Eurycea bislineata (Green, 1818)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Caudata > Family: Plethodontidae > Subfamily: Hemidactyliinae > Genus: Eurycea > Species: Eurycea bislineata

Salamandra bislineata Green, 1818, J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1: 352. Syntypes: not designated. Including ANSP 695–698 (according to Fowler and Dunn, 1917, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 69: 20); the inclusion of USNM 3738 as a syntype by Stejneger and Barbour, 1917, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept.: 18, citing in error Fowler, 1907, Annu. Rep. N.J. State Mus. for 1906: 65, is erroneous; Dunn, 1926, Salamanders Fam. Plethodontidae: 297, discussed the confusion and suggested that no types were ever in existence; see Mittleman, 1966, Cat. Am. Amph. Rept., 45: 1, for discussion. Type locality: Not stated, although presumably the region of Princeton, New Jersey, USA; subsequently designated as "New Jersey (probably Princeton?)" by Fowler, 1907, Annu. Rep. N.J. State Mus. for 1906: 65. Given (in error) as "Western Pennsylvania", USA by Stejneger and Barbour, 1933, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept., Ed. 3: 18.

Salamandra flavissima Harlan, 1826, Am. J. Sci. Arts, 10: 286. Holotype: ANSP, by original designation; not now extant in the ANSP according to Brame, 1972, Checklist Living & Fossil Salamand. World (Unpubl. MS): 166. Type locality: "Pennsylvania . . . beneath the stones in moist places, or on the borders of brooks in shady situations", USA; restricted to "vicinity of Philadelphia", USA by Schmidt, 1953, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept., Ed. 6: 52. This restriction considered invalid by Fouquette and Dubois, 2014, Checklist N.A. Amph. Rept.: 129. Synonymy (with Spelerpes bis-lineata) by Harlan, 1835, Med. Phys. Res.: 97; with Spelerpes bilineata [sic] by Gray, 1850, Cat. Spec. Amph. Coll. Brit. Mus., Batr. Grad.: 44. Synonymy by Duméril, Bibron, and Duméril, 1854, Erp. Gen., 9: 91; Dunn, 1926, Salamanders Fam. Plethodontidae: 297.

Spelerpes bis-lineataHarlan, 1835, Med. Phys. Res.: 97.

Pseudotriton bilineataTschudi, 1838, Classif. Batr.: 60. Incorrect subsequent spelling.

Salamandra bilineataHolbrook, 1839 "1838", N. Am. Herpetol., Vers. 2, 2: 127 (pl. xxix in text, 30 on plate). Incorrect subsequent spelling.

Mycetoglossus bilineataBonaparte, 1839, Iconograph. Fauna Ital., 2 (Fasc. 26): [267]. See comment by Fouquette and Dubois, 2014, Checklist N.A. Amph. Rept.: 128. Incorrect subsequent spelling. 

Salamandra Haldemani Holbrook, 1840, N. Am. Herpetol., 4: 125. Holotype: Specimen figured on pl. 28; this reiterated by by Mittleman, 1966, Cat. Am. Amph. Rept., 45: 1. Type locality: "in the states of Pennsylvania, Maryland and Virginia . . . [and] a specimen from the borders of the Susquehanna River, [Pennsylvania]", USA, restricted by Schmidt, 1953, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept., Ed. 6: 52, to "Harrisburg", Pennsylvania, USA. This restriction regarded as invalid by Fouquette and Dubois, 2014, Checklist N.A. Amph. Rept.: 129. Synonymy by Cope, 1889, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 34: 166; and Dunn, 1926, Salamanders Fam. Plethodontidae: 304. Fowler, 1906, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 58: 357, regarded it to be a synonym of Desmognathus fuscus.

Spelerpes bilineataBaird, 1850 "1849", J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, Ser. 2, 1: 287; Gray, 1850, Cat. Spec. Amph. Coll. Brit. Mus., Batr. Grad.: 38. Incorrect subsequent spelling. 

Ambystoma ? haldemaniGray, 1850, Cat. Spec. Amph. Coll. Brit. Mus., Batr. Grad.: 38.

Bolitoglossa bilineataDuméril, Bibron, and Duméril, 1854, Erp. Gen., 9: 91. Incorrect subsequent spelling. 

Salamandra bitaeniata Duméril, Bibron, and Duméril, 1854, Erp. Gen., 9: 63. Nomen nudum attributed to Valenciennes and provided in synonymy of Salamandra bislineata Green. Holotype: None designated; fixed by Mittleman, 1966, Cat. Am. Amph. Rept., 45: 1-4, as animal appearing in figure 5, Vélin 88 MNHNP, Paris (Duméril, Bibron, and Duméril, 1854, Erp. Gen., 9: 93). Type locality: Not designated. Synonymy by Duméril, Bibron, and Duméril, 1854, Erp. Gen., 9: 63; Dunn, 1926, Salamanders Fam. Plethodontidae: 297.

Salamandra dorsata Duméril, Bibron, and Duméril, 1854, Erp. Gen., 9: 93. Nomen nudum attributed to Valenciennes and provided as a synonym of Salamandra bislineata Green. Holotype: Not designated; fixed by Mittleman, 1966, Cat. Am. Amph. Rept., 45: 1-4, as animal appearing in figure 1, Vélin 88 du MNHNP, Paris (Duméril, Bibron, and Duméril, 1854, Erp. Gén. 9: 93). Type locality: not stated; restricted to "Harrisburg, Pennsylvania", USA by Schmidt, 1953, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept., Ed. 6: 52. This restriction regarded as invalid by Fouquette and Dubois, 2014, Checklist N.A. Amph. Rept.: 129. Synonymy by Dunn, 1926, Salamanders Fam. Plethodontidae: 297.

Spelerpes (Cylindrosoma) bilineataHallowell, 1856, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 8: 101. Incorrect subsequent spelling. 

Pseudotriton bilineatusJan, 1857, Cenni Mus. Civ. Milano: 55. Incorrect subsequent spelling. 

Spelerpes haldemaniHallowell, 1858, J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, Ser. 2, 3: 347.

Desmognathus haldemaniCope, 1859, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 11: 124.

Spelerpes bilineatusVerrill, 1863, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., 9: 199; Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Grad. Batr. Apoda Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 66. Incorrect subsequent spelling. 

Desmognathus haldemanniStrauch, 1870, Mem. Acad. Imp. Sci. St. Petersbourg, Ser. 7, 16 (4): 61. Incorrect subsequent spelling and likely based on misidentified Desmognathus ochrophaeus ; by implication of Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Grad. Batr. Apoda Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 77). Incorrect subsequent spelling. 

Geotriton bilineataGarman, 1884, Bull. Essex Inst., 16: 39. Incorrect subsequent spelling. 

Spelerpes bilineatus borealis Baird In Cope, 1889, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 34: 165. Syntypes: USNM 4735 (11 specimens, 9 adults and 2 larvae) according to Cochran, 1961, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 220: 25; Dunn, 1926, Salamanders Fam. Plethodontidae: 304, noted only 9 specimens. Type locality: "Lake Oquassa" (= Kennebago Lake, near Oquossoc, Franklin County, Maine, USA). Synonymy with Eurycea bislineata bislineata by Dunn, 1926, Salamanders Fam. Plethodontidae: 295.

Spelerpes bislineatusHay, 1892, Annu. Rep. Dept. Geol. Nat. Res. Indiana for 1891: 448.

Eurycea bislineataStejneger and Barbour, 1917, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept.: 18.

Eurycea bislineata bislineataDunn, 1920, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, 33: 134.

Eurycea montana flavissimaLöding, 1922, Mus. Pap. Alabama Mus. Nat. Hist., 5: 14.

Eurycea bislineata major Trapido and Clausen, 1938, Copeia, 1938: 118. Holotype: USNM 104239, by original designation. Type locality: "under limestone slabs along Ouiatchouan River, Val Jalbert, Lake St. John Co[unty]., Quebec", Canada. Synonymy with Eurycea bislineata bislineata by Mittleman, 1949, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, 62: 89-96.

Eurycea bislineata rivicola Mittleman, 1949, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, 62: 93. Holotype: USNM 129397, by original designation. Type locality: "Echo Canyon, McCormick's Creek State Park, Owen County, Indiana", USA. Distinction from Eurycea bislineata bislineata rejected by Sever, 1972, Herpetologica, 28: 314-324.

Eurycea (Eurycea) bislineataRaffaëlli, 2007, Les Urodèles du Monde: 185; Fouquette and Dubois, 2014, Checklist N.A. Amph. Rept.: 128.

Eurycea (Manculus) bislineataDubois and Raffaëlli, 2012, Alytes, 28: 143.

English Names

Striped-back Salamander (Salamandra bislineata: De Kay, 1842, Zool. New York, 1: 79; Hallowell, 1858, J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, Ser. 2, 3: 346 [as Spelerpes bi-lineata]).

Striped-backed Salamander (Eurycea bislineata: Verrill, 1863, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., 9: 199; Britcher, 1903, Proc. Onondaga Acad. Sci., Syracuse, 1: 120).

Yellow Salamander (Salamandra flavissima: Gray, 1831, in Cuvier, Animal Kingdom (Griffith), 9—Appendix: 107).

Green's Triton (Eurycea bislineata: Yarrow, 1882, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 24: 22).

Striped Salamander (Eurycea bislineata: Brimley, 1907, J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc., 23: 151).

Two-lined Salamander (Eurycea bislineata: Green, 1818, J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1: 352; Gray, 1831, in Cuvier, Animal Kingdom (Griffith), 9—Appendix: 107; Jordan, 1878, Man. Vert. North. U.S., Ed. 2: 193; Fowler, 1907, Annu. Rep. N.J. State Mus. for 1906: 63; Schmidt, 1953, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept., Ed. 6: 52; Conant, Cagle, Goin, Lowe, Neill, Netting, Schmidt, Shaw, Stebbins, and Bogert, 1956, Copeia, 1956: 174; Collins, Huheey, Knight, and Smith, 1978, Herpetol. Circ., 7: 6).

Two-striped Salamander (Eurycea bislineata: Davis and Rice, 1883, Bull. Chicago Acad. Sci., 1: 27; Rhoads, 1895, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 47: 401).

Two-lined Triton (Spelerpes bislineatus: Hay, 1892, Annu. Rep. Dept. Geol. Nat. Res. Indiana for 1891: 448).

Northern Two-lined Salamander (Eurycea bislineata: Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 31; Collins, 1997, Herpetol. Circ., 25: 7; Crother, Boundy, Campbell, de Queiroz, Frost, Highton, Iverson, Meylan, Reeder, Seidel, Sites, Taggart, Tilley, and Wake, 2001 "2000", Herpetol. Circ., 29: 22; Tilley, Highton, and Wake, 2012, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 39: 17; Collins and Taggart, 2009, Standard Common Curr. Sci. Names N. Am. Amph. Turtles Rept. Crocodil., ed. 6: 12; Tilley, Highton, and Wake, 2012, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 39: 27; Powell, Conant, and Collins, 2016, Field Guide Rept. Amph. E. North Am., 4th ed.: 53; Highton, Bonett, and Jockusch, 2017, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 43: 27).

Northern Two-lined Salamander (Eurycea bislineata bislineata [now coextensive with Eurycea bislineata]: Bishop, 1943, Handb. Salamanders: 404; Schmidt, 1953, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept., Ed. 6: 52; Conant, Cagle, Goin, Lowe, Neill, Netting, Schmidt, Shaw, Stebbins, and Bogert, 1956, Copeia, 1956: 174; Collins, Huheey, Knight, and Smith, 1978, Herpetol. Circ., 7: 6).

Greater Two-lined Salamander (Eurycea bislineata major [no longer recognized]: Bishop, 1943, Handb. Salamanders: 411).

Midwest Two-lined Salamander (Eurycea bislineata rivicola [no longer recognized]: Schmidt, 1953, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept., Ed. 6: 52; Conant, Cagle, Goin, Lowe, Neill, Netting, Schmidt, Shaw, Stebbins, and Bogert, 1956, Copeia, 1956: 174).

Distribution

Eastern North America from the St. Lawrence River in Canada and northeastern Ohio to northern Virginia, USA.

Comment

See accounts by Petranka, 1998, Salamand. U.S. Canada: 241–248 (in the sense of including Eurycea cirrigera and Eurycea wilderae as subspecies), and Sever, 1999, Cat. Am. Amph. Rept., 683: 1–5. See comments under Eurycea aquatica, Eurycea cirrigera, and Eurycea wilderae. See Jacobs, 1987, Herpetologica, 43: 423–446, for allozymic evidence of distinctiveness, and restatement of the species' distribution. Jacobs separated the then current single taxon into three, but noted that as many as 20 might exist; he recommended further study. See also Sever, 1989, Bull. Chicago Herpetol. Soc., 24: 70–74. Kozak and Montanucci, 2001, Copeia, 2001: 25–34, documented on the basis of allozyme variation across the contact zone with Eurycea wilderae that these were distinct species. Kozak, Blaine, and Larson, 2006, Mol. Ecol., 15: 191–207, presented mtDNA evidence of multiple species existing under this name. Soderberg, Yoder, and Szuch, 2009, Herpetol. Rev., 40: 106, provided the first record for Michigan. Weller and Cebek, 1991, Herpetol. Rev., 22: 23–24, provided a number of records from Quebec, Canada. Sever, 2005, in Lannoo (ed.), Amph. Declines: 738–739, provided a detailed account that summarized the literature.  Bonett, Steffen, Lambert, Wiens, and Chippindale, 2014 "2013", Evolution, 68: 466–482, implied via their tree that this species is the sister of an unnamed species currently masquerading as Eurycea cirrigera.  Raffaëlli, 2013, Urodeles du Monde, 2nd ed.: 245, provided a brief account, photograph, and map. Altig and McDiarmid, 2015, Handb. Larval Amph. US and Canada: 108–109, provided an account of larval morphology and biology.

External links:

Please note: these links will take you to external websites not affiliated with the American Museum of Natural History. We are not responsible for their content.