Pseudotriton ruber (Sonnini de Manoncourt and Latreille, 1801)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Caudata > Family: Plethodontidae > Subfamily: Hemidactyliinae > Genus: Pseudotriton > Species: Pseudotriton ruber

Salamandra rubra Sonnini de Manoncourt and Latreille, 1801 "An. X", Hist. Nat. Rept., 4: 305. Type(s): Not stated, although likely originally in the MNHNP but not found. Type locality: "Les Etats Unis"; probably from near Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA; see Dunn, 1926, Salamanders Fam. Plethodontidae: 274, and Schmidt, 1953, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept., Ed. 6: 48.

Salamandra subfusca Green, 1818, J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1: 351. Type(s): Not stated or known to exist. Type locality: Not stated, but in context presumably vicinity of Princeton, New Jersey, USA. Synonymy by Baird, 1850 "1849", J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, Ser. 2, 1: 286; Gray, 1850, Cat. Spec. Amph. Coll. Brit. Mus., Batr. Grad.: 45.

Salamandra rubriventris Green, 1818, J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1: 353. Type(s): Not stated or known to exist. Type locality: Not stated although in context presumably in the vicinity of Princeton, New Jersey, USA. Primary junior homonym of Salamandra rubriventris Daudin, 1803. Synonymy by Say, 1818, J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1: 406; De Kay, 1842, Zool. New York, 1: 80; Gray, 1850, Cat. Spec. Amph. Coll. Brit. Mus., Batr. Grad.: 45; Baird, 1850 "1849", J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, Ser. 2, 1: 286; Duméril, Bibron, and Duméril, 1854, Erp. Gen., 9: 89.

Triton ruber — Fitzinger, 1826, Neue Class. Rept.: 66;

Triton rubra — Wagler, 1830, Nat. Syst. Amph.: 208.

Molge rubraMerrem, 1820, Tent. Syst. Amph.: 185.

Pseudotriton subfuscusTschudi, 1838, Classif. Batr.: 60.

Mycetoglossus subfuscusBonaparte, 1839, Iconograph. Fauna Ital., 2 (Fasc. 26): unnumbered. From Duméril, Bibron, and Duméril, 1854, Erp. Gen., 9: 89; not seen. Fouquette and Dubois, 2014, Checklist N.A. Amph. Rept.: 123, were not able to verify this entry.  

Batrachopsis subfuscusFitzinger, 1843, Syst. Rept.: 34.

Spelerpes rubraGray, 1850, Cat. Spec. Amph. Coll. Brit. Mus., Batr. Grad.: 45.

Pseudotriton ruberBaird, 1850 "1849", J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, Ser. 2, 1: 286.

Mycetoglossus ruberGray, 1850, Cat. Spec. Amph. Coll. Brit. Mus., Batr. Grad.: 45. Attributed to Bibron, presumably on the basis of a label or manuscript name.

Pseudotriton rubrumBaird, 1851, in Heck (ed.), Icon. Encycl. Sci. Lit. Art, 2: 255.

Bolitoglossa rubraDuméril, Bibron, and Duméril, 1854, Erp. Gen., 9: 89.

Salamandra brevicauda Wied-Neuwied, 1865, Nova Acta Phys. Med. Acad. Caesar Leopold Carol., Halle, 32: 127. Type(s): Not known to exist. Type locality: "Pennsylvanien", USA. Synonymy by Dunn, 1926, Salamanders Fam. Plethodontidae: 274.

Spelerpes ruberCope, 1869, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 21: 107.

Amblystoma brevicaudaBoulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Grad. Batr. Apoda Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 38.

Spelerpes ruber ruberDavis and Rice, 1883, Bull. Chicago Acad. Sci., 1: 27. 

Geotriton rubraGarman, 1884, Bull. Essex Inst., 16: 39.

Spelerpes ruber schencki Brimley, 1912, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, 25: 139. Holotype: USNM 49679 according to Cochran, 1961, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 220: 26. Type locality: "Sunburst [now Spruce], at an elevation of 3200 feet . . . . Haywood Co[unty].", North Carolina, USA.

Spelerpes schenckiBrimley, 1915, J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc., 30: 198.

Eurycea rubra rubraStejneger and Barbour, 1917, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept.: 20.

Eurycea rubra schenckiStejneger and Barbour, 1917, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept.: 20.

Pseudotriton ruber ruberDunn, 1918, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 62: 466.

Pseudotriton ruber schenckiDunn, 1918, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 62: 467.

Pseudotriton ruber nitidus Dunn, 1920, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, 33: 133. Holotype: MCZ 5649, by original designation. Type locality: "White Top Mountain, Mt., V[irgini]a., 4000 feet (under a log in woods)", USA.

Eurycea rubraFowler, 1925, Copeia, 145: 58. 

Pseudotriton ruber vioscai Bishop, 1928, Occas. Pap. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., 5: 247. Holotype: USNM 75057, by original designation. Type locality: "A spring run 10 miles west of Bogalusa, [Washington Parish,] L[ouisian]a.", USA.

Gyrinophilus warneri Sinclair, 1955, J. Tennessee Acad. Sci., 30: 133. Syntypes: Three larvae (disposition unknown). Type locality: Not stated; presumably near Nashville, Tennessee, USA. Nomen nudum. Brandon, 1966, Illinois Biol. Monogr., 35: 5, looked at the larvae and stated they were of Pseudotriton. Assigned arbitrarily to this synonymy on the basis of geography (DRF).

Pseudotriton ruber schenkiCochran, 1961, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 220: 26. Incorrect subsequent spelling.

English Names

Brownish Salamander (Salamandra subfusca [no longer recognized]: Gray, 1831, in Cuvier, Animal Kingdom (Griffith), 9—Appendix: 107).

Olive-brown Salamander (Salamandra subfusca [no longer recognized]: Green, 1818, J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1: 351).

Red Triton (Pseudotriton ruber: Yarrow, 1876, List Skeletons and Crania: 40; Jordan, 1878, Man. Vert. North. U.S., Ed. 2: 194; Yarrow, 1882, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 24: 22; Davis and Rice, 1883, Bull. Chicago Acad. Sci., 1: 27; Britcher, 1903, Proc. Onondaga Acad. Sci., Syracuse, 1: 120; Fowler, 1907, Annu. Rep. N.J. State Mus. for 1906: 69; Brimley, 1907, J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc., 23: 152).

Red Lizard (Pseudotriton ruber: Fowler, 1907, Annu. Rep. N.J. State Mus. for 1906: 69).

Spring Lizard (Pseudotriton ruber: Fowler, 1907, Annu. Rep. N.J. State Mus. for 1906: 69).

Red Salamander (Salamandra rubriventris [no longer recognized]: Green, 1818, J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1: 353)

Red Salamander (Pseudotriton ruber: Gray, 1831, in Cuvier, Animal Kingdom (Griffith), 9—Appendix: 107; De Kay, 1842, Zool. New York, 1: 76; Hallowell, 1858, J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, Ser. 2, 3: 347 [as Pseudotriton ruber]; Rhoads, 1895, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 47: 401; Fowler, 1907, Annu. Rep. N.J. State Mus. for 1906: 69; Schmidt, 1953, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept., Ed. 6: 48; Conant, Cagle, Goin, Lowe, Neill, Netting, Schmidt, Shaw, Stebbins, and Bogert, 1956, Copeia, 1956: 175; Collins, Huheey, Knight, and Smith, 1978, Herpetol. Circ., 7: 8; Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 34; Collins, 1997, Herpetol. Circ., 25: 9; Crother, Boundy, Campbell, de Queiroz, Frost, Highton, Iverson, Meylan, Reeder, Seidel, Sites, Taggart, Tilley, and Wake, 2001 "2000", Herpetol. Circ., 29: 29; Tilley, Highton, and Wake, 2012, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 39: 22; Collins and Taggart, 2009, Standard Common Curr. Sci. Names N. Am. Amph. Turtles Rept. Crocodil., ed. 6: 15; Tilley, Highton, and Wake, 2012, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 39: 31; Powell, Conant, and Collins, 2016, Field Guide Rept. Amph. E. North Am., 4th ed.: 73; Highton, Bonett, and Jockusch, 2017, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 43: 33).

Dunn's Red Salamander (Pseudotriton ruber nitidus: Bishop, 1943, Handb. Salamanders: 393).

Blue Ridge Red Salamander (Pseudotriton ruber nitidus: Schmidt, 1953, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept., Ed. 6: 49; Conant, Cagle, Goin, Lowe, Neill, Netting, Schmidt, Shaw, Stebbins, and Bogert, 1956, Copeia, 1956: 175; Conant, 1975, Field Guide Rept. Amph. E. Cent. N. Am., Ed. 2: 286; Collins, Huheey, Knight, and Smith, 1978, Herpetol. Circ., 7: 9; Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 34; Collins, 1997, Herpetol. Circ., 25: 9; Crother, Boundy, Campbell, de Queiroz, Frost, Highton, Iverson, Meylan, Reeder, Seidel, Sites, Taggart, Tilley, and Wake, 2001 "2000", Herpetol. Circ., 29: 29; ; Collins and Taggart, 2009, Standard Common Curr. Sci. Names N. Am. Amph. Turtles Rept. Crocodil., ed. 6: 15; Tilley, Highton, and Wake, 2012, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 39: 31; Powell, Conant, and Collins, 2016, Field Guide Rept. Amph. E. North Am., 4th ed.: 73; Highton, Bonett, and Jockusch, 2017, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 43: 33).

Northern Red Salamander (Pseudotriton ruber ruber: Bishop, 1943, Handb. Salamanders: 389; Schmidt, 1953, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept., Ed. 6: 49; Conant, Cagle, Goin, Lowe, Neill, Netting, Schmidt, Shaw, Stebbins, and Bogert, 1956, Copeia, 1956: 175; Conant, 1975, Field Guide Rept. Amph. E. Cent. N. Am., Ed. 2: 286; Collins, Huheey, Knight, and Smith, 1978, Herpetol. Circ., 7: 9; Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 34; Crother, Boundy, Campbell, de Queiroz, Frost, Highton, Iverson, Meylan, Reeder, Seidel, Sites, Taggart, Tilley, and Wake, 2001 "2000", Herpetol. Circ., 29: 30; Collins and Taggart, 2009, Standard Common Curr. Sci. Names N. Am. Amph. Turtles Rept. Crocodil., ed. 6: 15; Tilley, Highton, and Wake, 2012, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 39: 31; Powell, Conant, and Collins, 2016, Field Guide Rept. Amph. E. North Am., 4th ed.: 73; Highton, Bonett, and Jockusch, 2017, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 43: 33).

Black-lipped Triton (Spelerpes schencki: Brimley, 1915, J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc., 30: 6).

Brimley's Red Salamander (Pseudotriton ruber schencki: Bishop, 1943, Handb. Salamanders: 396).

Black-chinned Red Salamander (Pseudotriton ruber schencki: Schmidt, 1953, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept., Ed. 6: 49; Conant, Cagle, Goin, Lowe, Neill, Netting, Schmidt, Shaw, Stebbins, and Bogert, 1956, Copeia, 1956: 175; Conant, 1975, Field Guide Rept. Amph. E. Cent. N. Am., Ed. 2: 287; Crother, Boundy, Campbell, de Queiroz, Frost, Highton, Iverson, Meylan, Reeder, Seidel, Sites, Taggart, Tilley, and Wake, 2001 "2000", Herpetol. Circ., 29: 30; Tilley, Highton, and Wake, 2012, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 39: 31; Powell, Conant, and Collins, 2016, Field Guide Rept. Amph. E. North Am., 4th ed.: 73; Highton, Bonett, and Jockusch, 2017, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 43: 33).

Blackchin Red Salamander (Pseudotriton ruber schencki: Collins, Huheey, Knight, and Smith, 1978, Herpetol. Circ., 7: 9; Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 34; Collins, 1997, Herpetol. Circ., 25: 9; Collins and Taggart, 2009, Standard Common Curr. Sci. Names N. Am. Amph. Turtles Rept. Crocodil., ed. 6: 15).

Viosca's Red Salamander (Pseudotriton ruber vioscai: Carr, 1940, Univ. Florida Biol. Sci. Ser., 3: 50; Bishop, 1943, Handb. Salamanders: 399).

Southern Red Salamander (Pseudotriton ruber vioscai: Schmidt, 1953, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept., Ed. 6: 49; Conant, Cagle, Goin, Lowe, Neill, Netting, Schmidt, Shaw, Stebbins, and Bogert, 1956, Copeia, 1956: 175; Conant, 1975, Field Guide Rept. Amph. E. Cent. N. Am., Ed. 2: 287; Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 34; Collins, 1997, Herpetol. Circ., 25: 9; Crother, Boundy, Campbell, de Queiroz, Frost, Highton, Iverson, Meylan, Reeder, Seidel, Sites, Taggart, Tilley, and Wake, 2001 "2000", Herpetol. Circ., 29: 30; Collins and Taggart, 2009, Standard Common Curr. Sci. Names N. Am. Amph. Turtles Rept. Crocodil., ed. 6: 1; Tilley, Highton, and Wake, 2012, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 39: 315; Powell, Conant, and Collins, 2016, Field Guide Rept. Amph. E. North Am., 4th ed.: 73; Highton, Bonett, and Jockusch, 2017, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 43: 33).

Distribution

USA from southern New York to northwestern Florida and west to eastern Ohio, central Kentucky (and adjacent southern Indiana) and southeastern Louisiana (not in Atlantic coastal plain).

Comment

See accounts by Martof, 1975, Cat. Am. Amph. Rept., 167: 1–3, and Petranka, 1998, Salamand. U.S. Canada: 299–304. Hunsinger, 2005, in Lannoo (ed.), Amph. Declines: 860–862, provided a detailed account that summarized the biology and conservation literature. Raffaëlli, 2007, Les Urodèles du Monde: 173–174, provided brief accounts by subspecies. Wilson, 1973, HISS News J., 1: 21, provided a record for southern Indiana (Floyd county). See comments under Pseudotriton and Gyrinophilus for relevant literature. Raffaëlli, 2013, Urodeles du Monde, 2nd ed.: 230–231, provided brief accounts by subspecies, photographs, and map. Altig and McDiarmid, 2015, Handb. Larval Amph. US and Canada: 122–123, provided an account of larval morphology and biology. Folt, Garrison, Guyer, Rodriguez, and Bond, 2016, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 98: 97–110, reported on phylogeography, retaining subspecies as arbitrary descriptors of geographic variation but not as evolutionary entities. 

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