Hemidactylium scutatum (Temminck, 1838)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Caudata > Family: Plethodontidae > Subfamily: Hemidactyliinae > Genus: Hemidactylium > Species: Hemidactylium scutatum

Salamandra scutata Temminck in Temminck and Schlegel, 1838, Fauna Japonica, 3: 119. Holotype: RMNH 2301, according to Hoogmoed, 1978, Zool. Meded., Leiden, 53: 103-104. Type locality: "Nashville, [Davidson County,] Tenn[essee].", USA. Placed on the Official List of Specific Names in Zoology by Opinion 1873, Anonymous, 1997, Bull. Zool. Nomencl., 54: 140-141. See comments on authorship by Neill, 1963, Cat. Am. Amph. Rept., 2: 1–2 , and Fouquette and Dubois, 2014, Checklist N.A. Amph. Rept.: 111. 

Hemidactylium scutatumTschudi, 1838, Classif. Batr.: 59, 94.

Salamandra melanosticta Gibbes, 1845, Boston J. Nat. Hist., 5: 89. Holotype: Not stated or known to exist. Type locality: "in Abbeville district, South Carolina . . . under old logs in open woods" (= Abbeville, Abbeville County, South Carolina), USA. Synonymy by Baird, 1850 "1849", J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, Ser. 2, 1: 286, and Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Grad. Batr. Apoda Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 59.

Cotobotes scutatumGistel, 1848, Naturgesch. Thierr.: 11.

Desmodactylus scutatusDuméril, Bibron, and Duméril, 1854, Erp. Gen., 9: 118.

Desmodactylus melanostictusDuméril, Bibron, and Duméril, 1854, Erp. Gen., 9: 119.

Batrachoseps scutatusBoulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Grad. Batr. Apoda Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 59.

Hemidactylium scutatumDunn, 1926, Salamanders Fam. Plethodontidae: 196.

English Names

Scaly Lizard (Yarrow, 1882, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 24: 21).

Scaly Salamander (Hay, 1892, Annu. Rep. Dept. Geol. Nat. Res. Indiana for 1891: 440; Brimley, 1907, J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc., 23: 153).

Eastern Four-toed Salamander (Bishop, 1943, Handb. Salamanders: 306; Schmidt, 1953, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept., Ed. 6: 42).

Four-toed Salamander (Jordan, 1878, Man. Vert. North. U.S., Ed. 2: 193; Davis and Rice, 1883, Bull. Chicago Acad. Sci., 1: 26; Hay, 1892, Annu. Rep. Dept. Geol. Nat. Res. Indiana for 1891: 440; Britcher, 1903, Proc. Onondaga Acad. Sci., Syracuse, 1: 120; Fowler, 1907, Annu. Rep. N.J. State Mus. for 1906: 52; Stejneger and Barbour, 1917, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept.: 14; Conant, Cagle, Goin, Lowe, Neill, Netting, Schmidt, Shaw, Stebbins, and Bogert, 1956, Copeia, 1956: 174; Conant, 1975, Field Guide Rept. Amph. E. Cent. N. Am., Ed. 2: 282; Collins, Huheey, Knight, and Smith, 1978, Herpetol. Circ., 7: 7; Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 31; Collins, 1997, Herpetol. Circ., 25: 7; Crother, Boundy, Campbell, de Queiroz, Frost, Highton, Iverson, Meylan, Reeder, Seidel, Sites, Taggart, Tilley, and Wake, 2001 "2000", Herpetol. Circ., 29: 24; Collins and Taggart, 2009, Standard Common Curr. Sci. Names N. Am. Amph. Turtles Rept. Crocodil., ed. 6: 13; Tilley, Highton, and Wake, 2012, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 39: 28; Powell, Conant, and Collins, 2016, Field Guide Rept. Amph. E. North Am., 4th ed.: 73; Highton, Bonett, and Jockusch, 2017, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 43: 29).


Fairly continuous from extreme southern Maine (USA), extreme southern Quebec (Canada), extreme southern Ontario (Canada), and northern Wisconsin (USA), southward to the Fall Line in North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, and Tennessee (USA); presumably disjunct populations occur in Nova Scotia (Canada), southwestern Mississippi, west-central Arkansas to southeastern Oklahoma, Ozarks of Missouri, southeastern Louisiana, Georgia, and northwestern Florida (USA).


Reviewed by Neill, 1963, Cat. Am. Amph. Rept., 2: 1–2. See account by Petranka, 1998, Salamand. U.S. Canada: 290. Harris, 2005, in Lannoo (ed.), Amph. Declines: 780–781, provided a detailed account that summarized the biology and conservation literature. Burgason and Davis, 1978, Herpetol. Rev., 9: 21, provided a record for Maine. Casebere and Lodato, 2011, Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci., 119: 111–129, discussed historical changes in range in Indiana, USA. Raffaëlli, 2013, Urodeles du Monde, 2nd ed.: 252, provided a brief account, photograph, and map.

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