Andrias japonicus (Temminck, 1836)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Caudata > Family: Cryptobranchidae > Genus: Andrias > Species: Andrias japonicus

Triton japonicus Temminck, 1836, Coup d'oeil sur la Fauna des Îles de la Sonde et de l'Empire du Japon: xxvi. Syntypes: RMNH and (according to Thireau, 1986, Cat. Types Urodeles Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat., Rev. Crit.: 33) MNHNP 7614; including RMNH 2392, 2394, and 18562, and MNHNP 7614, according to Gassó Miracle, van den Hoek Ostende, and Arntzen, 2007, Zootaxa, 1482: 48; RMNH 2392 designated lectotype by Hoogmoed, 1978, Zool. Meded., Leiden, 53: 102. Type locality: "Japon"; invalidly restricted to "Iga, Honshû", Japan, by Okada, 1934, Copeia, 1934: 16, inasmuch this was not based on evidence. Hoogmoed, 1978, Zool. Meded., Leiden, 53: 102, noted that the data associated with the original specimen(s) are: Sakanost'a, a small village at the foot of the "mont Souzouga yama à 15 Ri environ à l´est de Miyako"  and . . . . The mountains are here called 'Suzuka' and are in the province of Omi, 'on the way from Tsuchiyama to Sakanoshita'. It is not clear which of the specimens of the type series is from that locality, but it seems prudent to take this locality as the type locality."

Megalobatrachus sieboldi Tschudi, 1837, Neues Jahrb. Minerl. Geognos. Geol. Petrfakt.-Kunde, Stuttgart, 5: 547. Syntypes: RMNH 2392, 2394, and 18562, and MNHNP 7614according to Gassó Miracle, van den Hoek Ostende, and Arntzen, 2007, Zootaxa, 1482: 48; RMNH 2392 designated lectotype by Hoogmoed, 1978, Zool. Meded., Leiden, 53: 102. Type locality: Japan. Synonymy by Stejneger, 1907, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 58: 6. Possibly a substitute name rather than a new name. Synonymy (with Seiboldia maxima) by Gray, 1850, Cat. Spec. Amph. Coll. Brit. Mus., Batr. Grad.: 52; (with Megalobatrachus maximus) by Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Grad. Batr. Apoda Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 77.

Salamandra maxima Schlegel In Tschudi, 1837, Neues Jahrb. Minerl. Geognos. Geol. Petrfakt.-Kunde, Stuttgart, 5: 546. Syntypes: MNHNP and RMNH, and presumably animal figured by Temminck and Schlegel, 1838, Fauna Japonica, 3: Pl. 8; including RMNH 2392, 2394, and 18562, and MNHNP 7614, according to Gassó Miracle, van den Hoek Ostende, and Arntzen, 2007, Zootaxa, 1482: 56; RMNH 2392 designated lectotype by Hoogmoed, 1978, Zool. Meded., Leiden, 53: 102. See discussion by Bauer, Good, and Günther, 1993, Mitt. Zool. Mus. Berlin, 69: 291, of the types and type localities. Type localities: "Sakanosta", "monts Suzuga jama" (near Sakanosta), and "mont Okude" according to Temminck and Schlegel, 1838, Fauna Japonica, 3: 134-135. Synonymy by Stejneger, 1907, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 58: 6. Synonymy (with Seiboldia maxima) by Leuckart, 1840, Froriep’s Neue Notizen, 13: 19-20; Gray, 1850, Cat. Spec. Amph. Coll. Brit. Mus., Batr. Grad.: 52. See discussion of types and publication dates by Thireau, 1986, Cat. Types Urodeles Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat., Rev. Crit.: 39.

Cryptobranchus japonicusVan der Hoeven, 1838, Tijdschr. Natuurl. Geschied., 4: 384. Naylor, 1981, Copeia, 1981: 76-86

Hydrosalamandra siboldiLeuckart, 1840, Froriep’s Neue Notizen, 13: 20. Incorrect subsequent spelling.

Hydrosalamandra japonicaLeuckart, 1840, Froriep’s Neue Notizen, 13: 19-20.

Sieboldia maximaGray, 1850, Cat. Spec. Amph. Coll. Brit. Mus., Batr. Grad.: 52.

Salamandra gigas Duméril, Bibron, and Duméril, 1854, Erp. Gen., 9: 164. Lapsus calami for Salamandra maxima Schlegel.

Tritomegas sieboldiiDuméril, Bibron, and Duméril, 1854, Erp. Gen., 9: 164.

Tritomegas sieboldtiiDuméril, Bibron, and Duméril, 1854, Erp. Gen., 9: 426. Incorrect subsequent spelling.

Salamandra (Megalobatrachus) maximaSchlegel, 1858, Handl. Dierkd., 2: 61.

Megalobatrachus maximusBoulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Grad. Batr. Apoda Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 80.

Cryptobranchus maximusChapman, 1893, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 45: 227.

Andrias japonicusLapparent, 1900, Traite Geol., 3: 1532. Estes, 1981, Handb. Palaeoherpetol., 2: 14.

Megalobatrachus japonicusBeddard, 1904 "1903", Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1903: 298. Sato, 1943, Monogr. Tailed Batr. Japan: 322-346; Thorn, 1968, Salamand. Eur. Asie Afr. Nord: 106.

Sieboldiana maximaIshikawa, 1904, Proc. Dept. Nat. Hist. Tokyo Imp. Mus., 1: 21. Incorrect subsequent spelling of generic name.

Cryptobranchus sieboldiaCalmette, 1907, Les Venins: 330. Incorrect subsequent spelling.

Megalobatrachus japonicus japonicusChang, 1936, Contr. Etude Morphol. Biol. Syst. Amph. Urodeles Chine: 82.

Andrias scheuchzeri japonicusWestphal, 1958, Palaeontographica, Abt. A,, 110: 26.

English Names

Giant Salamander (Wood, 1863, Illust. Nat. Hist., 3: 184 [as Seiboldia maxima]; Cochran, 1961, Living Amph. World: 20).

Japanese Giant Salamander (Cochran, 1961, Living Amph. World: 20; Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 27; Goris and Maeda, 2004, Guide Amph. Rept. Japan: 5).

Distribution

Southwestern portion of the Island of Honshu northeast to the Prefecture of Gifu, the island Shikoku, and on the Island of Kyushu only in the Prefecture of Oita, Japan; possibly in Far East Russia (see comment).

Comment

Reviewed (as Megalobatrachus japonicus) by Sato, 1943, Monogr. Tailed Batr. Japan: 322-346. See Hoogmoed, 1978, Zool. Meded., Leiden, 53: 92, for discussion of the obscure description. Thorn and Raffaëlli, 2000, Salamand. Ancien Monde: 142-147, and Goris and Maeda, 2004, Guide Amph. Rept. Japan: 5-7, provided accounts. Kuzmin and Maslova, 2003, Adv. Amph. Res. Former Soviet Union, 8: 344-345, noted the possible occurrence of this taxon in the vicinity of Vladivostok, Far East Russia. Raffaëlli, 2007, Les Urodèles du Monde: 67, provided a brief account. Raffaëlli, 2013, Urodeles du Monde, 2nd ed.: 85, provided a brief account, photo, and map. 

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