Speleomantes italicus (Dunn, 1923)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Caudata > Family: Plethodontidae > Subfamily: Plethodontinae > Genus: Speleomantes > Species: Speleomantes italicus

Hydromantes italicus Dunn, 1923, Proc. New England Zool. Club, 8: 40. Type(s); Not designated but by implication the specimen(s) identified by Bonaparte, 1837, Iconograph. Fauna Ital., 2 (Fasc. 19): unnumbered, as his Geotriton fuscus. Specimen in Lanza Collection designated neotype by Lanza, 1952, Arch. Zool. Ital. Torino, 37: 335. Type locality: Considered to be Apuan Alps and Apennines, and restricted by Mertens and Müller, 1928, Abh. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges., 41: 15, to "Bäder von Porretta, Norditalien"; further restricted to "monti presso Sambuco Pistoiese, valle del torrente Limentra occidentale (affluente del fiume Reno); provincia di Postoia; Toscana", Italy by Lanza, 1952, Arch. Zool. Ital. Torino, 37: 335. Name coined by Dunn to be a substitute name for "Geotriton fuscus Bonaparte, 1837", which he thought was a valid name for the species currently known as Hydromantes italicus and not identical to Geotriton fuscus sensu Bonaparte, 1832. Unfortunately, the usages by Bonaparte in both 1832 and 1837 was actually a subsequent use of Salamandra fuscus Laurent, 1768, but, at least in 1837, based on misidentified material of Hydromantes italicus Dunn, 1923. See Anonymous, 1997, Bull. Zool. Nomencl., 54: 72-74, for additional illumination.

Hydromantes genei italicusWolterstorff, 1925, Abh. Ber. Mus. Nat. Heimatkd. Magdeburg, 4: 232. Steward, 1969, Tailed Amph. Eur.: 140.

Hydromantes italicus italicusLanza, 1952, Arch. Zool. Ital. Torino, 37: 327-347.

Hydromantes italicus gormani Lanza, 1952, Arch. Zool. Ital. Torino, 37: 339. Holotype: Lanza Collection No. 12, by original designation. Type locality: "Tana di Magnano (n. 162 T. del Catasto Speleol. Ital.), sulla sinistra idrografica del torrente 'il Fiume' (affl. di sinistra del fiume Serchio), presso il ponte di Canigiano; m. 673 s. l. m.; prov. di Lucca; Toscana", Italy.

Hydromantes genei gormaniSteward, 1969, Tailed Amph. Eur.: 140.

Hydromantes italicus italicusBruno, 1973, Natura, Milano, 64: 392.

Hydromantoides (Speleomantes) italicusDubois, 1984, Alytes, 3: 108.

Speleomantes italicusLanza, 1986, in Camard et al. (eds.), Ambiente Nat. Sardegna: 311. Lanza, 1999, in Grossenbacher and Thiesmeier (eds.), Handbuch Rept. Amph. Eur., 4(1): 165; Thorn and Raffaëlli, 2000, Salamand. Ancien Monde: 373; Vieites, Min, and Wake, 2007, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 104: 19903-19907. See also electronic supplemental data.

Hydromantes italicusLanza, Caputo, Nascetti, and Bullini, 1995, Monogr. Mus. Reg. Sci. Nat. Torino, 16: 9.

Speleomantes italicus italicusThireau and Doré, 2000, Bull. Soc. Zool. France, 125: 251.

Speleomantes italicus gormaniThireau and Doré, 2000, Bull. Soc. Zool. France, 125: 251. Distinctiveness of subspecies questioned.

Hydromantes (Speleomantes) italicusWake, Salvador, and Alonso-Zarazaga, 2005, Amphibia-Reptilia, 26: 543-548. van der Meijden, Chiari, Mucedda, Carranza, Corti, and Veith, 2009, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 51: 401.

Speleomantes (Speleomantes) italicusDubois and Raffaëlli, 2012, Alytes, 28: 77-161.

English Names

Italian Cave Salamander (Arnold and Burton, 1978, Field Guide Rept. Amph. Brit. Eur.: 54; Ananjeva, Borkin, Darevsky, and Orlov, 1988, Dict. Amph. Rept. Five Languages: 27; Stumpel-Rienks, 1992, Ergänzungsband Handbuch Rept. Amph. Eur., Trivialnamen der Herpetofauna Eur.: 63; Lanza, Caputo, Nascetti, and Bullini, 1995, Monogr. Mus. Reg. Sci. Nat. Torino, 16: 9; Lanza, 1997, in Gasc et al. (eds.), Atlas Amph. Rept. Eur.: 46).

Apennines Salamander (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 34).

Central Cave Salamander (Hydromantes genei gormani: Steward, 1969, Tailed Amph. Eur.: 40).

Eastern Cave Salamander (Hydromantes genei italicus: Steward, 1969, Tailed Amph. Eur.: 40).

Distribution

Italy in the northern and central Appenines, from the provinces of Reggio Emilia and Lucca southwards to the province of Pescara, 80-1600 m elevation.

Comment

Thorn and Raffaëlli, 2000, Salamand. Ancien Monde: 373-374, provided an account. See also discussion of relevant literature and distribution by Lanza, 1997, in Gasc et al. (eds.), Atlas Amph. Rept. Eur.: 46-47. Lanza, 1999, in Grossenbacher and Thiesmeier (eds.), Handbuch Rept. Amph. Eur., 4(1): 165-173, provided an extensive review of biology. Nöllert and Nöllert, 1992, Die Amph. Eur.: 239-240, provided a brief account and polygon map.Obst in Engelmann, Fritzsche, Günther, and Obst, 1993, Lurche Kriechtiere Eur.: 108, provided a brief account, figure, and map. See statement of geographic range, habitat, and conservation status in Stuart, Hoffmann, Chanson, Cox, Berridge, Ramani, and Young, 2008, Threatened Amph. World: 641. See detailed account by Lanza, Pastorelli, Laghi, and Cimmaruta, 2007, in Lanza et al. (eds.), Fauna d'Italia, 42 (Amph.): 160-163. Raffaëlli, 2013, Urodeles du Monde, 2nd ed.: 439, provided a brief account, photograph, and range map. 

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