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Hemidactyliinae Hallowell, 1856

Class: Amphibia > Order: Caudata > Family: Plethodontidae > Subfamily: Hemidactyliinae
345 species

Mycetoglossina Bonaparte, 1850, Conspect. Syst. Herpetol. Amph.: 1 p. Type genus: Mycetoglossus Bonaparte, 1839. Placed on the Official Index of Rejected and Invalid family-group names by Opinion 1873, Anonymous, 1997, Bull. Zool. Nomencl., 54: 140-141.

Oedipina Gray, 1850, Cat. Spec. Amph. Coll. Brit. Mus., Batr. Grad.: 42. Type genus: Oedipus Tschudi, 1838.

Hemidactylidae Hallowell, 1856, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 8: 11. Type Genus: Hemidactylium Tschudi, 1838. Placed on the Official List of Family-group Names in Zoology by Opinion 1873, Anonymous, 1997, Bull. Zool. Nomencl., 54: 140-141. Selected to have priority over Bolitoglossidae Hallowell, 1856, by Dubois, 2005, Alytes, 23: 19.

Bolitoglossidae Hallowell, 1856, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 8: 11. Type Genus: Bolitoglossa Duméril, Bibron, and Duméril, 1854. Synonymy with Plethodontidae by Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Grad. Batr. Apoda Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 51.

Spelerpinae Cope, 1859, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 11: 123. Type genus: Spelerpes Rafinesque, 1832.

SpelerpeaeCope, 1859, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 11: 124. Implied tribe.

Thoriidae Cope, 1869, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 21: 110. Type Genus: Thorius Cope, 1869. Synonymy with Plethodontidae by Dunn, 1926, Salamanders Fam. Plethodontidae: 58.

ThoriinaeHay, 1892, Annu. Rep. Dept. Geol. Nat. Res. Indiana for 1891: 439.

SpelerpsidiAcloque, 1900, Fauna de France, 1: 491.

Typhlomolgidae Stejneger and Barbour, 1917, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept.: 2. Type genus: Typhlomolge Stejneger, 1896.

HemidactyliiniWake, 1966, Mem. S. California Acad. Sci., 4: 50.

BolitoglossiniWake, 1966, Mem. S. California Acad. Sci., 4: 52.

HemidactyliinaeChippindale, Bonett, Baldwin, and Wiens, 2004, Evolution, 58: 2819. Macey, 2005, Cladistics, 21: 201.

BolitoglossinaeChippindale, Bonett, Baldwin, and Wiens, 2004, Evolution, 58: 2809-2822. Macey, 2005, Cladistics, 21: 194-202.

SpelerpiniDubois, 2005, Alytes, 23: 20. Epifamily.

BatrachosepsiniVieites, Román, Wake, and Wake, 2011, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 59: 633. Nomen nudum.

BolitoglossiniVieites, Román, Wake, and Wake, 2011, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 59: 633.

HemidactyliiniVieites, Román, Wake, and Wake, 2011, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 59: 633.

SpelerpiniVieites, Román, Wake, and Wake, 2011, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 59: 633. Tribe.

Batrachosepini Wake, 2012, Zootaxa, 3484: 76. Type genus: Batrachoseps Bonaparte, 1839, by original designation. Coined as a tribe.

Batrachosepini Dubois and Raffaëlli, 2012, Alytes, 28: 115. Type genus: Batrachoseps Bonaparte, 1839, by original designation. Coined as a tribe. Synonymy with Batrachosepsini Wake, 2012, by Dubois, 2012, Zootaxa, 3563: 66.

BatrachosepinaDubois and Raffaëlli, 2012, Alytes, 28: 77-161. Explicit subtribe.

BatrachosepinaDubois and Raffaëlli, 2012, Alytes, 28: 77-161. Explicit subtribe.

Pseudotritonina Dubois and Raffaëlli, 2012, Alytes, 28: 77-161. Explicit subtribe.

EnsatiniDubois and Raffaëlli, 2012, Alytes, 28: 77-161. Explicit tribe.

Karseniini Dubois and Raffaëlli, 2012, Alytes, 28: 77-161. Type genus: Karsenia Min, Yang, Bonett, Vieites, Brandon, and Wake, 2005. Explicit tribe.

Hydromantina Dubois and Raffaëlli, 2012, Alytes, 28: 77-161. Type genus: Hydromantes Gistel, 1848.

KarseniinaDubois and Raffaëlli, 2012, Alytes, 28: 77-161. Explicit subtribe.

English Names

None noted.

Distribution

Fairly continuous from extreme southern Maine (USA), extreme southern Quebec (Canada), extreme southern Ontario (Canada), and northern Wisconsin (USA), southward to the Fall Line in North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, and Tennessee (USA); presumably disjunct populations occur in Nova Scotia (Canada), Mississippi, Arkansas and Oklahoma, Louisiana, Georgia, and northern Florida (USA); Western and southern North America south to Brazil.

Comment

See comment under Plethodontidae for discussion of taxonomic history. Superseded, but still useful literature on the phylogeny of the bolitoglossine group is that by Elias and Wake, 1983, in Rhodin and Miyata (eds.), Adv. Herpetol. Evol. Biol.: 1-12, and Wake and Elias, 1983, Contrib. Sci. Nat. Hist. Mus. Los Angeles Co., 345: 1-19. Sever, Heinz, Lempart, and Taghon, 1990, Herpetologica, 46: 431-446, discussed cloacal morphology with reference to bolitoglossine phylogenetics. Chippindale, Bonett, Baldwin, and Wiens, 2004, Evolution, 58: 2809-2822, considered Bolitoglossinae to be the sister taxon of Spelerpinae, while Macey, 2005, Cladistics, 21: 194-202, regarded Bolitoglossinae as the sister taxon of all plethodontids, excluding Hemidactyliinae. Wiens, Parra-Olea, García-París, and Wake, 2007, Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. B, Biol. Sci., 274: 918-928, reported on the phylogenetics of bolitoglossines, assuming Batrachoseps as the root and excluding South American Bolitoglossa. Vieites, Min, and Wake, 2007, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 104: 19903-19907, on the basis of nuDNA suggested that the bolitoglossines are the sister taxon of Spelerpinae and, together with Hemidactyliinae of Macey (2005) they included within an enlarged Hemidactyliinae. Chen, Wang, Liu, Xie, and Jiang, 2011, Curr. Zool., Chengdu, 57: 785-805, on the basis of 11 protein-coding mtDNA genes, suggested that Hemidactyliinae sensu Vieites et al., 2007, 2011, is paraphyletic with respect to Plethodontinae. Köhler, 2011, Amph. Cent. Am.: 36–92, provided a key to and very brief characterizations the species of Central America. 

Contained taxa (345 sp.):

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