Aneides flavipunctatus (Strauch, 1870)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Caudata > Family: Plethodontidae > Subfamily: Plethodontinae > Genus: Aneides > Species: Aneides flavipunctatus

Plethodon flavipunctatus Strauch, 1870, Mem. Acad. Imp. Sci. St. Petersbourg, Ser. 7, 16 (4): 71. Syntypes: ZISP 155–157, now lost, according to L. Borkin in Duellman, 1993, Univ. Kansas Mus. Nat. Hist. Spec. Publ., 21: 302 (seen by D.B. Wake in 1970, personal communication). Type locality: "Californien (Neu-Albion)" = Albion, Mendocino County, California, USA.

Aneides flavipunctatusStorer, 1925, Univ. California Publ. Zool., 27: 119.

Aneides flavipunctatus flavipunctatusMyers and Maslin, 1948, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, 61: 134.

Aneides (Aneides) flavipunctatusDubois and Raffaëlli, 2012, Alytes, 28: 117.

English Names

Black Salamander (Aneides flavipunctatus in the sense of including Aneides niger and Aneides iecanus: Storer, 1925, Univ. California Publ. Zool., 27: 43; Slevin, 1928, Occas. Pap. California Acad. Sci., 16: 66; Bishop, 1943, Handb. Salamanders: 336; Stebbins, 1951, Amph. W. North Am.: 131; Schmidt, 1953, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept., Ed. 6: 50; Conant, Cagle, Goin, Lowe, Neill, Netting, Schmidt, Shaw, Stebbins, and Bogert, 1956, Copeia, 1956: 173; Stebbins, 1966, Field Guide W. North Am. Rept. Amph.: 49; Collins, Huheey, Knight, and Smith, 1978, Herpetol. Circ., 7: 5; Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 29; Collins, 1997, Herpetol. Circ., 25: 5; Crother, Boundy, Campbell, de Queiroz, Frost, Highton, Iverson, Meylan, Reeder, Seidel, Sites, Taggart, Tilley, and Wake, 2001 "2000", Herpetol. Circ., 29: 19; Tilley, Highton, and Wake, 2012, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 39: 24; Highton, Bonett, and Jockusch, 2017, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 43: 23).

Yellow-spotted Lizard (Aneides flavipunctatus: Yarrow, 1882, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 24: 21).

Speckled Black Salamander (Aneides flavipunctatus flavipunctatus: Conant, Cagle, Goin, Lowe, Neill, Netting, Schmidt, Shaw, Stebbins, and Bogert, 1956, Copeia, 1956: 173; Stebbins, 1966, Field Guide W. North Am. Rept. Amph.: 49; Collins, Huheey, Knight, and Smith, 1978, Herpetol. Circ., 7: 5; Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 29; Collins, 1997, Herpetol. Circ., 25: 5; Crother, Boundy, Campbell, de Queiroz, Frost, Highton, Iverson, Meylan, Reeder, Seidel, Sites, Taggart, Tilley, and Wake, 2001 "2000", Herpetol. Circ., 29: 19; Tilley, Highton, and Wake, 2012, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 39: 24; Aneides flavipunctatus: Collins and Taggart, 2009, Standard Common Curr. Sci. Names N. Am. Amph. Turtles Rept. Crocodil., ed. 6: 11; Highton, Bonett, and Jockusch, 2017, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 43: 23).

Distribution

Headwaters of Applegate River, Jackson County, southwestern Oregon, south through northwestern California to Sonoma, Napa, and Yolo counties, near sea level to 1700 m elevation, USA. (See comment.)

Comment

Larson, 1980, Evolution, 34: 1–17, discussed genetic variation. See accounts by Lynch, 1974, Cat. Am. Amph. Rept., 158: 1–22, Lynch, 1981, Smithson. Contrib. Zool., 324: 1–53 (who recognized subspecies), and Petranka, 1998, Salamand. U.S. Canada: 318–320, and Staub and Wake, 2005, in Lannoo (ed.), Amph. Declines: 660–661 (all in the sense of including Aneides niger and Aneides iecanus). Highton, 2000, in Bruce et al., Biol. Plethodontid Salamanders: 231, suggested that three species masquerade under this name and Petranka, 1998, Salamand. U.S. Canada: 318–320, did not recognize subspecies, although Highton, Tilley, and Wake In Crother, Boundy, Campbell, de Queiroz, Frost, Highton, Iverson, Meylan, Reeder, Seidel, Sites, Taggart, Tilley, and Wake, 2001 "2000", Herpetol. Circ., 29: 19, did, presumably because of the likelihood of cryptic species within the complex. Stebbins, 2003, Field Guide W. Rept. Amph., Ed. 3: 178–179, provided a brief account, figure, and map. See statement of geographic range, habitat, and conservation status in Stuart, Hoffmann, Chanson, Cox, Berridge, Ramani, and Young, 2008, Threatened Amph. World: 637. Rissler and Apodaca, 2007, Syst. Biol., 56: 924–942, reported on a study of ecological, molecular, and morphological variation that detected four cryptic (and not-so-cryptic) lineages within nominal Aneides flavipunctatus. Of the four to five lineages, three have available names and these authors suggested that they be considered species: Plethodon flavipunctatus Strauch, 1870, is available for their Central lineage; Aneides flavipunctatus niger Myers and Maslin, 1948, is available for the Southern Disjunct lineage, and Aneides iecanus Cope, 1883, is available for their Shasta lineage. These are here recognized as distinct by implication of the earlier paper by Rissler and Apodaca (2007; who did not make the taxonomic remedies because D. Wake had told her someone else was working on the taxonomy of the group, L. J. Rissler, personal comm.), although the other lineages have yet to be named formally. Reilly, Marks, and Jennings, 2012, Mol. Ecol., 21: 5745–5761, expanded on this problem and largely concurred with Rissler and Apodaca (2007), except noting that the "Central lineage" is a composite of at least two genetic lineages. Reilly, Mulks, Reilly, Jennings, and Wake, 2013, Diversity, 5: 657–679, refined the geographic delimitation of the lineages but did not address the taxonomic issue and for unexplained reasons retained Aneides iecanus and Aneides niger within Aneides flavipunctatus even though their evidence supports and extends the conclusions of Rissler and Apodoca (2007) that nominal Aneides flavipunctatus is a complex of species. Reilly and Wake, 2015, J. Biogeograph., 42: 280–291, documented that Aneides flavipunctatus (in their sense including Aneides iecanus and Aneides niger) is a complex of at least four species, but once again failed to take the taxonomic remedy. Fouquette and Dubois, 2014, Checklist N.A. Amph. Rept.: 155, did not recognize Aneides iecanus and Aneides niger as distinct from Aneides flavipunctatus due to the lack by Rissler and Apodaca (2007) of a formal statement of associating names with the species delimited by the various works. Raffaëlli, 2013, Urodeles du Monde, 2nd ed.: 410–411, provided a brief account, photograph, and range map in the sense of Aneides flavipunctatus sensu stricto except treating part of the "Central Lineage" as an unnamed subspecies. He (p. 411) also treated the unnamed northwest lineage in a brief account and mapped the entire complex. Highton, Bonett, and Jockusch, 2017, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 43: 23, summarized the published taxonomic history of the Aneides flavipunctatus group, but not recognize Aneides iecanus and Aneides niger as species, for undisclosed reasons. 

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