Cryptobranchus alleganiensis (Sonnini de Manoncourt and Latreille, 1801)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Caudata > Family: Cryptobranchidae > Genus: Cryptobranchus > Species: Cryptobranchus alleganiensis

Salamandra alleganiensis Sonnini de Manoncourt and Latreille, 1801 "An. X", Hist. Nat. Rept., 4: 406. Holotype: animal figured in Sonnini de Manoncourt and Latreille, 1801 "An. X", Hist. Nat. Rept., 2: figure preceding p. 253, of a specimen in the MNHNP, now lost. Type locality: "Virginie sur les montagnes Alléganis"; corrected to "vicinity of Davenport's Plantation", North Toe River, 1 mile south of the mouth of the Bushy Creek and 4 miles east-northeast of the Spruce Pine Creek, Mitchell County, North Carolina", USA, by Harper, 1940, Am. Midl. Nat., 23: 721. See Dundee, 1971, Cat. Am. Amph. Rept., 101: 3, for discussion of the type locality. See Fouquette and Dubois, 2014, Checklist N.A. Amph. Rept.: 49, for discussion of the original description, the publication date of which they give as 1802, although Harper, 1940, Am. Midl. Nat., 23: 692–723, suggests that it was published in 1801. 

Triton alleghaniensis Daudin, 1803 "An. XI", Hist. Nat. Gen. Part. Rept., 8: 231. Incorrect subsequent spelling. 

Salamandra horrida Barton, 1808, Some Account of Siren lacertina: 8. Type(s): Not stated or known to exist although the animal figured by Barton, 1814 "1812", Mem. Animal Class Rept. Amph.: 15, is presumably of the type. Type locality: "in the great lakes of our country, in the waters of the Ohio, and Susquehanna [rivers], and other parts of the United States", USA; restricted to the "Muskingum River, Ohio", USA, by Schmidt, 1953, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept., Ed. 6: 11. This restriction deemed invalid by Fouquette and Dubois, 2014, Checklist N.A. Amph. Rept.: 48, as not being based on a neotype designation or evidence. Synonymy by Harlan, 1827, J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 5: 320.

Salamandra gigantea Barton, 1808, Some Account of Siren lacertina: 8. Substitute name for Salamandra horrida Barton, 1808. Synonymy by Harlan, 1825, Ann. Lyc. Nat. Hist. New York, 1: 271; Harlan, 1827, J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 5: 320; Harlan, 1835, Med. Phys. Res.: 87.

Salamandra maxima Barton, 1808, Some Account of Siren lacertina: 8. Substitute name for Salamandra horrida Barton, 1808.

Triton alleganiensisOppel, 1811, Ordn. Fam. Gatt. Rept.: 81.

Molge giganteaMerrem, 1820, Tent. Syst. Amph.: 187. Synonymy by Harlan, 1835, Med. Phys. Res.: 87.

Cryptobranchus salamandroides Leuckart, 1821, Isis von Oken, 9: 260. Substitute name for Salamandra gigantea Barton, 1808.

Urotropis mucronata Rafinesque, 1822, Kentucky Gazette, Lexington, N.S.,, 1: 3. Type(s): Not designated or known to exist. Type locality: "the Kentucky river", Kentucky, USA. Synonymy by Brame, 1972, Checklist Living & Fossil Salamand. World (Unpubl. MS): 28.

Protonopsis horrida —Barton In Le Conte, 1824, Ann. Lyc. Nat. Hist. New York, 1: 57; Gray, 1850, Cat. Spec. Amph. Coll. Brit. Mus., Batr. Grad.: 53.

Abranchus alleghaniensisHarlan, 1825, Ann. Lyc. Nat. Hist. New York, 1: 233. Incorrect subsequent spelling of species name.

Menopoma alleghaniensisHarlan, 1825, Ann. Lyc. Nat. Hist. New York, 1: 271. Incorrect subsequent spelling of species name.

Salamandra alleganensis — Gray, 1825, Ann. Philos., London, Ser. 2, 10: 217. Incorrect subsequent spelling of species name. 

Abranchus alleganensis — Gray, 1825, Ann. Philos., London, Ser. 2, 10: 217. Incorrect subsequent spelling of species name. 

Salamandrops giganteusWagler, 1830, Nat. Syst. Amph.: 209; Leunis, 1844, Synops. Drei Naturr., Zool., Ed. 1: 148.

Salamandrops alleghaniensis — Wagler, 1830, Nat. Syst. Amph.: 209. Incorrect subsequent spelling of the species name. 

Abranchus horridaGray, 1831, in Cuvier, Animal Kingdom (Griffith), 9—Appendix: 109.

Eurycea mucronataRafinesque, 1832, Atlantic. J. and Friend of Knowledge, Philadelphia, 1: 121.

Amphiuma (Menopoma) giganteaVan der Hoeven, 1833, Handb. Dierkd., 2: 304, by implication.

Cryptobranchus alleghaniensisVan der Hoeven, 1838, Tijdschr. Natuurl. Geschied., 4: 384; Cope, 1889, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 34: 38. Incorrect subsequent spelling of the species name. 

Menopoma giganteaTschudi, 1838, Classif. Batr.: 96.

Salamandra alleghanensisTschudi, 1838, Classif. Batr.: 96. Incorrect subsequent spelling of species name. 

Cryptobranchus alleghaniensis — Van der Hoeven, 1838, Tijdschr. Natuurl. Geschied., 4: 384.

Menopoma fusca Holbrook, 1842, N. Am. Herpetol., Ed. 2, 5: 99. Types: Specimen figured on pl. 33 of the original publication. Type locality: "waters of French Broad . . . of Ashville, Buncomb county, North Carolina", USA. Synonymy by by Dundee, 1971, Cat. Am. Amph. Rept., 101: 1.

Triton alleghaniensisGray, 1850, Cat. Spec. Amph. Coll. Brit. Mus., Batr. Grad.: 54. Error.

Protonopsis fuscaGray, 1850, Cat. Spec. Amph. Coll. Brit. Mus., Batr. Grad.: 54.

Salamandra alleghaniensisGray, 1850, Cat. Spec. Amph. Coll. Brit. Mus., Batr. Grad.: 53. Incorrect subsequent spelling in synonymy of species name.

Salamandra (Menopoma) giganteaSchlegel, 1858, Handl. Dierkd., 2: 61.

Menopoma alleghaniense Knauer, 1878, Naturgesch. Lurche: 96. Incorrect subsequent spelling. 

Menopoma fuscumYarrow, 1882, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 24: 20.

Menopoma alleghaniense — Davis and Rice, 1883, Bull. Chicago Acad. Sci., 1: 26. Incorrect subsequent spelling of the species name. 

Cryptobranchus alleganiensisGarman, 1884, Bull. Essex Inst., 16: 36, by implication; Fowler and Dunn, 1917, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 69: 8.

Cryptobranchus fuscusGarman, 1884, Bull. Essex Inst., 16: 36, by implication.

Cryptobranchus terassodactylos Wellborn, 1936, Zool. Anz., 114: 63–64. Holotype: ZMB 9639, according to Bauer, Good, and Günther, 1993, Mitt. Zool. Mus. Berlin, 69: 290. Type locality: "Nordamerika". Restricted to "Allegheny Mountain in Virginia", USA by Schmidt, 1953, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept., Ed. 6: 11. Synonymy by Grobman, 1943, Occas. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan, 470: 5.

Cryptobranchus alleganiensisBishop, 1943, Handb. Salamanders: 59.

Cryptobranchus alleganiensis alleganiensisSchmidt, 1953, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept., Ed. 6: 11.

Cryptobranchus bishopi Grobman, 1943, Occas. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan, 470: 6. Holotype: UMMZ 68930, by original designation. Type locality: "Current River at Big Spring Park, Carter County, Missouri", USA. Synonymy by Schmidt, 1953, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept., Ed. 6: 12.

Cryptobranchus alleganiensis bishopi — Schmidt, 1953, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept., Ed. 6: 12; Dundee and Dundee, 1965, Copeia, 1965: 169-170.Cryptobranchus guildayi Holman, 1977, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 46: 157–172/ Holotype: CM 20470, by original designation. Type locality: Cumberland Cave, Allegany County, Maryland, USA. Synonymy by Bredehoeft and Schubert, 2015, J. Herpetol., 49: 157. 

Cryptobranchus bishopi — Collins, 1991, Herpetol. Rev., 22: 43.

English Names

Allegany Hell-bender (Menopoma alleghaniensis: De Kay, 1842, Zool. New York, 1: 89).

Alleghany Hell-bender (Menopoma allegheniense: Yarrow, 1876, List Skeletons and Crania: 40).

Large Hellbender (Abranchus horrida: Gray, 1831, in Cuvier, Animal Kingdom (Griffith), 9—Appendix: 108).

Ground-puppy (Harlan, 1825, Ann. Lyc. Nat. Hist. New York, 1: 271 [as Menopoma alleghaniensis; Wood, 1863, Illust. Nat. Hist., 3: 185 [as Protonopsis horridus]).

Menopome (Protonopsis horrida: Wood, 1863, Illust. Nat. Hist., 3: 185).

Tweeg (Protonopsis horrida: Wood, 1863, Illust. Nat. Hist., 3: 185).

Mud Devil (Protonopsis horrida: Wood, 1863, Illust. Nat. Hist., 3: 185).

Tennessee Hellbender (Menopoma fuscum [no longer recognized]: Yarrow, 1882, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 24: 20).

Brown Hellbender (Cryptobranchus fuscus [no longer recognized]; Rhoads, 1895, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 47: 406).

Giant Salamander (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis: Bishop, 1943, Handb. Salamanders: 59).

Hellbender (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis: Harlan, 1825, Ann. Lyc. Nat. Hist. New York, 1: 271; Cuvier, 1831, Animal Kingdom (M'Murtrie), 2: 88; Jordan, 1878, Man. Vert. North. U.S., Ed. 2: 196; Yarrow, 1882, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 24: 20; Davis and Rice, 1883, Bull. Chicago Acad. Sci., 1: 26; Hay, 1892, Annu. Rep. Dept. Geol. Nat. Res. Indiana for 1891: 423; Rhoads, 1895, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 47: 403; Brimley, 1907, J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc., 23: 151; Bishop, 1943, Handb. Salamanders: 59; Schmidt, 1953, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept., Ed. 6: 11; Conant, Cagle, Goin, Lowe, Neill, Netting, Schmidt, Shaw, Stebbins, and Bogert, 1956, Copeia, 1956: 174; Collins, Huheey, Knight, and Smith, 1978, Herpetol. Circ., 7: 5; Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 28; Collins, 1997, Herpetol. Circ., 25: 6; Crother, Boundy, Campbell, de Queiroz, Frost, Highton, Iverson, Meylan, Reeder, Seidel, Sites, Taggart, Tilley, and Wake, 2001 "2000", Herpetol. Circ., 29: 20; Tilley, Highton, and Wake, 2012, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 39: 15; Collins and Taggart, 2009, Standard Common Curr. Sci. Names N. Am. Amph. Turtles Rept. Crocodil., ed. 6: 10; Tilley, Highton, and Wake, 2012, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 39: 25).

Alleghany Salamander (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis: Hay, 1892, Annu. Rep. Dept. Geol. Nat. Res. Indiana for 1891: 423).

Hellbender (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis alleganiensis: Schmidt, 1953, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept., Ed. 6: 11; Conant, Cagle, Goin, Lowe, Neill, Netting, Schmidt, Shaw, Stebbins, and Bogert, 1956, Copeia, 1956: 174; Conant, 1975, Field Guide Rept. Amph. E. Cent. N. Am., Ed. 2: 240),

Eastern Hellbender (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis alleganiensis: Collins, Huheey, Knight, and Smith, 1978, Herpetol. Circ., 7: 5; Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 28; Crother, Boundy, Campbell, de Queiroz, Frost, Highton, Iverson, Meylan, Reeder, Seidel, Sites, Taggart, Tilley, and Wake, 2001 "2000", Herpetol. Circ., 29: 20; Tilley, Highton, and Wake, 2012, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 39: 15; Collins and Taggart, 2009, Standard Common Curr. Sci. Names N. Am. Amph. Turtles Rept. Crocodil., ed. 6: 10; Tilley, Highton, and Wake, 2012, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 39: 25; Powell, Conant, and Collins, 2016, Field Guide Rept. Amph. E. North Am., 4th ed.: 38; Highton, Bonett, and Jockusch, 2017, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 43: 25).

Eastern Hellbender (Cryptobranchus alleganiensisPowell, Conant, and Collins, 2016, Field Guide Rept. Amph. E. North Am., 4th ed.: 38). 

Ozark Hellbender (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis bishopiBishop, 1943, Handb. Salamanders: 63; Schmidt, 1953, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept., Ed. 6: 11; Conant, Cagle, Goin, Lowe, Neill, Netting, Schmidt, Shaw, Stebbins, and Bogert, 1956, Copeia, 1956: 174; Conant, 1975, Field Guide Rept. Amph. E. Cent. N. Am., Ed. 2: 241; Collins, Huheey, Knight, and Smith, 1978, Herpetol. Circ., 7: 5; Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 28; Crother, Boundy, Campbell, de Queiroz, Frost, Highton, Iverson, Meylan, Reeder, Seidel, Sites, Taggart, Tilley, and Wake, 2001 "2000", Herpetol. Circ., 29: 20; Tilley, Highton, and Wake, 2012, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 39: 15; Collins and Taggart, 2009, Standard Common Curr. Sci. Names N. Am. Amph. Turtles Rept. Crocodil., ed. 6: 10; Tilley, Highton, and Wake, 2012, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 39: 25).

Ozark Hellbender (Cryptobranchus bishopiPowell, Conant, and Collins, 2016, Field Guide Rept. Amph. E. North Am., 4th ed.: 38). 

Distribution

Central and western New York south to northern Maryland and southwestn through Pennsylvania southern Ohio and western Virginia to westernmost South Carolina, northern Alabma, northeastern Mississippi, Tennessee, and Ohio River drainage of southeastern Illinois, southern Indiana, USA; isolated population in the Ozarks of Missouri and adjacent northern Arkansas, USA.

Comment

See accounts (all of which included Cryptobranchus bishopi as a subspecies or in synonymy) by Dundee, 1971, Cat. Am. Amph. Rept., 101: 1–4; Petranka, 1998, Salamand. U.S. Canada: 140–144; Nickerson and Mays, 1972, Publ. Biol. Geol. Milwaukee Public Mus., 1: 1–106, and Phillips and Humphries, 2005, in Lannoo (ed.), Amph. Declines: 648–651 Dubois and Raffaëlli, 2012, Alytes, 28: 77–161, also commented on the systematics of this species. Raffaëlli, 2013, Urodeles du Monde, 2nd ed.: 83–84, provided a brief account, photo, and map. Altig and McDiarmid, 2015, Handb. Larval Amph. US and Canada: 100–101, provided an account of larval morphology. Cryptobranchus bishopi was rsurrected from the synonymy of Cryptobranchus alleganiensis by Collins, 1991, Herpetol. Rev., 22: 43, on the basis of its allopatry and diagnosability. Sabatino and Routman, 2009, Conserv. Genetics, 10: 1235–1246, suggested on the basis of mtDNA  analysis that nominal bishopi is phylogenetically imbedded within alleganiensis and that bishopi forms a paraphyletic grouping, with the North Fork of the White River and the Spring River populations in Missouri, more clearly related to populations of alleganiensis in the northern Ozarks, Ohio, and Tennessee, than to the bishopi population of the Current and Eleven Point River drainages of Missouri.  Crowhurst, Faries, Collantes, Briggler, Koppelman, and Eggert, 2011, Conserv. Genetics, 12: 637–646, reporting on statistical similarity of microstellite DNA across drainages in the Ozarks of Missouri provided a more nuanced view: with Cryptobranchus bishopi populations sharing morphological characters but being composed of two genetically distinctive lineages associated with a) the North Fork and Bryant Creek drainages, and b) Current River and Eleven Point River drainages, with the North Fork and Bryant Creek populations more similar to alleganiensis. Personal comment (DRF): While the two populations of nominal bishopi (of which the Current River populations carries the name bishopi) share a distinctive morphology it seems clear that both nominal bishopi and alleganiensis are, not surprisingly, are both species complexes. A detailed phylogeographic study is required, not just of drainage in Missouri, but throughout the range, to delimit these species, particularly given the continent-wide endangerment of virtually all populations. 

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