Eurycea longicauda (Green, 1818)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Caudata > Family: Plethodontidae > Subfamily: Hemidactyliinae > Genus: Eurycea > Species: Eurycea longicauda

Salamandra longicauda Green, 1818, J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1: 351. Type(s): Not known to exist according to Dunn, 1926, Salamanders Fam. Plethodontidae: 321. Type locality: "in the state of New-jersey", USA; rendered as "New Jersey (probably near Princeton)" by Dunn, 1926, Salamanders Fam. Plethodontidae: 321; restricted by Schmidt, 1953, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept., Ed. 6: 53, to "vicinity of Princeton, New Jersey", USA. This restriction regarded as invalid by Fouquette and Dubois, 2014, Checklist N.A. Amph. Rept.: 133. 

Salamandra longicaudataHarlan, 1835, Med. Phys. Res.: 96. Incorrect subsequent spelling.

Cylindrosoma longicaudaTschudi, 1838, Classif. Batr.: 58.

Salamandra longe-caudataTroost, 1840, Geol. Rep. Tennessee: 40. Incorrect subsequent spelling. 

Plethodon (Saurocercus) longicaudaFitzinger, 1843, Syst. Rept.: 35.

Spelerpes longicaudaBaird, 1850 "1849", J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, Ser. 2, 1: 287.

Cylindrosoma longicaudatumDuméril, Bibron, and Duméril, 1854, Erp. Gen., 9: 78.

Spelerpes longicaudusCope, 1861, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 13: 124.

Saurocercus longicaudaFitzinger, 1864, Bilder Altas Wissenschaftl. Naturgesch. Amph.: pl. 97, fig. 179.

Geotriton longicaudaGarman, 1884, Bull. Essex Inst., 16: 39.

Spelerpes melanopleurus Cope, 1894 "1893", Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 45: 383. Syntypes: ANSP 10456–60, according to Fowler and Dunn, 1917, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 69: 21, and Malnate, 1971, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 123: 348. Type locality: "among the stone on the banks of Raley's Creek, one of the head tributaries of White River", Missouri, USA. Rendered as "Riley's Cr[eek]., a tributary of the White River, Mo." by Dunn, 1926, Salamanders Fam. Plethodontidae: 316. Synonymy by Bishop, 1941, Occas. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan, 451: 20.

Spelerpes stejnegeri Eigenmann, 1901, Trans. Am. Microscop. Soc., 22: 189. Holotype: USNM 61259, according to Brame, 1972, Checklist Living & Fossil Salamand. World (Unpubl. MS): 172; not listed in catalogue of USNM types by Cochran, 1961, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 220. Type locality: "Rock House cave, [Barry County,] Missouri", USA. Synonymy with Spelerpes melanopleurus by Dunn, 1926, Salamanders Fam. Plethodontidae: 316.

Eurycea longicaudaStejneger and Barbour, 1917, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept.: 19.

Eurycea melanopleuraStejneger and Barbour, 1917, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept.: 17.

Eurycea longicauda longicaudaBailey, 1937, Occas. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan, 364: 8.

Eurycea longicauda melanopleuraBishop, 1941, Occas. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan, 451: 20.

Eurycea longicauda pernix Mittleman, 1942, Proc. New England Zool. Club, 21: 101. Holotype: MCZ 25569, by original designation. Type locality: "Jimmie Strahl Creek (tributary of Salt Creek), Brown County State Park, two and five tenths miles southeast of Nashville, Brown County, Indiana", USA.

Eurycea (Eurycea) longicauda longicaudaRaffaëlli, 2007, Les Urodèles du Monde: 187.

Eurycea (Eurycea) longicauda melanopleuraRaffaëlli, 2007, Les Urodèles du Monde: 187.

Eurycea (Eurycea) longicaudaDubois and Raffaëlli, 2012, Alytes, 28: 143.

English Names

Long-tailed Triton (Eurycea longicauda: Yarrow, 1882, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 24: 22; Hay, 1892, Annu. Rep. Dept. Geol. Nat. Res. Indiana for 1891: 446).

Long-tailed Salamander (Eurycea longicauda: Green, 1818, J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1: 351; Gray, 1831, in Cuvier, Animal Kingdom (Griffith), 9—Appendix: 107; De Kay, 1842, Zool. New York, 1: 76; Rhoads, 1895, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 47: 405; Fowler, 1907, Annu. Rep. N.J. State Mus. for 1906: 66; Brimley, 1907, J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc., 23: 151; Schmidt, 1953, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept., Ed. 6: 53; Conant, Cagle, Goin, Lowe, Neill, Netting, Schmidt, Shaw, Stebbins, and Bogert, 1956, Copeia, 1956: 174; Crother, Boundy, Campbell, de Queiroz, Frost, Highton, Iverson, Meylan, Reeder, Seidel, Sites, Taggart, Tilley, and Wake, 2001 "2000", Herpetol. Circ., 29: 23; Tilley, Highton, and Wake, 2012, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 39: 18; Tilley, Highton, and Wake, 2012, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 39: 27; Powell, Conant, and Collins, 2016, Field Guide Rept. Amph. E. North Am., 4th ed.: 56; Highton, Bonett, and Jockusch, 2017, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 43: 27).

Longtail Salamander (Eurycea longicauda: Collins, Huheey, Knight, and Smith, 1978, Herpetol. Circ., 7: 6; Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 31; Collins, 1997, Herpetol. Circ., 25: 7; Collins and Taggart, 2009, Standard Common Curr. Sci. Names N. Am. Amph. Turtles Rept. Crocodil., ed. 6: 12).

Long-tailed Salamander (Eurycea longicauda longicauda: Bishop, 1943, Handb. Salamanders: 421; Schmidt, 1953, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept., Ed. 6: 53; Conant, Cagle, Goin, Lowe, Neill, Netting, Schmidt, Shaw, Stebbins, and Bogert, 1956, Copeia, 1956: 174; Conant, 1975, Field Guide Rept. Amph. E. Cent. N. Am., Ed. 2: 291; Tilley, Highton, and Wake, 2012, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 39: 18).

Eastern Long-tailed Salamander (Eurycea longicauda longicauda: Tilley, Highton, and Wake, 2012, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 39: 27; Powell, Conant, and Collins, 2016, Field Guide Rept. Amph. E. North Am., 4th ed.: 57; Highton, Bonett, and Jockusch, 2017, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 43: 27).

Longtail Salamander (Eurycea longicauda: Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 31; Collins, 1997, Herpetol. Circ., 25: 6; Crother, Boundy, Campbell, de Queiroz, Frost, Highton, Iverson, Meylan, Reeder, Seidel, Sites, Taggart, Tilley, and Wake, 2001 "2000", Herpetol. Circ., 29: 23).

Longtail Salamander (Eurycea longicauda longicauda: Collins and Taggart, 2009, Standard Common Curr. Sci. Names N. Am. Amph. Turtles Rept. Crocodil., ed. 6: 12).

Cave Salamander (Eurycea longicauda: Jordan, 1878, Man. Vert. North. U.S., Ed. 2: 193; Davis and Rice, 1883, Bull. Chicago Acad. Sci., 1: 27).

Cope's Cave Salamander (Eurycea longicauda melanopleura: Bishop, 1943, Handb. Salamanders: 428).

Black-sided Salamander (Eurycea longicauda melanopleura: Schmidt, 1953, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept., Ed. 6: 54),

Dark-sided Salamander (Eurycea longicauda melanopleura: Conant, Cagle, Goin, Lowe, Neill, Netting, Schmidt, Shaw, Stebbins, and Bogert, 1956, Copeia, 1956: 174; Conant, 1975, Field Guide Rept. Amph. E. Cent. N. Am., Ed. 2: 291; Collins, Huheey, Knight, and Smith, 1978, Herpetol. Circ., 7: 6; Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 31; Collins, 1997, Herpetol. Circ., 25: 7; Crother, Boundy, Campbell, de Queiroz, Frost, Highton, Iverson, Meylan, Reeder, Seidel, Sites, Taggart, Tilley, and Wake, 2001 "2000", Herpetol. Circ., 29: 23; Tilley, Highton, and Wake, 2012, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 39: 18; Collins and Taggart, 2009, Standard Common Curr. Sci. Names N. Am. Amph. Turtles Rept. Crocodil., ed. 6: 12; Tilley, Highton, and Wake, 2012, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 39: 27; Powell, Conant, and Collins, 2016, Field Guide Rept. Amph. E. North Am., 4th ed.: 57; Highton, Bonett, and Jockusch, 2017, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 43: 27).

Midland Long-tailed Salamander (Eurycea longicauda pernix: Schmidt, 1953, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept., Ed. 6: 54; Conant, Cagle, Goin, Lowe, Neill, Netting, Schmidt, Shaw, Stebbins, and Bogert, 1956, Copeia, 1956: 174).

Distribution

Southern New York southwestward through the Appalachian and Ozark uplifts to southeastern Kansas, eastern Oklahoma, central Missouri, central and eastern Tennessee, northern Alabama, northwestern Georgia, extreme western North Carolina, western Virginia, and northern New Jersey, USA.

Comment

See account by Ireland, 1979, Cat. Am. Amph. Rept., 221: 1–4 (as including Eurycea guttolineata). See Eurycea guttolineata. Petranka, 1998, Salamand. U.S. Canada: 254–257, also provided a detailed account. Ryan and Conner, 2005, in Lannoo (ed.), Amph. Declines: 747–750, provided a detailed account that summarized the biology and conservation literature. Bonett, Steffen, Lambert, Wiens, and Chippindale, 2014 "2013", Evolution, 68: 473, recovered a molecular tree in which Eurycea longicauda longicauda is more closely related to Eurycea junaluska than to Eurycea longicauda melanopleura, suggesting that careful evalution of the possibility that the two nominal subspecies are two species rather than sections of geographic variation of one species. Raffaëlli, 2013, Urodeles du Monde, 2nd ed.: 248–249, provided brief accounts by subspecies, photographs, and map. Altig and McDiarmid, 2015, Handb. Larval Amph. US and Canada: 111–112, provided an account of larval morphology and biology. 

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