Gyrinophilus porphyriticus (Green, 1827)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Caudata > Family: Plethodontidae > Subfamily: Hemidactyliinae > Genus: Gyrinophilus > Species: Gyrinophilus porphyriticus

Salamandra porphyritica Green, 1827, Contrib. Maclurian Lyc. Arts Sci., 1: 3. Type(s): Not stated or known to exist; MCZ 35778 designated neotype by Brandon, 1966, Illinois Biol. Monogr., 35: 32. Type locality: "French Creek near Meadville, Crawford County, P[ennsylvani]a.", USA. Neotype from "a small spring-fed stream (flowing directly into French Creek) at Liberty and Linden streets, Meadville, Crawford Co[unty]., P[ennsylvani]a.", USA.

Triturus lutescens Rafinesque, 1832, Atlantic. J. and Friend of Knowledge, Philadelphia, 1: 121. Type(s): Not designated or known to exist. Type locality: "in West Kentucky in rocky limestone springs in the barrens or glades." Place on the Official Index of Rejected and Invalid Species Names in Zoology by Opinion 738, Anonymous, 1965, Bull. Zool. Nomencl., 22: 167-168. Synonymy by Newcomer, 1961, Assoc. Southeast. Biol. Bull., 8: 21; Brandon, 1963, Bull. Zool. Nomencl., 20: 210.

Salamandra salmonea Storer In Holbrook, 1838, N. Am. Herpetol., 3: 101. Holotype: Specimen figured in pl. 22. Type locality: "neighbourhood of Danvers, in Massachusetts, and . . . at the Green Mountains of Vermont", USA; corrected to "Vermont" by Storer, 1840, Boston J. Nat. Hist., 3: 58, who noted that the animal described was from Vermont, but implied that the animal illustrated by Holbrook could have come from "the neighbrohood of Danvers, Massachusetts"; restricted to "Vermont", USA by Schmidt, 1953, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept., Ed. 6: 45; this restriction rejected by Adler, 1976, Holbrook’s N. Am. Herpetol.: xli, who noted that the illustration is more likely based on specimens from Massachusetts, USA. (Note that Storer eplained the apparent conflict in 1840, which turns out to not be a conflict after all—DRF.) Fouquette and Dubois, 2014, Checklist N.A. Amph. Rept.: 117, reject the restriction as invalid. Synonymy by Baird, 1850 "1849", J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, Ser. 2, 1: 287; Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 64.

Triton porphyriticusHolbrook, 1842, N. Am. Herpetol., Ed. 2, 5: 83.

Pseudotriton salmoneusBaird, 1850 "1849", J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, Ser. 2, 1: 287.

Spelerpes ? porphyriticaGray, 1850, Cat. Spec. Amph. Coll. Brit. Mus., Batr. Grad.: 46.

Spelerpes ? salmoneaGray, 1850, Cat. Spec. Amph. Coll. Brit. Mus., Batr. Grad.: 46.

Pseudotriton salmoneus — Baird, 1851, in Heck (ed.), Icon. Encycl. Sci. Lit. Art, 2: 287. 

Ambystoma salmoneumDuméril, Bibron, and Duméril, 1854, Erp. Gen., 9: 110.

Amblystoma porphyriticumHallowell, 1856, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 8: 8. Based on specimens of Ambystoma texanum, according to Cope, 1868 "1867", Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 19: 206. Considered a synonym of Amblystoma microstomum by Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Grad. Batr. Apoda Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 50.

Pseudotriton salmoneaHallowell, 1858, J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, Ser. 2, 3: 342.

Spelerpes salmoneusCope, 1866, J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, Ser. 2, 6: 98.

Gyrinophilus porphyriticusCope, 1869, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 21: 108.

Spelerpes porphyriticusSmith, 1877, Tailed Amph.: 91; Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Grad. Batr. Apoda Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 64.

Geotriton porphyriticaGarman, 1884, Bull. Essex Inst., 16: 40.

Spelerpes danielsi Blatchley, 1901, Annu. Rep. Dept. Geol. Nat. Res. Indiana for 1900, 25: 760. Syntypes: MCZ 6638, 6639, according to Barbour and Loveridge, 1929, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 69: 339; MCZ 6638 designated lectotype by Brandon, 1966, Illinois Biol. Monogr., 35: 56. Type locality: "Sevier County, Tennessee", USA; given as "side of Mt. Collins and at Indian Pass (Sevier County, Tennessee [USA]), at an altitude of 3,000 to 5,000 feet" by Brame, 1972, Checklist Living & Fossil Salamand. World (Unpubl. MS): 181. Synonymy by Stejneger and Barbour, 1933, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept., Ed. 3: 15.

Gyrinophilus danielsiFowler and Dunn, 1917, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 69: 19; Conant, 1958, Field Guide Rept. Amph. E. Cent. N. Am.: 242).

Gyrinophilus porphyriticusDunn, 1926, Salamanders Fam. Plethodontidae: 259.

Pseudotriton duryi Weller, 1930, Proc. Junior Soc. Nat. Hist. Cincinnati, 1: 29. Syntypes: MNHSC 499 a-g; USNM 84300 (formerly CSNM 499 d), designated lectotype by Walker and Weller, 1932, Copeia, 1932: 81-83. Type locality: "Cascade Caves, about ten miles from Grayson", Carter County, Kentucky, USA. Synonymy by Stejneger and Barbour, 1933, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept., Ed. 3: 15.

Gyrinophilus duryiWeller, 1931, Proc. Junior Soc. Nat. Hist. Cincinnati, 2: 8.

Gyrinophilus porphyriticus porphyriticusStejneger and Barbour, 1933, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept., Ed. 3: 15.

Gyrinophilus porphyriticus danielsiStejneger and Barbour, 1933, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept., Ed. 3: 15.

Gyrinophilus porphyriticus duryiStejneger and Barbour, 1933, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept., Ed. 3: 15; Brandon, 1966, Illinois Biol. Monogr., 35: 44.

Gyrinophilus danielsi duryiKing, 1939, Am. Midl. Nat., 21: 556.

Gyrinophilus dunni Mittleman and Jopson, 1941, Smithson. Misc. Collect., 101: 2. Holotype: USNM 113230, by original designation. Type locality: "campus of Clemson College, Clemson, Pickens County, S.C. (South Carolina), 700 feet altitude", USA. Synonymy by Bishop, 1943, Handb. Salamanders: 365.

Gyrinophilus porphyriticus inagnoscus Mittleman, 1942, Proc. New England Zool. Club, 20: 27. Holotype: USNM 115520, by original designation. Type locality: "Salt Creek, four miles southwest of Bloomingville, Good Hope Township, Hocking County, Ohio", USA. Corrected to "Salt Creek, 4 miles southwest of South Bloomingville, Salt Creek Township, Hocking County, Ohio", USA, by Condit, 1958, Copeia, 1958: 46-47. Distinctiveness from Gyrinophilus porphyriticus porphyriticus rejected by Brandon, 1963, Bull. Zool. Nomencl., 20: 210-211; and Brandon, 1966, Illinois Biol. Monogr., 35: 31.

Gyrinophilus lutescensMittleman, 1942, Proc. New England Zool. Club, 20: 33-35.

Gyrinophilus danielsi danielsiBishop, 1943, Handb. Salamanders: 361.

Gyrinophilus danielsi dunniBishop, 1943, Handb. Salamanders: 365.

Gyrinophilus danielsi polystictus Reese, 1950, Nat. Hist. Misc., 63: 2. Holotype: FMNH 91108, by original designation. Type locality: "Mt. Mitchell, Yancey County, North Carolina at 6000 feet". Synonymy (with Gyrinophilus porphyriticus danielsi) by Brandon, 1963, Bull. Zool. Nomencl., 20: 210-211; Brandon, 1966, Illinois Biol. Monogr., 35: 56.

Gyrinophilus danielsi polystictusSchmidt, 1953, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept., Ed. 6: 47.

Pseudotriton porphyriticusOrgan, 1961, Herpetologica, 17: 53.

Gyrinophilus porphyriticusBrandon, 1966, Illinois Biol. Monogr., 35: 29.

Gyrinophilus porphyriticus danielsiBrandon, 1966, Illinois Biol. Monogr., 35: 56.

Gyrinophilus porphyriticus dunniBrandon, 1966, Illinois Biol. Monogr., 35: 50.

English Names

Salmon-colored Salamander (Salamandra salmonea [no longer recognized]: Storer, 1839, Rep. Ichthyol. Herpetol. Massachusetts: 248; Storer, 1840, Boston J. Nat. Hist., 3: 58; De Kay, 1842, Zool. New York, 1: 76).

Grey-spotted Triton (Triton porphyriticus: De Kay, 1842, Zool. New York, 1: 85).

Neotenic Purple Salamander (Gyrinophilus lutescens [no longer recognized]: Schmidt, 1953, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept., Ed. 6: 46),

Kentucky Cave Salamander (Gyrinophilus lutescens [no longer recognized]: Conant, Cagle, Goin, Lowe, Neill, Netting, Schmidt, Shaw, Stebbins, and Bogert, 1956, Copeia, 1956: 174).

Salmon Triton (Gyrinophilus porphyriticus: Yarrow, 1882, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 24: 22).

Porphyritic Salamander (Gyrinophilus porphyriticus: Rhoads, 1895, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 47: 401; Fowler, 1907, Annu. Rep. N.J. State Mus. for 1906: 62).

Daniel's Salamander (Gyrinophilus danielsi [no longer recognized]: Brimley, 1907, J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc., 23: 152).

Purple Salamander (Gyrinophilus porphyriticus: Fowler, 1907, Annu. Rep. N.J. State Mus. for 1906: 62; Brimley, 1907, J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc., 23: 152; Schmidt, 1953, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept., Ed. 6: 46),

Purplish Salamander (Gyrinophilus porphyriticus: Brimley, 1915, J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc., 30: 6).

Spring Salamander (Gyrinophilus porphyriticus: Conant, Cagle, Goin, Lowe, Neill, Netting, Schmidt, Shaw, Stebbins, and Bogert, 1956, Copeia, 1956: 174; Collins, Huheey, Knight, and Smith, 1978, Herpetol. Circ., 7: 6; Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 31; Collins, 1997, Herpetol. Circ., 25: 7; Crother, Boundy, Campbell, de Queiroz, Frost, Highton, Iverson, Meylan, Reeder, Seidel, Sites, Taggart, Tilley, and Wake, 2001 "2000", Herpetol. Circ., 29: 24; Tilley, Highton, and Wake, 2012, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 39: 28; Powell, Conant, and Collins, 2016, Field Guide Rept. Amph. E. North Am., 4th ed.: 69; Highton, Bonett, and Jockusch, 2017, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 43: 29).

Mountain Purple Salamander (Gyrinophilus porphyriticus danielsi: Bishop, 1943, Handb. Salamanders: 361; Schmidt, 1953, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept., Ed. 6: 46).

Blue Ridge Purple Salamander (Gyrinophilus porphyriticus danielsi: Schmidt, 1953, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept., Ed. 6: 46).

Blue Ridge Spring Salamander (Gyrinophilus porphyriticus danielsi: Conant, Cagle, Goin, Lowe, Neill, Netting, Schmidt, Shaw, Stebbins, and Bogert, 1956, Copeia, 1956: 174; Collins, Huheey, Knight, and Smith, 1978, Herpetol. Circ., 7: 6; Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 31; Collins, 1997, Herpetol. Circ., 25: 7; Crother, Boundy, Campbell, de Queiroz, Frost, Highton, Iverson, Meylan, Reeder, Seidel, Sites, Taggart, Tilley, and Wake, 2001 "2000", Herpetol. Circ., 29: 24; Tilley, Highton, and Wake, 2012, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 39: 28; Powell, Conant, and Collins, 2016, Field Guide Rept. Amph. E. North Am., 4th ed.: 69; Highton, Bonett, and Jockusch, 2017, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 43: 29).

Mountain Spring Salamander (Gyrinophilus porphyriticus danielsi: Conant, 1975, Field Guide Rept. Amph. E. Cent. N. Am., Ed. 2: 285).

Carolina Purple Salamander (Gyrinophilus porphyriticus dunni: Bishop, 1943, Handb. Salamanders: 365; Schmidt, 1953, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept., Ed. 6: 46).

Carolina Spring Salamander (Gyrinophilus porphyriticus dunni: Conant, Cagle, Goin, Lowe, Neill, Netting, Schmidt, Shaw, Stebbins, and Bogert, 1956, Copeia, 1956: 174; Collins, Huheey, Knight, and Smith, 1978, Herpetol. Circ., 7: 6; Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 31; Collins, 1997, Herpetol. Circ., 25: 7; Crother, Boundy, Campbell, de Queiroz, Frost, Highton, Iverson, Meylan, Reeder, Seidel, Sites, Taggart, Tilley, and Wake, 2001 "2000", Herpetol. Circ., 29: 24; Powell, Conant, and Collins, 2016, Field Guide Rept. Amph. E. North Am., 4th ed.: 69; Highton, Bonett, and Jockusch, 2017, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 43: 29).

Dunn's Spring Salamander (Gyrinophilus porphyriticus dunni: Conant, 1975, Field Guide Rept. Amph. E. Cent. N. Am., Ed. 2: 285).

Kentucky Purple Salamander (Gyrinophilus porphyriticus duryi: Bishop, 1943, Handb. Salamanders: 370; Schmidt, 1953, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept., Ed. 6: 46).

Kentucky Spring Salamander (Gyrinophilus porphyriticus duryi: Conant, Cagle, Goin, Lowe, Neill, Netting, Schmidt, Shaw, Stebbins, and Bogert, 1956, Copeia, 1956: 174; Conant, 1975, Field Guide Rept. Amph. E. Cent. N. Am., Ed. 2: 284; Collins, Huheey, Knight, and Smith, 1978, Herpetol. Circ., 7: 6; Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 31; Collins, 1997, Herpetol. Circ., 25: 7; Crother, Boundy, Campbell, de Queiroz, Frost, Highton, Iverson, Meylan, Reeder, Seidel, Sites, Taggart, Tilley, and Wake, 2001 "2000", Herpetol. Circ., 29: 24; Powell, Conant, and Collins, 2016, Field Guide Rept. Amph. E. North Am., 4th ed.: 69; Highton, Bonett, and Jockusch, 2017, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 43: 29).

Ohio Purple Salamander (Gyrinophilus porphyriticus inagnoscus) [no longer recognized]: Bishop, 1943, Handb. Salamanders: 373; Schmidt, 1953, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept., Ed. 6: 46).

Ohio Spring Salamander (Gyrinophilus porphyriticus inagnoscus) [no longer recognized]: Conant, Cagle, Goin, Lowe, Neill, Netting, Schmidt, Shaw, Stebbins, and Bogert, 1956, Copeia, 1956: 174).

Mount Mitchell Spring Salamander ( Gyrinophilus porphyriticus polystictus [no longer recognized]: Conant, Cagle, Goin, Lowe, Neill, Netting, Schmidt, Shaw, Stebbins, and Bogert, 1956, Copeia, 1956: 174).

Northeastern Purple Salamander (Gyrinophilus porphyriticus porphyriticus: Bishop, 1943, Handb. Salamanders: 367).

Northern Purple Salamander (Gyrinophilus porphyriticus porphyriticus: Schmidt, 1953, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept., Ed. 6: 46).

Northern Spring Salamander (Gyrinophilus porphyriticus porphyriticus: Conant, Cagle, Goin, Lowe, Neill, Netting, Schmidt, Shaw, Stebbins, and Bogert, 1956, Copeia, 1956: 174; Conant, 1975, Field Guide Rept. Amph. E. Cent. N. Am., Ed. 2: 284; Collins, Huheey, Knight, and Smith, 1978, Herpetol. Circ., 7: 7; Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 31; Collins, 1997, Herpetol. Circ., 25: 7; Crother, Boundy, Campbell, de Queiroz, Frost, Highton, Iverson, Meylan, Reeder, Seidel, Sites, Taggart, Tilley, and Wake, 2001 "2000", Herpetol. Circ., 29: 24; Powell, Conant, and Collins, 2016, Field Guide Rept. Amph. E. North Am., 4th ed.: 69; Highton, Bonett, and Jockusch, 2017, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 43: 29).

Distribution

Western Maine (USA) and adjacent Canada, south along the Appalachian uplift to northern Georgia, northern Alabama, and northeastern Mississippi (USA).

Comment

See detailed accounts by Brandon, 1967, Cat. Am. Amph. Rept., 33: 1–3, and Petranka, 1998, Salamand. U.S. Canada: 282–287. Adams and Beachy, 2001, Herpetologica, 57: 353–364, reported on morphometric variation and regarded this taxon as a species complex. Raffaëlli, 2013, Urodeles du Monde, 2nd ed.: 233-234, provided brief accounts by subspecies, photographs, and map. Weller and Cebek, 1991, Herpetol. Rev., 22: 24, provided records, including the most northerly in North America, for Quebec, Canada. Beachy, 2005, in Lannoo (ed.), Amph. Declines: 776–778, provided a detailed account that summarized the biology and conservation literature. Fouquette and Dubois, 2014, Checklist N.A. Amph. Rept.: 116, suggested that three tree shown in Bonett, Steffen, Lambert, Wiens, and Chippindale, 2014 "2013", Evolution, 68: 472, suggests that Gyrinophilus palleucus, Gyrinophilus gulolineatus, and Gyrinophilus porphyriticus are conspecific (apparently under the reproductive species concept), when the tree topology is also consistent with the Gyrinophilus porphyriticus (sensu lato) being a species complex. For this reason the taxonomic novelties of Fouquette and Dubois, 2014, Checklist N.A. Amph. Rept.: 116, are not followed. Altig and McDiarmid, 2015, Handb. Larval Amph. US and Canada: 121, provided an account of larval morphology and biology. 

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