Speleomantes imperialis (Stefani, 1969)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Caudata > Family: Plethodontidae > Subfamily: Plethodontinae > Genus: Speleomantes > Species: Speleomantes imperialis

Hydromantes genei imperialis Stefani, 1969 "1968", Arch. Zool. Ital. Torino, 53: 220. Holotype: IZUG unnumbered, by original designation. Type locality: "Grotte di Villasalto, Gerrei (Sardegna sud-orientale)", Italy.

Hydromantes genei funereus Stefani, 1969 "1968", Arch. Zool. Ital. Torino, 53: 222. Holotype: IZUG unnumbered, by original designation. Type locality: "Grotte e diaclasi presso Orroli e Grutta Asutta e Scracca presso Nurri (Sarcidano): Grutta Su Stampu de Muscione Stunnu fra Asuni e Laconi; Grotta Su Marmori presso Ulassai (prov. Nuoro)", Sardinia, Italy. Considered a synonym and indistinguishable from Hydromantes imperialis by Lanza, 1997, in Gasc et al. (eds.), Atlas Amph. Rept. Eur.: 44.

Hydromantes imperialisLanza and Vanni, 1981, Monit. Zool. Ital., N.S., Suppl., 15: 117-121. Lanza, Caputo, Nascetti, and Bullini, 1995, Monogr. Mus. Reg. Sci. Nat. Torino, 16: 10.

Hydromantoides (Speleomantes) imperialisDubois, 1984, Alytes, 3: 109.

Speleomantes imperialisLanza, 1986, in Camard et al. (eds.), Ambiente Nat. Sardegna: 315. Lanza, 1999, in Grossenbacher and Thiesmeier (eds.), Handbuch Rept. Amph. Eur., 4(1): 155; Thorn and Raffaëlli, 2000, Salamand. Ancien Monde: 376; Vieites, Min, and Wake, 2007, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 104: 19903-19907. See also electronic supplemental data.

Speleomantes imperialis imperialisLanza, Leo, Forti, Cimmaruta, Caputo, and Nascetti, 2001, Pianura, 13: 83.

Hydromantes (Speleomantes) imperialisWake, Salvador, and Alonso-Zarazaga, 2005, Amphibia-Reptilia, 26: 543-548. van der Meijden, Chiari, Mucedda, Carranza, Corti, and Veith, 2009, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 51: 401.

Speleomantes (Speleomantes) imperialisDubois and Raffaëlli, 2012, Alytes, 28: 77-161.

English Names

Odorous Cave Salamander (Lanza, Caputo, Nascetti, and Bullini, 1995, Monogr. Mus. Reg. Sci. Nat. Torino, 16: 10).

Imperial Cave Salamander (Stumpel-Rienks, 1992, Ergänzungsband Handbuch Rept. Amph. Eur., Trivialnamen der Herpetofauna Eur.: 63; Lanza, Caputo, Nascetti, and Bullini, 1995, Monogr. Mus. Reg. Sci. Nat. Torino, 16: 10; Lanza, 1997, in Gasc et al. (eds.), Atlas Amph. Rept. Eur.: 44).

Imperial Salamander (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 34).

Scented Cave Salamander (Arnold, 2002, Rept. Amph. Eur., Ed. 2: 52).

Distribution

Central and south-eastern Sardinia in the provinces of Nuoro and Oristano, Italy.

Comment

See discussion of relevant literature and distribution by Lanza, 1997, in Gasc et al. (eds.), Atlas Amph. Rept. Eur.: 44-45. Lanza, 1999, in Grossenbacher and Thiesmeier (eds.), Handbuch Rept. Amph. Eur., 4(1): 155-163, provided an extensive review of biology. Nöllert and Nöllert, 1992, Die Amph. Eur.: 239, provided a brief account and polygon map.Arnold, 2002, Rept. Amph. Eur., Ed. 2: 52, provided a brief account, figure, and map, as did Obst in Engelmann, Fritzsche, Günther, and Obst, 1993, Lurche Kriechtiere Eur.: 107. Raffaëlli, 2007, Les Urodèles du Monde: 317, provided a brief account, photograph, and map. Lanza, Pastorelli, Laghi, and Cimmaruta, 2006 "2005", Atti Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Trieste, 52 (Suppl.): 5-135, provided a review. All literature prior to 2007, presumably references Speleomantes sarrabusensis as part of Speleomantes imperialis. See statement of geographic range, habitat, and conservation status in Stuart, Hoffmann, Chanson, Cox, Berridge, Ramani, and Young, 2008, Threatened Amph. World: 641. van der Meijden, Chiari, Mucedda, Carranza, Corti, and Veith, 2009, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 51: 399-404, reported on a genetically divergent population, possibly a distinct species, from the Lake Omodeo region. See detailed account (in the sense of including Speleomantes sarrubusensis) by Lanza, Pastorelli, Laghi, and Cimmaruta, 2007, in Lanza et al. (eds.), Fauna d'Italia, 42 (Amph.): 171-174. Raffaëlli, 2013, Urodeles du Monde, 2nd ed.: 440, provided a brief account, photograph, and range map. Chiari, van der Meijden, Mucedda, Lourenço, Hochkirch, and Veith, 2012, PLoS One, 7(3: e32332): 1–15, reported on biogeography. 

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