Plethodon cinereus (Green, 1818)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Caudata > Family: Plethodontidae > Subfamily: Plethodontinae > Genus: Plethodon > Species: Plethodon cinereus

Salamandra erythronota Rafinesque, 1818, Sci. J., New York, 1: 25 (March). Type(s): Not known to exist according to Highton, 1962, Bull. Florida State Mus., Biol. Sci., 6: 286. ANSP 1227–38 stated to be syntypes by Fowler and Dunn, 1917, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 69: 24; Malnate, 1971, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 123: 347. Type locality: "state of New York on the Highlands, etc." Given as "New Jersey " by Malnate, 1971, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 123: 347. Synonymy by Tschudi, 1838, Classif. Batr.: 92; Duméril, Bibron, and Duméril, 1854, Erp. Gen., 9: 86, and Cope, 1869, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 21: 100 (considering Salamandra erythronota senior to Salamandra cinerea); Wied-Neuwied, 1865, Nova Acta Phys. Med. Acad. Caesar Leopold Carol., Halle, 32: 126; Cope, 1889, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 34: 133. Suppressed for purposes of Priority by not for purposes of Homonymy and placed on the Official Index of Rejected and Invalid Specific Names by Anonymous, 1963, Bull. Zool. Nomencl., 20: 199–200.

Salamandra cinerea Green, 1818, J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1: 356 (September). Type(s): Not stated, but ANSP 1227–1238 considered syntypes by Fowler and Dunn, 1917, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 69: 24; ANSP 1232–34, 1237, considered syntypes by Highton, 1962, Bull. Florida State Mus., Biol. Sci., 6: 286, who also designated ANSP 1232 lectotype. Type locality: "Newjersey"; revised to "near Princeton?" by Fowler, 1907, Annu. Rep. N.J. State Mus. for 1906: 57; to "vicinity of Princeton", New Jersey, USA, by Schmidt, 1953, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept., Ed. 6: 33. These restrictions regarded as invalid by Fouquette and Dubois, 2014, Checklist N.A. Amph. Rept.: 198, due to not being based on evidence. Stated as "New Jersey" in ANSP type list by Malnate, 1971, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 123: 347. Placed on the Official List of Specific Names in Zoology by Anonymous, 1963, Bull. Zool. Nomencl., 20: 199–200.

Salamandra erithronotaSmith, 1833, Rep. Geol. Mineral. Bot. Zool. Massachusetts: 552. Incorrect subsequent spelling.

Plethodon cinereusTschudi, 1838, Classif. Batr.: 92.

Salamandra agilis Sager, 1839, Am. J. Sci. Arts, 36: 322. Syntypes: Not stated; USNM 3770 (15 specimens) considered syntypes by Dunn, 1926, Salamanders Fam. Plethodontidae: 179; possibly syntypes according to Cochran, 1961, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 220: 24. Type locality: Not stated but presumably Detroit, Wayne County, Michigan, USA. Synonymy by Cope, 1889, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 34: 133; Highton, 1962, Bull. Florida State Mus., Biol. Sci., 6: 285.

Sauropsis erythronotusFitzinger, 1843, Syst. Rept.: 33.

Plethodon erythronotaBaird, 1850 "1849", J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, Ser. 2, 1: 285.

Ambystoma erythronotumGray, 1850, Cat. Spec. Amph. Coll. Brit. Mus., Batr. Grad.: 37.

Plethodon erythronotumDuméril, Bibron, and Duméril, 1854, Erp. Gen., 9: 86.

Salamandra puncticulata Duméril, Bibron, and Duméril, 1854, Erp. Gen., 9: 87. Nomen nudum attributed to Valenciennes and provided in synonymy of Plethodon erythronotum Tschudi. Synonymy by Duméril, Bibron, and Duméril, Erp. Gén., 9: 87.

Saurophis erythronotusFitzinger, 1864, Bilder Altas Wissenschaftl. Naturgesch. Amph.: pl. 98, fig. 176.

Spelerpes erythronota —Kennicott In Anonymous, 1869, Trans. Chicago Acad. Sci., 1: 144. Quotation from Kennicott's field notes in his obituary.

Plethodon erythronotus cinereusCope, 1869, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 21: 100.

Plethodon erythronotus erythronotusCope, 1869, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 21: 100.

Plethodon cinereus cinereusYarrow, 1882, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 24: 153.

Plethodon cinereus erythronotusYarrow, 1882, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 24: 154.

Plethodon cinereus erythronotaBritcher, 1903, Proc. Onondaga Acad. Sci., Syracuse, 1: 120.

Plethodon cinereusDunn, 1926, Salamanders Fam. Plethodontidae: 163.

Plethodon cinereus cinereusBishop, 1943, Handb. Salamanders: 232.

Plethodon huldae Grobman, 1949, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, 62: 136. Holotype: USNM 127955, by original designation. Type locality: "along the foot trail to Hawksbill Mountain about 100 yards from the Skyline Drive at an elevation of approximately 3500 feet in Madison County, Virginia", USA. Synonymy by Muchmore, 1955, Copeia, 1955: 170–172; Rabb, 1955, Copeia, 1955: 261–262; Highton, 1962, Bull. Florida State Mus., Biol. Sci., 6: 286.

Plethodon (Plethodon) cinereusVieites, Román, Wake, and Wake, 2011, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 59: 632, by implication.

English Names

Ashy Lizard (Plethodon cinereus cinereus: Yarrow, 1882, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 24: 21).

Ashy Salamander (Plethodon cinereus: Gray, 1831, in Cuvier, Animal Kingdom (Griffith), 9—Appendix: 106; Hay, 1892, Annu. Rep. Dept. Geol. Nat. Res. Indiana for 1891: 440).

Chestnut-backed Lizard (Plethodon cinereus erythronotus [no longer recognized]: Yarrow, 1882, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 24: 21).

Red-backed Salamander (Plethodon erythronotus [no longer recognized]: Green, 1818, J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1: 356; Storer, 1840, Boston J. Nat. Hist., 3: 53; Verrill, 1863, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., 9: 199; Jordan, 1878, Man. Vert. North. U.S., Ed. 2: 193; Rhoads, 1895, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 47: 402; Fowler, 1907, Annu. Rep. N.J. State Mus. for 1906: 55).

Dapple Salamander (Fowler, 1907, Annu. Rep. N.J. State Mus. for 1906: 55).

Gray Salamander (Fowler, 1907, Annu. Rep. N.J. State Mus. for 1906: 55).

Red-backed Salamander (Plethodon cinereus: Hay, 1892, Annu. Rep. Dept. Geol. Nat. Res. Indiana for 1891: 441; Schmidt, 1953, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept., Ed. 6: 33; Conant, Cagle, Goin, Lowe, Neill, Netting, Schmidt, Shaw, Stebbins, and Bogert, 1956, Copeia, 1956: 175; Plethodon erythronotus: Rafinesque, 1818, Sci. J., New York, 1: 25; Hallowell, 1858, J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, Ser. 2, 3: 343).

Red-backed Salamander (Plethodon erythronotus cinereus: Brimley, 1907, J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc., 23: 154).

Dapple Salamander (Plethodon cinereus: Green, 1818, J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1: 356).

Plumbeous Salamander (Plethodon erythronotus cinereus: Brimley, 1907, J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc., 23: 154).

Redback Salamander (Plethodon cinereus: Conant, 1975, Field Guide Rept. Amph. E. Cent. N. Am., Ed. 2: 272; Collins, Huheey, Knight, and Smith, 1978, Herpetol. Circ., 7: 7; Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 32),

Northern Redback Salamander (Plethodon cinereus: Collins, 1997, Herpetol. Circ., 25: 8; Collins and Taggart, 2009, Standard Common Curr. Sci. Names N. Am. Amph. Turtles Rept. Crocodil., ed. 6: 13).

Red-backed Salamander (Plethodon cinereus cinereus [now coextensive with Plethodon cinereus]: Davis and Rice, 1883, Bull. Chicago Acad. Sci., 1: 26; Schmidt, 1953, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept., Ed. 6: 33; Conant, Cagle, Goin, Lowe, Neill, Netting, Schmidt, Shaw, Stebbins, and Bogert, 1956, Copeia, 1956: 175).

Eastern Red-backed Salamander (Plethodon cinereus cinereus [now coextensive with Plethodon cinereus]: Bishop, 1943, Handb. Salamanders: 232).

Eastern Red-backed Salamander (Plethodon cinereus: Crother, Boundy, Campbell, de Queiroz, Frost, Highton, Iverson, Meylan, Reeder, Seidel, Sites, Taggart, Tilley, and Wake, 2001 "2000", Herpetol. Circ., 29: 26; Tilley, Highton, and Wake, 2012, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 39: 29; Highton, Bonett, and Jockusch, 2017, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 43: 31).

Lead-Backed Salamander (Plethodon cinereus cinereus [now coextensive with Plethodon cinereus]: Bishop, 1943, Handb. Salamanders: 232; Schmidt, 1953, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept., Ed. 6: 33; Conant, Cagle, Goin, Lowe, Neill, Netting, Schmidt, Shaw, Stebbins, and Bogert, 1956, Copeia, 1956: 175).

Northern Blue-ridge Salamander (Plethodon huldae [no longer recognized]: Schmidt, 1953, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept., Ed. 6: 33).

Shenandoah Salamander (Plethodon huldae [no longer recognized]: Conant, Cagle, Goin, Lowe, Neill, Netting, Schmidt, Shaw, Stebbins, and Bogert, 1956, Copeia, 1956: 175).

Distribution

Northeastern USA and southeastern Canada from northeastern Minnesota through southern Ontario to the Gaspe Peninsula and south through northeastern Wisconsin to southern Indiana, southern Ohio, and east of the Appalachian Divide south to northern North Carolina and north throughout the northeastern states.

Comment

In the Plethodon cinereus group of Highton and Larson, 1979, Syst. Zool., 28: 579–599. See accounts by Smith, 1963, Cat. Am. Amph. Rept., 5: 1–3 (as including Plethodon serratus) and Petranka, 1998, Salamand. U.S. Canada: 335–346. See comment under Plethodon serratusCasper, 2005, in Lannoo (ed.), Amph. Declines: 796–800, provided a detailed account that summarized the biology and conservation literature. Highton, Hastings, Palmer, Watts, Hass, Culver, and Arnold, 2012, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 63: 278–290, discussed the situation where Plethodon cinereus and Plethodon sequoyah differ morphologically, but where Plethodon cinereus is not genetically inclusive. Fisher-Reid, Engstrom, Kuczynski, Stephens, and Wiens, 2013, Mol. Ecol., 22: 4681–4694, reported on parapatric divergence on Long Island, New York, USA. Moore and Ouellet, 2014, Canad. Field Nat., 128: 250–259, reviewed the color phenotypes and their geographic distribution. Raffaëlli, 2013, Urodeles du Monde, 2nd ed.: 388–389, provided a brief account, photograph, and range map. Moore and Ouellet, 2015, Global Change Biol., 21: 566–571, provided evidence that there is no relation between color morph frequency and climate change. Lehtinen, Steratore, Eyre, Cassagnol, Stern, and Edgington, 2016, Copeia, 2016: 132–139, presented evidence of widespread hybridization with Plethodon electromorphus to the point that the author suggested that the populations were merging. Wild, 2017 "2016", Herpetol. Rev., 47: 621, provided a record in the Driftless Area of Wisconsin. 

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