Aneides lugubris (Hallowell, 1849)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Caudata > Family: Plethodontidae > Subfamily: Plethodontinae > Genus: Aneides > Species: Aneides lugubris

Triton tereticauda Eschscholtz, 1833, Zool. Atlas, Part 5: 14. Type(s): Not stated or known to exist, but by implication of statements regarding the types of Triton ensatus Eschscholtz, possibly originally in Dorpat (Germany) or Rostock (Estonia). Type locality: "Bei der Niederlassung Ross" (= Fort Ross), California, USA. Suppressed for the purposes of the Law of Priority but not for those of the Law of Homonymy by the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature, Opinion 377, Anonymous, 1956, Opin. Declar. Internatl. Comm. Zool. Nomencl., 11: 401–410; and therefore placed on the Official Index of Rejected and Invalid Specific Names in Zoology. Provisional synonymy by Storer, 1925, Univ. California Publ. Zool., 27: 127, and Dunn, 1926, Salamanders Fam. Plethodontidae: 211.

Salamandra lugubris Hallowell, 1849 "1848", Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 4: 126. Holotype: Not stated; ANSP 1257, according to Fowler and Dunn, 1917, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 69: 23; Malnate, 1971, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 123: 348. Type locality: "Monterey, [Monterey County,] Upper California", USA. Given incorrectly by Baird, 1851, in Heck (ed.), Icon. Encycl. Sci. Lit. Art, 2: 257, as "Island of Maui, one of the Sandwich Islands". Placed on the Official List of Specific Names by Opinion 377, Anonymous, 1956, Opin. Declar. Internatl. Comm. Zool. Nomencl., 11: 401–410. 

Taricha ? lugubrisGray, 1850, Cat. Spec. Amph. Coll. Brit. Mus., Batr. Grad.: 26.

Ambystoma punctulatum Gray, 1850, Cat. Spec. Amph. Coll. Brit. Mus., Batr. Grad.: 37. Holotype: BMNH. Type locality: "Monterey, California", USA. Synonymy by Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Grad. Batr. Apoda Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 52.

Aneides lugubrisBaird, 1851, in Heck (ed.), Icon. Encycl. Sci. Lit. Art, 2: 257; Baird and Girard, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 6: 302.

Amblystoma punctulatum —  Cooper, 1873, Proc. California Acad. Sci., 4: 64. 

Anaides lugubrisGarman, 1884, Bull. Essex Inst., 16: 38, by implication.

Plethodon crassulus Cope, 1886, Proc. Am. Philos. Soc., 23: 521. Holotype: USNM 9447 according to Dunn, 1926, Salamanders Fam. Plethodontidae: 220; and Cochran, 1961, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 220: 19. Type locality: "California", USA. Synonymy (with Plethodon intermedius [= Plethodon vehiculum]) by Van Denburgh, 1916, Proc. California Acad. Sci., Ser. 4, 6: 220, and Slevin, 1928, Occas. Pap. California Acad. Sci., 16: 54. Synonymy by Dunn, 1926, Salamanders Fam. Plethodontidae: 211; Cochran, 1961, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 220: 19..

Autodax lugubrisBoulenger, 1887, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., Ser. 5, 19: 67.

Aneides lugubris lugubrisVan Denburgh, 1905, Proc. California Acad. Sci., Ser. 3, 4: 5; Grinnell and Camp, 1917, Univ. California Publ. Zool., 17: 134.

Autodax lugubris farallonensis Van Denburgh, 1905, Proc. California Acad. Sci., Ser. 3, 4: 5. Holotype: CAS 3731 (Destroyed in 1906 San Francisco earthquake and fire according to Slevin and Leviton, 1956, Proc. California Acad. Sci., Ser. 4, 28: 535). Type locality: "South Farallon Island", California.

Aneides lugubris farallonensisGrinnell and Camp, 1917, Univ. California Publ. Zool., 17: 133.

Aneides (Aneides) lugubrisDubois and Raffaëlli, 2012, Alytes, 28: 117.

English Names

Mournful Salamander (Cooper, 1873, Proc. California Acad. Sci., 4: 64). 

Speckled Salamander (Amblystoma punctulatum [no longer recognized]: Cooper, 1873, Proc. California Acad. Sci., 4: 64). 

Sad-colored Anaides (Aneides lugubris: Yarrow, 1882, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 24: 22).

Arboreal Salamander (Aneides lugubris: Schmidt, 1953, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept., Ed. 6: 51; Conant, Cagle, Goin, Lowe, Neill, Netting, Schmidt, Shaw, Stebbins, and Bogert, 1956, Copeia, 1956: 173; Stebbins, 1966, Field Guide W. North Am. Rept. Amph.: 50; Collins, Huheey, Knight, and Smith, 1978, Herpetol. Circ., 7: 4; Liner, 1994, Herpetol. Circ., 23: 9; Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 29; Collins, 1997, Herpetol. Circ., 25: 5; Crother, Boundy, Campbell, de Queiroz, Frost, Highton, Iverson, Meylan, Reeder, Seidel, Sites, Taggart, Tilley, and Wake, 2001 "2000", Herpetol. Circ., 29: 19; Stebbins, 2003, Field Guide W. Rept. Amph., Ed. 3: 181; Liner and Casas-Andreu, 2008, Herpetol. Circ., 38: 28; Collins and Taggart, 2009, Standard Common Curr. Sci. Names N. Am. Amph. Turtles Rept. Crocodil., ed. 6: 11; Tilley, Highton, and Wake, 2012, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 39: 24; Highton, Bonett, and Jockusch, 2017, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 43: 24).

Farallon Island Salamander (Aneides lugubris farallonensis: Schmidt, 1953, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept., Ed. 6: 51; Conant, Cagle, Goin, Lowe, Neill, Netting, Schmidt, Shaw, Stebbins, and Bogert, 1956, Copeia, 1956: 173).

Farallon Salamander (Aneides lugubris farallonensis: Storer, 1925, Univ. California Publ. Zool., 27: 43; Bishop, 1943, Handb. Salamanders: 343).

Farallon Yellow-dotted Salamander (Aneides lugubris farallonensis: Slevin, 1928, Occas. Pap. California Acad. Sci., 16: 74).

Farallon Yellow-spotted Salamander (Aneides lugubris farallonensis: Bishop, 1943, Handb. Salamanders: 343).

Arboreal Salamander (Aneides lugubris lugubris: Grinnell and Storer, 1924, Animal Life in the Yosemite: 653; Storer, 1925, Univ. California Publ. Zool., 27: 43; Bishop, 1943, Handb. Salamanders: 340; Schmidt, 1953, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept., Ed. 6: 51; Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 29).

California Yellow-spotted Salamander (Aneides lugubris lugubris: Slevin, 1928, Occas. Pap. California Acad. Sci., 16: 71).

Oak Salamander (Aneides lugubris lugubris: Conant, Cagle, Goin, Lowe, Neill, Netting, Schmidt, Shaw, Stebbins, and Bogert, 1956, Copeia, 1956: 173).

Distribution

Coast Ranges of California (USA) from Humboldt County to northern Baja California Norte (Mexico) in the vicinity of Valle Santo Tomás; foothills of the Sierra Nevada from Calaveras to Madera counties, California (USA); South Farallon, Catalina, and Los Coronados Islands, off the coast of California and Baja California Norte, Mexico.

Comment

See accounts by Lynch and Wake, 1974, Cat. Am. Amph. Rept., 159: 1–2, Petranka, 1998, Salamand. U.S. Canada: 322–325, and Staub and Wake, 2005, in Lannoo (ed.), Amph. Declines: 662–664. Sessions and Kezer, 1987, Chromosoma, Berlin, 95: 17–30, noted two karyological races that intergrade in Mendocino County, California, USA. Grismer, 2002, Amph. Rept. Baja California: 56–57, provided an account for the Mexican populations. Stebbins, 2003, Field Guide W. Rept. Amph., Ed. 3: 181–182, provided a brief account, figure, and map. Raffaëlli, 2013, Urodeles du Monde, 2nd ed.: 412, provided a brief account, photograph, and range map. Reilly, Corl, and Wake, 2015, BMC Evol. Biol., 15 (241): 117, reported on molecular phylogeography of Aneides lugubris which suggested that it is composed of at least two and possibly three lineages, which they chose not to name. 

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