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Hydromantes Gistel, 1848

Class: Amphibia > Order: Caudata > Family: Plethodontidae > Subfamily: Plethodontinae > Genus: Hydromantes
11 species

Hydromantes Gistel, 1848, Naturgesch. Thierr.: xi. Type species: Hydromantes platycephalus Camp, 1916, by subsequent designation of the Commission of Zoological Nomenclature (Opinion 1866, Anonymous, 1997, Bull. Zool. Nomencl., 54: 72-74), which also placed this name in the Official List of Generic Names in Zoology.

Atylodes Gistel, 1868, Die Lurche Europas: 158. Type species: Salamandra genei Schegel, by monotypy. A nomen oblitum when used for the same taxon as Speleomantes Dubois, 1984, according to Crochet, 2007, Amphibia-Reptilia, 28: 170-172, who discussed the nomenclatural issues involved.

Hydromantoides Lanza and Vanni, 1981, Monit. Zool. Ital., N.S., Suppl., 15: 119. Type species: Spelerpes platycephalus Camp, 1916, by original designation. Placed on the Official Index of Rejected and Invalid Generic Names in Zoology by Opinion 1866, Anonymous, 1997, Bull. Zool. Nomencl., 54: 72-74.

Speleomantes Dubois, 1984, Alytes, 3: 103-110. Type species: Spelerpes italicus Dunn, 1923, by original designation. Coined as a subgenus of Hydromantoides.

SpeleomantesLanza, 1986, in Camard et al. (eds.), Ambiente Nat. Sardegna: 310; Lanza, Pastorelli, Laghi, and Cimmaruta, 2006 "2005", Atti Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Trieste, 52 (Suppl.): 5-135. Treatment as a genus.

AtylodesWake, Salvador, and Alonso-Zarazaga, 2005, Amphibia-Reptilia, 26: 543-548. Treatment as a subgenus of Hydromantes.

AtylodesVieites, Min, and Wake, 2007, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 104: 19904 (and electronic supplemental data). Treatment as a genus.

English Names

Web-toed Salamanders (Conant, Cagle, Goin, Lowe, Neill, Netting, Schmidt, Shaw, Stebbins, and Bogert, 1956, Copeia, 1956: 174; Collins, Huheey, Knight, and Smith, 1978, Herpetol. Circ., 7: 7; Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 32; Collins, 1997, Herpetol. Circ., 25: 7; Crother, Boundy, Campbell, de Queiroz, Frost, Highton, Iverson, Meylan, Reeder, Seidel, Sites, Taggart, Tilley, and Wake, 2001 "2000", Herpetol. Circ., 29: 24; Stebbins, 2003, Field Guide W. Rept. Amph., Ed. 3: 195; Tilley, Highton, and Wake, 2012, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 39: 19; Tilley, Highton, and Wake, 2012, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 39: 28).

Distribution

Northern California, USA; Sardinia and northwestern Italy; and southern France.

Comment

Lanza and Vanni, 1981, Monit. Zool. Ital., N.S., Suppl., 15: 117–121, believed that the American and European components of Hydromantes were convergently derived. They therefore erected a genus Hydromantoides for the New World species and restricted the name Hydromantes for the European species. Taxonomy of this genus passed through a period where this systematic controversy was complicated by serious problems of nomenclature regarding whether the name Hydromantes was even available for the species to which it had traditionally been applied. This discussion culminated in a ruling by the Commission on Zoological Nomenclature to change the type species of Hydromantes to a North American species, Hydromantes platycephalus Camp, 1916, thereby "saving" the name Hydromantes for its North American usage and rendering Hydromantoides Lanza and Vanni, 1981, an objective synonym of Hydromantes. However, in the course of the nomenclatural discussion the name Speleomantes Dubois, 1984, had been coined to cover the monophyletic European component of Hydromantes sensu lato, which is apparently the sister taxon of the American component (in the sense of including Atylodes). See Anonymous, 1997, Bull. Zool. Nomencl., 54: 72–74, for a summary of the controversy. For a considerable period of time American authors (e.g., Wake, 1993, Herpetologica, 49: 229–237) retained Hydromantes for both American and European components because of their evolutionary propinquity, while Europeans recognized Speleomantes (e.g., Lanza, Pastorelli, Laghi, and Cimmaruta, 2006 "2005", Atti Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Trieste, 52 (Suppl.): 5–135) for the European component. That the European and American groups of species are closely related sister taxa is not controversial so this is not a scientific controversy, but one of aesthetics. Wake, Salvador, and Alonso-Zarazaga, 2005, Amphibia-Reptilia, 26: 543–548, noted that while Hydromantes (sensu stricto) is the sister taxon of Speleomantes (in the pervasive sense of European authors), they preferred a taxonomy in which Hydromantes was construed to be a genus with three subgenera: Hydromantes (for former Hydromantes, sensu stricto), Atylodes (for Speleomantes genei, which they suggested was the sister taxon of the remaining species of former Speleomantes), and Speleomantes (for the species of former Speleomantes other than Hydromantes genei). Lanza, Pastorelli, Laghi, and Cimmaruta, 2006 "2005", Atti Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Trieste, 52 (Suppl.): 5–135, treated Speleomantes as a genus and implied that Atylodes should be treated as a subgenus of that genus although Atylodes is a nomen oblitum when used in combination with Speleomantes. Crochet, 2007, Amphibia-Reptilia, 28: 170–172, discussed the nomenclature of this group, noting that if the two, reciprocally monophyletic groups of Californian and European species were to be considered two genera (an arrangement consistent with the phylogenetic tree of Wake, Salvador, and Alonso-Zarazaga, 2005, Amphibia-Reptilia, 26: 543–548), the generic names would be Hydromantes and Speleomantes. Speybroeck and Crochet, 2007, Podarcis, 8: 10, formally suggested this arrangement. Vieites, Min, and Wake, 2007, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 104: 19903–19907, considered Atylodes, Hydromantes (sensu stricto), and Speleomantes as genera—the arrangement adopted here. See Petranka, 1998, Salamand. U.S. Canada: 1236–240, for accounts for Hydromantes. Nardi, 1991, in Green and Sessions (eds.), Amph. Cytogenet. Evol.: 131–156, reported on evidence of phylogeny based on karyology. Macey, 2005, Cladistics, 21: 194–202, considered Aneides to be the sister taxon of Hydromantes (in the sense of including Speleomantes). Carranza, Romano, Arnold, and Sotgiu, 2008, J. Biogeograph., 35: 724–739, discussed the phylogenetics and biogeography of Hydromantes and Speleomantes. Vieites, Min, and Wake, 2007, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 104: 19904 (and electronic supplemental data) treated Atylodes, Hydromantes, and Speleomantes as genera due to the genetic distances between them and as a means to standardize usage across Europe and North America; these authors apparently reconsidered this arrangement and Vieites, Román, Wake, and Wake, 2011, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 59: 623–635, considered all three taxa to be part of a single, larger Hydromates. van der Meijden, Chiari, Mucedda, Carranza, Corti, and Veith, 2008, in Corti (ed.), Herpetol. Sardiniae: 367–369, commented on the molecular phylogenetics of the genus. Rovito, 2010, Mol. Ecol., 19: 454–457, discussed speciation and phylogeography in the California species. Powell, Collins, and Hooper, 2011, Key Herpetofauna U.S. & Canada, 2nd Ed.: 17, provided a key to the North American species.Atylodes was considered a synonym of Hydromantes (sensu lato) by Mertens, 1936, Senckenb. Biol., 18: 76, prior to its recognition as a subgenus by Wake, Salvador, and Alonso-Zarazaga, 2005, Amphibia-Reptilia, 26: 543–548, and recognition as a genus by Vieites, Min, and Wake, 2007, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 104: 19903–19907. van der Meijden, Chiari, Mucedda, Carranza, Corti, and Veith, 2009, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 51: 399–404, continued the use of Atylodes as a subgenus of Hydromantes, but did not address the arrangement suggested by Vieites, Min, and Wake, 2007, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 104: 19903–19907 (suppl. material), which is therefore retained here. Crochet, 2007, Amphibia-Reptilia, 28: 170–172, noted that Atylodes Gistel, 1868, must be treated as junior to Speleomantes Dubois, 1984, when they compete nomenclaturally. Speybroeck, Beukema, and Crochet, 2010, Zootaxa, 2492: 5, discussed why they considered Atylodes a synonym of Hydromantes. Vieites, Román, Wake, and Wake, 2011, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 59: 623–635, considered Hydromantes, sensu lato, to be in their Hydromantini; they also treated Atylodes as a subgenus of Hydromantes, thereby rejecting their 2007 position that it should be considered a genus on the basis of antiquity. Sardinian species and their interrelationships discussed by Lanza, Nascetti, and Bullini, 1986, Boll. Mus. Reg. Sci. Nat. Torino, 4: 261–289. Nascetti, Cimmaruta, Lanza, and Bullini, 1996, J. Herpetol., 30: 161–183, and Nardi, Batistoni, Marracci, and Lanza, 1999, Herpetologica, 55: 131–139, discussed the molecular relationships of the species. Lanza, Caputo, Nascetti, and Bullini, 1995, Monogr. Mus. Reg. Sci. Nat. Torino, 16, provided a key and accounts. Thorn and Raffaëlli, 2000, Salamand. Ancien Monde: 368), retained the name Speleomantes and discussed the European species. Thorn and Raffaëlli, 2000, Salamand. Ancien Monde: 368–377, provided accounts for the European species of Hydromantes (sensu lato). Lanza, 1999, in Grossenbacher and Thiesmeier (eds.), Handbuch Rept. Amph. Eur., 4(1): 81–204, discussed all of the European species, provided accounts, and a key, as well as the nomenclatural history of Speleomantes. Nascetti, Cimmaruta, Lanza, and Bullini, 1996, J. Herpetol., 30: 161–183, provided a discussion of molecular phylogenetics of the European species. Nardi, 1991, in Green and Sessions (eds.), Amph. Cytogenet. Evol.: 131–156, reported on evidence of phylogeny based on karyology. Lanza, Pastorelli, Laghi, and Cimmaruta, 2006 "2005", Atti Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Trieste, 52 (Suppl.): 5–135, reviewed Speleomantes. Lanza, Pastorelli, Laghi, and Cimmaruta, 2007, in Lanza et al. (eds.), Fauna d'Italia, 42 (Amph.): 142–174, provided a key and detailed accounts for the Italian species. Wake, 2013, Amphibia-Reptilia, 34: 323–326, discussed the taxonomic history of the genus.  

Contained taxa (11 sp.):

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