Salamandrella tridactyla (Nikolskii, 1905)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Caudata > Family: Hynobiidae > Subfamily: Hynobiinae > Genus: Salamandrella > Species: Salamandrella tridactyla

Salamandrella keyserlingii var. tridactyla Nikolskii, 1905, Herpetol. Rossica: 491. Holotype: ZISP 2279, according to Borkin, 1994, in Vorobyeva and Darevsky (eds.), Siberskii uglozub (Salamandrella keyserlingii Dybowski, 1870): 34. Type locality: "Wladiwostok" (= Vladivostok), Russia. Given as Orlinoe Gnezdo Hill, Vladivostok City, Russia, according to Kuzmin, 2008, Izvest. Samarsk. Nauchn. Centra Ross. Akad. Nauk, 10: 447–452. Placed by DRF in this synonymy provisionally on the basis of discussion of evidence provided by Berman, Derenko, Malyarchuk, Grzybowski, Kryukov, and Miscicka-Sliwka, 2005, Dokl. Akad. Nauk, 403: 427–429 (Russian version) and Berman, Derenko, Malyarchuk, Grzybowski, Kryukov, and Miscicka-Sliwka, 2005, Dokl. Biol. Sci., 403: 275–278 (English version), and Matsui, Yoshikawa, Tominaga, Sato, Takenaka, Tanabe, Nishikawa, and Nakabayashi, 2008, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 48: 84–93.

Salamandrella keyserlingii var. Kalinowskiana Dybowski, 1928, Bull. Internatl. Acad. Polon. Sci. Lettr. Class. Sci. Math. Nat. Ser. B, Sci. Nat., 1927: 1080. Type(s): Not stated or known to exist. Type locality: "Südussurilande" = South Ussuriland, Russia. Status as distinct from Salamandrella keyserlingii rejected by Chang, 1936, Contr. Etude Morphol. Biol. Syst. Amph. Urodeles Chine: 69. Placed by DRF in this synonymy provisionally on the basis of discussion of evidence provided by Berman, Derenko, Malyarchuk, Grzybowski, Kryukov, and Miscicka-Sliwka, 2005, Dokl. Akad. Nauk, 403: 427–429 (Russian version) and Berman, Derenko, Malyarchuk, Grzybowski, Kryukov, and Miscicka-Sliwka, 2005, Dokl. Biol. Sci., 403: 275–278 (English version), and Matsui, Yoshikawa, Tominaga, Sato, Takenaka, Tanabe, Nishikawa, and Nakabayashi, 2008, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 48: 84–93.

Salamandrella keyserlingii tridactylaKuzmin, 2008, Izvest. Samarsk. Nauchn. Centra Ross. Akad. Nauk, 10: 447–452.

Salamandrella tridactyla — Malyarchuk, Derenko, Berman, Perkova, Grzybowski, Lejrikh, and Bulakhova, 2010, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 56: 562–571, by implication. 

English Names

Far East Salamander (Fei and Ye, 2016, Amph. China, 1: 186). 

Distribution

Primorie and the Ussuri Basin of Far East Russia; likely also in adjacent northeastern North Korea; Heilonjiang (counties of Aihui, Beian, Daxinganling, Harbin, Hulin, Huma, Mao'ershan, Mohe, Muling, and Wudalianchi), Neimongol (Genhe and Hulunbuirmeng), Jilin (Baihe, Changehun, Dunhua, Jiaohe, Songhuahu, and Wangqing), Liaoning (Changtu and Kangping), questionably extending into Henan (Shangcheng)

Comment

Berman, Derenko, Malyarchuk, Grzybowski, Kryukov, and Miscicka-Sliwka, 2005, Dokl. Akad. Nauk, 403: 427-429 (Russian version) and Berman, Derenko, Malyarchuk, Grzybowski, Kryukov, and Miscicka-Sliwka, 2005, Dokl. Biol. Sci., 403: 275-278 (English version), removed Isodactylium schrenckii , thought to apply to the Primorie species, from the synonymy of Salamandrella keyserlingii, where it had been named as a junior synonym and also placed by Günther, 1871, Zool. Rec., 7: 80; Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Grad. Batr. Apoda Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 34. Matsui, Yoshikawa, Tominaga, Sato, Takenaka, Tanabe, Nishikawa, and Nakabayashi, 2008, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 48: 84-93, studied the molecular systematics and found Salamandrella tridactyla (as Salamandrella schrenckii) to be restricted to Far East Russia, with sampled populations in northeastern China to be Salamandrella keyserlingii. The status of the various synonyms of Salamandrella keyserlingii in Manchuria require evaluation as to which species they apply (DRF). Raffaëlli, 2007, Les Urodèles du Monde: 56, provided a brief account. Kuzmin, 2008, Izvest. Samarsk. Nauchn. Centra Ross. Akad. Nauk, 10: 447-452, discussed the nomenclatural history of the names and concluded that Isodactylium schrenckii is unavailable due to being named as a junior synonym of Salamandrella keyserlingii and that the oldest name for the Far East/Primorie taxon is Salamandrella keyserlingii tridactyla. Poyarkov and Kuzmin, 2008, Russ. J. Genet., 44: 948-958, applied the Biological Species Concept in considering these two taxa to be subspecies, although no evidence of gene flow between the two populations is known, making species recognition the most conservative position to take for the moment. Malyarchuk, Derenko, Berman, Perkova, Grzybowski, Lejrikh, and Bulakhova, 2010, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 56: 562-571, considered Salamandrella tridactyla (in error as Salamandrella schrenckii) as distinct species.  Raffaëlli, 2013, Urodeles du Monde, 2nd ed.: 57–58 , provided a brief account, photo, and map. See account, photograph, and map by Fei and Ye, 2016, Amph. China, 1: 187–190.

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