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Proteidae Gray, 1825
Proteina Gray, 1825, Ann. Philos., London, Ser. 2, 10: 215. Type genus: Proteus Laurenti, 1768.
Phanerobranchoidea Fitzinger, 1826, Neue Class. Rept.: 43. Type genus: Phanerobranchus Leuckart, 1821. Explicit rank of family.
Pododysmolgae Ritgen, 1828, Nova Acta Phys. Med. Acad. Caesar Leopold Carol., Halle, 14: 277. Unavailable family-group name for Hypochthon Merrem, 1820, by reason of not being formed on a generic name.
Phanerobranchi Wagler, 1828, Isis von Oken, 21: 859. Explicit family to contain Proteus. Unavailable name for reason of not being based on a generic name.
Proteideae — Tschudi, 1838, Classif. Batr.: 26, 97.
Proteidae — Hogg, 1838, Ann. Nat. Hist., London, 1: 152.
Hypochthonina Bonaparte, 1840, Nuovi Ann. Sci. Nat., Bologna, 4: 101 (named on page 11 of offprint). Type genus: Hypochthon Merrem, 1820. Also named by Bonaparte, 1840, Mem. Accad. Sci. Torino, Ser. 2, 2: 395.
Protéides — Duméril and Bibron, 1841, Erp. Gen., 8: table opposite page 53. Explicit non-Latinized family-group name.
Necturi Fitzinger, 1843, Syst. Rept.: 35. Type genus: Necturus Rafinesque, 1819.
Necturina Bonaparte, 1845, Specchio Gen. Sist. Erpetol. Anfibiol. Ittiolog.: 6. Type genus: Necturus Rafinesque, 1819.
Hypochthonidae — Bonaparte, 1850, Conspect. Syst. Herpetol. Amph.: 1 p.
Menobranchida Knauer, 1883, Naturgesch. Lurche: 96. Type genus: Menobranchus Harlan, 1825. Explicit family.
Hylaeobatrachidae Lydekker, 1889, in Nicholson and Lydekker (eds.), Man. Palaeontol.: 1040. Type genus: Hylaeobatrachus Dollo, 1884. Synonymy by Brame, 1972, Checklist Living & Fossil Salamand. World (Unpubl. MS): 34.
Hylaeobatrachoidea — Kuhn, 1965, Die Amphib.: 39, attributed to Huene, 1931 (not located).
Proteoidea — Dubois, 2005, Alytes, 23: 20. Superfamily.
Proteinae — Blackburn and Wake, 2011, In Zhang (ed.), Zootaxa, 3148: 46.
Necturinae — Blackburn and Wake, 2011, In Zhang (ed.), Zootaxa, 3148: 47.
Phanerobranchiinae — Dubois and Raffaëlli, 2012, Alytes, 28: 77-161. Older name for Necturinae of other authors.
Proteoidae — Dubois and Raffaëlli, 2012, Alytes, 28: 77-161. Epifamily.
Proteans (Jordan, 1878, Man. Vert. North. U.S., Ed. 2: 197).
Mud Puppies (Jordan, 1878, Man. Vert. North. U.S., Ed. 2: 197).
Eastern USA and adjacent Canada; Adriatic seaboard, as far north as Istrian region and as far south as Montenegro; isolated population in northeastern Italy.
Hecht, 1957, Proc. Zool. Soc. Calcutta: 282-292; Hecht and Edwards, 1976, Am. Nat., 110: 653-667; and Hecht and Edwards, 1977, in Hecht et al. (eds.), Major Patterns Vert. Evol.: 3-51, argued for an independent origin of Proteus and Necturus. Seto, Pomerat, and Kezer, 1964, Am. Nat., 98: 71-78, noted the very similar karyotypes of Proteus and Necturus and suggested that this was due to close relationship. Larsen and Guthrie, 1974, Copeia, 1974: 635-643, and Estes, 1981, Handb. Palaeoherpetol., 2: 26, discussed the evidence and tentatively considered Proteidae a monophyletic taxon. Trontelj and Goricki, 2003, Nat. Croat., Zagreb, 12: 113-120, supported monophyly of the Proteidae on the basis of 12S rDNA sequence evidence. Gao and Shubin, 2001, Nature, 410: 574-577, provided an analysis of molecular data and morphology (including relevant fossils) that suggested that Proteidae is the sister taxon of Sirenidae. Frost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, and Green, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 172, came to the conclusion that Sirenidae is the sister taxon of Proteidae. Wiens, Bonett, and Chippindale, 2005, Syst. Biol., 54: 115, and Roelants, Gower, Wilkinson, Loader, Biju, Guillaume, Moriau, and Bossuyt, 2007, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 104: 887-892, provided evidence for the monophyly of Proteidae and placed it far from Sirenidae. Vitt and Caldwell, 2009, Herpetology, 3rd Ed.: 428-429, provided a general taxonomic account and map as part of a much more general and extensive overview of biology. Zhang and Wake, 2009, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 53: 492-508, reported on molecular phylogenetics of salamanders based on mtDNA and provided an estimate of time since origin of the salamander families. Pyron and Wiens, 2011, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 61: 543-583, confirmed that Proteus is the sister taxon of Necturus and suggested that Proteidae is the sister taxon of a group composed of Rhyacotritonidae, Amphiumidae, and Plethodontidae (the taxon Plethosalamandroidei of Frost et al., 2006). Zheng, Peng, Kuro-o, and Zeng, 2011, Mol. Biol. Evol., 28: 2521-2535, reported on the estimated time of origin of this taxon. Blackburn and Wake, 2011, In Zhang (ed.), Zootaxa, 3148: 39-55, briefly reviewed the taxonomic history of this taxon and recognized two subfamilies, Necturinae and Proteinae to contain the living genera and associated fossil taxa. Vitt and Caldwell, 2013, Herpetology, 4th Ed., provided a summary of life history, diagnosis, and taxonomy.
Contained taxa (7 sp.):
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