Eurycea Rafinesque, 1822

Class: Amphibia > Order: Caudata > Family: Plethodontidae > Subfamily: Hemidactyliinae > Genus: Eurycea
33 species

Eurycea Rafinesque, 1822, Kentucky Gazette, Lexington, N.S.,, 1: 3. Type species: Eurycea lucifuga Rafinesque, 1822, by monotypy.

Spelerpes Rafinesque, 1832, Atlantic. J. and Friend of Knowledge, Philadelphia, 1: 22. Type species: Eurycea lucifuga Rafinesque, 1822, by monotypy. Synonymy by Dunn, 1926, Salamanders Fam. Plethodontidae: 294.

Cylindrosoma Tschudi, 1838, Classif. Batr.: 58. Type species: Salamandra longicauda Green, 1818, by monotypy. Synonymy with Spelerpes by Baird, 1850 "1849", J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, Ser. 2, 1: 287, with Eurycea by Dunn, 1926, Salamanders Fam. Plethodontidae: 294.

Saurocercus Fitzinger, 1843, Syst. Rept.: 34. Substitute name for Cylindrosoma Tschudi, 1838.

Manculus Cope, 1869, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 21: 95, 101. Type species: Salamandra quadridigitata Holbrook, 1842, by monotypy. Synonymy by Dunn, 1923, Proc. New England Zool. Club, 8: 40; Wake, 1966, Mem. S. California Acad. Sci., 4: 64.

Typhlotriton Stejneger, 1892, Proc. U.S. Natl. Mus., 15: 115. Type species: Typhlotriton spelaeus Stejneger, 1892, by original designation. Synonymy by Bonett and Chippindale, 2004, Mol. Ecol., 13: 1199.

Typhlomolge Stejneger, 1896, Proc. U.S. Natl. Mus., 18: 620. Type species: Typhlomolge rathbuni Stejneger, 1896, by original designation. Synonymy by Mitchell and Reddell, 1965, Texas J. Sci., 17: 23; Mitchell and Smith, 1972, Texas J. Sci., 23: 343; Petranka, 1998, Salamand. U.S. Canada: 273; and Chippindale, Price, Wiens, and Hillis, 2000, Herpetol. Monogr., 14: 1.

Haideotriton Carr, 1939, Occas. Pap. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., 8: 334. Type species: Haideotriton wallacei Carr, 1939, by original designation. Synonymy by Dubois, 2005, Alytes, 23: 20; Frost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 359. Taxonomy presented by Vieites, Min, and Wake, 2007, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 104: 19903–19907 (supplemental data), implies that Haideotriton is a synonym.

Paedomolge Hillis, Chamberlain, Wilcox, and Chippindale, 2001, Herpetologica, 57: 277. Type species: Eurycea tonkawae Chippindale, Price, Wiens, and Hillis, 2000, by original designation. Coined as a subgenus ("section") of EuryceaDubois, 2007, Cladistics, 23: 395, noted that multiple, nested names below genus and above species could not function simultaneously and validly under the Code. See also Dubois and Raffaëlli, 2012, Alytes, 28: 98–99, who treated this name as valid and a subgeneric name.

Septentriomolge Hillis, Chamberlain, Wilcox, and Chippindale, 2001, Herpetologica, 57: 277. Type species: Eurycea chisholmensis Chippindale, Price, Wiens, and Hillis, 2000, by original designation. Coined as a subgenus of Eurycea and a subtaxon of PaedomolgeDubois, 2007, Cladistics, 23: 395, noted that multiple, nested names below genus and above species could not function simultaneously and validly under the Code. See also Dubois and Raffaëlli, 2012, Alytes, 28: 98–99, who treated this name as valid and a subgeneric name.

Notiomolge Hillis, Chamberlain, Wilcox, and Chippindale, 2001, Herpetologica, 57: 277. Type species: Eurycea neotenes Bishop and Wright, 1937, by original designation. Coined as a subgenus ("division") of Eurycea and subtaxon of PaedomolgeDubois, 2007, Cladistics, 23: 395, noted that multiple, nested names below genus and above species could not function simultaneously and validly under the Code. See also Dubois and Raffaëlli, 2012, Alytes, 28: 98–99, who treated this name as valid and a subgeneric name.

Blepsimolge Hillis, Chamberlain, Wilcox, and Chippindale, 2001, Herpetologica, 57: 277. Type species: Eurycea nana Bishop, 1941, by original designation. Coined as a subgenus of Eurycea and subtaxon of Notiomolge. Dubois, 2007, Cladistics, 23: 395, noted that multiple, nested names below genus and above species could not function simultaneously and validly under the Code. See also Dubois and Raffaëlli, 2012, Alytes, 28: 98–99, who treated this name as valid and a subgeneric name.

English Names

Brook Salamanders (Conant, Cagle, Goin, Lowe, Neill, Netting, Schmidt, Shaw, Stebbins, and Bogert, 1956, Copeia, 1956: 174; Collins, Huheey, Knight, and Smith, 1978, Herpetol. Circ., 7: 6; Collins, 1997, Herpetol. Circ., 25: 7; Crother, Boundy, Campbell, de Queiroz, Frost, Highton, Iverson, Meylan, Reeder, Seidel, Sites, Taggart, Tilley, and Wake, 2001 "2000", Herpetol. Circ., 29: 22; Tilley, Highton, and Wake, 2012, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 39: 17; Tilley, Highton, and Wake, 2012, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 39: 27; Powell, Conant, and Collins, 2016, Field Guide Rept. Amph. E. North Am., 4th ed.: 53; Highton, Bonett, and Jockusch, 2017, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 43: 27).

American Brook Salamanders (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 31).

Georgia Blind Salamanders (Haideotriton [no longer recognized]: Conant, Cagle, Goin, Lowe, Neill, Netting, Schmidt, Shaw, Stebbins, and Bogert, 1956, Copeia, 1956: 174; Collins, Huheey, Knight, and Smith, 1978, Herpetol. Circ., 7: 7; Crother, Boundy, Campbell, de Queiroz, Frost, Highton, Iverson, Meylan, Reeder, Seidel, Sites, Taggart, Tilley, and Wake, 2001 "2000", Herpetol. Circ., 29: 24; Tilley, Highton, and Wake, 2012, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 39: 28).

Blind Salamanders (Haideotriton [no longer recognized]: Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 31; Collins, 1997, Herpetol. Circ., 25: 7).

Distribution

Eastern North America (USA and southeastern Canada).

Comment

See genus and species accounts by Petranka, 1998, Salamand. U.S. Canada: 241–279 (and page 307–309 as Typhlotriton). Chippindale, Price, Wiens, and Hillis, 2000, Herpetol. Monogr., 14: 1–80, reviewed the systematics of the central Texas populations. In the tribe Spelerpini of Vieites, Román, Wake, and Wake, 2011, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 59: 633. Pyron and Wiens, 2011, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 61: 543–583, in their study of Genbank sequences, found in their optimal tree that Eurycea is paraphyletic with respect to Haideotriton, but explicitly retained both genera. Powell, Collins, and Hooper, 2011, Key Herpetofauna U.S. & Canada, 2nd Ed.: 23–26, provided a key to the species, including former Haideotriton.Lamb and Beamer, 2012, PLoS One, 7: e37544 (1–8), reported on cryptic species within nominal Eurycea quadridigitata complex, suggesting that the Edwards Plateau complex of neotenic species render nominal Eurycea quadridigitata paraphyletic. Hillis, Chamberlain, Wilcox, and Chippindale, 2001, Herpetologica, 57: 266–280, presented a classification of Eurycea that claimed to be seamlessly valid under both the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (1999) and the Phylocode. The belief was refuted by  Dubois, 2007, Cladistics, 23: 395, and Dubois and Raffaëlli, 2012, Alytes, 28: 98–99. Dubois and Raffaëlli, 2012, Alytes, 28: 77–161, provided a subgeneric classification lacking any obvious phylogenetic justification. Fouquette and Dubois, 2014, Checklist N.A. Amph. Rept.: 126, modified the subgeneric classification of Eurycea to comply with the tree topology provided by Bonett, Steffen, Lambert, Wiens, and Chippindale, 2014 "2013", Evolution, 68: 466–482, of Eurycea and near relatives, rendering a topology of the three (not 4 as stated by Fouquette and Dubois, 2014, Checklist N.A. Amph. Rept.: 126–127) subgenera as Typhlotriton + (Typhlomolge + Eurycea). Altig and McDiarmid, 2015, Handb. Larval Amph. US and Canada, provided an account of larval morphology. 

Contained taxa (33 sp.):

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