Bolitoglossa altamazonica (Cope, 1874)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Caudata > Family: Plethodontidae > Subfamily: Hemidactyliinae > Genus: Bolitoglossa > Species: Bolitoglossa altamazonica

Oedipus altamazonicus Cope, 1874, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 26: 120. Syntypes: ANSP or USNM, now lost or destroyed, according to Brame and Wake, 1963, Contrib. Sci. Nat. Hist. Mus. Los Angeles Co., 69: 13. Type locality: "Nauta", Departamento de Loreto, Peru.

Geotriton altamazonicusSmith, 1877, Tailed Amph.: 77.

Spelerpes altamazonicusBoulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Grad. Batr. Apoda Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 71.

Oedipus altamazonicusDunn, 1926, Salamanders Fam. Plethodontidae: 396.

Bolitoglossa altamazonicaTaylor, 1944, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull., 30: 219; Ginés, 1959, Mem. Soc. Cienc. Nat. La Salle, 19: 100.

Bolitoglossa (Eladinea) altamazonicaParra-Olea, García-París, and Wake, 2004, Biol. J. Linn. Soc., 81: 336.

English Names

Nauta Mushroomtongue Salamander (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 29).

Distribution

Clearly a species complex (see comment), with the nominal species likely restricted to Peru in the region of the type locality, although the complex ranges from the eastern and lower slopes of the Andes from Venezuela and Colombia to Bolivia and east into adjacent Brazil. 

Comment

In the Bolitoglossa (Eladinea) adspersa group of Parra-Olea, García-París, and Wake, 2004, Biol. J. Linn. Soc., 81: 336; formerly in the Bolitoglossa altamazonica group of Wake and Lynch, 1976, Sci. Bull. Nat. Hist. Mus. Los Angeles Co., 25: 1-65. See account by Brame and Wake, 1963, Contrib. Sci. Nat. Hist. Mus. Los Angeles Co., 69: 13. Crump, 1978 "1977", Herpetologica, 33: 415-426, discussed diagnostic features and habitat preference. De la Riva, Köhler, Lötters, and Reichle, 2000, Rev. Esp. Herpetol., 14: 52, noted that this species is likely a composite of several species (in part amerliorated by the removal of Bolitoglossa paraensis from synonymy by Parra-Olea, García-París, and Wake, 2004, Biol. J. Linn. Soc., 81: 336). Schargel and Rivas-Fuenmayor, 2003, Herpetozoa, Wien, 16: 94-96, provided the Venezuelan record from the state of Táchira. Lynch, 2006, Caldasia, 28: 136, noted that a previous record from the Magdalena Valley in Colombia was based on a misidentification. Köhler and Lötters, 1999, Bonn. Zool. Beitr., 48: 269, discussed briefly the known range in Bolivia. García-París, Parra-Olea, and Wake, 2008, Herpetol. J., 18: 23-31, reported on the phylogenetics of the Bolitoglossa (Eladinea) subpalmata group. Acosta-Galvis and Gutiérrez-Lamus, 2012, Pap. Avulsos Zool., São Paulo, 52: 212, suggested that records attributed to this species form the Magdalena Valley of Colombia may actually be Bolitoglossa lozanoi. Brcko, Hoogmoed, and Neckel-Oliveira, 2013, Zootaxa, 3686: 423-425, provided an account that compared it with closely related species in Brazil, and provided a range map. Elmer, Bonett, Wake, and Lougheed, 2013, BMC Evol. Biol., 13(59): 1–16, reported on cryptic diversity within the nominal species and biogeography and suggested that minimally those populations of nominal Bolitoglossa peruviana found in the Orellana and Pastaza provinces, Ecuador, are more closely related to Bolitoglossa altamazonica, although likely reflecting that Bolitoglossa altamazonica as currently understood is a species complex and that only populations from the vicinity of the type locality (Nauta, Lorto, Peru) can confidently be considered to be Bolitoglossa altamazonica sensu stricto. Raffaëlli, 2013, Urodeles du Monde, 2nd ed.: 338, provided a brief account, photograph, and range map and discussed the taxonomic implications of the results of Elmer et al. (2013) in some detail.  Köhler, John, and Böhme, 2006, Salamandra, 42: 21–27, provided a record for the Yungas de La Paz region of La Paz Province, Bolivia, possibly referrable to this taxon, although they discussed the problematic nature of the systematics of this complex. 

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