Monde: 153-160, provided accounts. Parzefall, Durand, and Sket, 1999, in Grossenbacher and Thiesmeier (eds.), Handbuch Rept. Amph. Eur., 4(1): 57-76, provided an in-depth review of biology. Arnold, 2002, Rept. Amph. Eur., Ed. 2: 53, provided a brief account, figure, and map, as did Obst in Engelmann, Fritzsche, Günther, and Obst, 1993, Lurche Kriechtiere Eur.: 63-65. Durand, 1997, in Gasc et al. (eds.), Atlas Amph. Rept. Eur.: 50-51, provided an account and detailed map. Lever, 2003, Naturalized Rept. Amph. World: 228, regarded the Italian population as introduced. Lanza, 2006, Atti Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Trieste, 52: 235-237, suggested that Proteus anguinus parkelj is the surfacial ancestral population from which the troglobitic populations were derived. Speybroeck and Crochet, 2007, Podarcis, 8: 10, noted incongruence between the morphology and genetic substructuring among populations. See photograph, map, description of geographic range and habitat, and conservation status in Stuart, Hoffmann, Chanson, Cox, Berridge, Ramani, and Young, 2008, Threatened Amph. World: 598. See detailed account by Lanza, Bruschi, and Bressi, 2007, in Lanza et al. (eds.), Fauna d'Italia, 42 (Amph.): 176-183, for the Italian population. Nöllert and Nöllert, 1992, Die Amph. Eur.: 151-153, provided a brief account and polygon map. Raffaëlli, 2013, Urodeles du Monde, 2nd ed.: 221–223, provided brief accounts by subspecies, photographs, and a map, and suggested that multiple species may be involved. Speybroeck, Beukema, Bok, and Van Der Voort, 2016, Field Guide Amph. Rept. Brit. Eur.: 112–113, provided a brief account and distribution map. 

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