Amphiuma means Garden, 1821

Class: Amphibia > Order: Caudata > Family: Amphiumidae > Genus: Amphiuma > Species: Amphiuma means

Amphiuma means Garden In Smith, 1821, Select. Correspond. Linnaeus, 1: 333, 599. Type(s): Not stated or known to exist. Type locality: Not stated; from the context, either Charleston, South Carolina, or eastern Florida [USA]; restricted by Schmidt, 1953, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept., Ed. 6: 27, to "Charleston, South Carolina", USA.

Sireni simile Garden In Smith, 1821, Select. Correspond. Linnaeus, 1: 591. Substitute name for Amphiuma means. Synonymy by Harlan, 1827, J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 5: 319; Harlan, 1835, Med. Phys. Res.: 85. Not mentioned by Fouquette and Dubois, 2014, Checklist N.A. Amph. Rept.: 88. 

Axolotus lacertinus Jarocki, 1822, Zool. Universal List Animals, 3: XXX. Type(s): Not stated or known to exist. Type locality: XXX. Not Siren lacertina Linnaeus, 1767. Synonymy by Brame, 1972, Checklist Living & Fossil Salamand. World (Unpubl. MS): 115. Not mentioned by Fouquette and Dubois, 2014, Checklist N.A. Amph. Rept.: 88. 

Chrysodonta larvaeformis Mitchill, 1822, Am. Med. Recorder, 5: 503. Syntypes: 2 specimens, deposition not known. Type locality: "Georgia . . . . Savannah, . . . rice-swamps and muddy waters", Chatham County, Georgia, USA. Synonymy by Wagler, 1830, Nat. Syst. Amph.: 209, and Wagler, 1830, Descript. Icon. Amph., Livr. 2: 7 (under Amphiuma didactylum); Harlan, 1835, Med. Phys. Res.: 85; Gray, 1850, Cat. Spec. Amph. Coll. Brit. Mus., Batr. Grad.: 55.

Amphiuma didactylum Cuvier, 1827, Mem. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. Paris, 14: 4. Types: Not designated, although presumably originally in the MNHNP. Type locality: "environs de la Nouvelle-Orléans, de la Floride, de la Géorgie et de la Caroline du sud", USA. Name coined as a synonym of Amphiuma means. Synonymy by Wagler, 1830, Descript. Icon. Amph., Livr. 2: 7 (under Amphiuma didactylum); and Gray, 1850, Cat. Spec. Amph. Coll. Brit. Mus., Batr. Grad.: 55.

Amphiuma didactylumWagler, 1830, Nat. Syst. Amph.: 207; Wagler, 1830, Descript. Icon. Amph., Livr. 2: 7.

Sirenoides didactylumFitzinger, 1843, Syst. Rept.: 34.

Amphiuma meansBoulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Grad. Batr. Apoda Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 83.

Amphiuma means meansGoin, 1938, Herpetologica, 1: 128.

English Names

Common Congo Snake (Gray, 1831, in Cuvier, Animal Kingdom (Griffith), 9—Appendix: 109).

Congo Snake (Harlan, 1835, Med. Phys. Res.: 85; Yarrow, 1882, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 24: 20; Wood, 1863, Illust. Nat. Hist., 3: 185; Jordan, 1878, Man. Vert. North. U.S., Ed. 2: 197; Hay, 1892, Annu. Rep. Dept. Geol. Nat. Res. Indiana for 1891: 420; Rhoads, 1895, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 47: 406; Stejneger and Barbour, 1917, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept.: 6).

Two-toed Congo Snake (Jordan, 1878, Man. Vert. North. U.S., Ed. 2: 197).

Conger-Eel (Löding, 1922, Mus. Pap. Alabama Mus. Nat. Hist., 5: 9).

Lampereel (Löding, 1922, Mus. Pap. Alabama Mus. Nat. Hist., 5: 9).

Ditch Eel (Brimley, 1907, J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc., 23: 151).

Blind Eel (Stejneger and Barbour, 1917, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept.: 6).

Amphiuma (Hay, 1892, Annu. Rep. Dept. Geol. Nat. Res. Indiana for 1891: 420; Schmidt, 1953, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept., Ed. 6: 27).

Congo Eel (Stejneger and Barbour, 1917, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept.: 6; Carr, 1940, Univ. Florida Biol. Sci. Ser., 3: 43; Schmidt, 1953, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept., Ed. 6: 27).

Mud Eel (Schmidt, 1953, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept., Ed. 6: 27).

Two-toed Congo Eel (Bishop, 1943, Handb. Salamanders: 50; Viosca, 1949, Pop. Sci. Bull., Louisiana Acad. Sci., 1: 9).

Two-toed Mud Eel (Schmidt, 1953, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept., Ed. 6: 27).

Amphiuma (Conant, Cagle, Goin, Lowe, Neill, Netting, Schmidt, Shaw, Stebbins, and Bogert, 1956, Copeia, 1956: 173).

Two-toed Amphiuma (Bishop, 1943, Handb. Salamanders: 50; Schmidt, 1953, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept., Ed. 6: 27; Conant, Cagle, Goin, Lowe, Neill, Netting, Schmidt, Shaw, Stebbins, and Bogert, 1956, Copeia, 1956: 173; Conant, 1975, Field Guide Rept. Amph. E. Cent. N. Am., Ed. 2: 245; Collins, Huheey, Knight, and Smith, 1978, Herpetol. Circ., 7: 4; Collins, 1997, Herpetol. Circ., 25: 5; Crother, Boundy, Campbell, de Queiroz, Frost, Highton, Iverson, Meylan, Reeder, Seidel, Sites, Taggart, Tilley, and Wake, 2001 "2000", Herpetol. Circ., 29: 19; Tilley, Highton, and Wake, 2012, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 39: 14; Collins and Taggart, 2009, Standard Common Curr. Sci. Names N. Am. Amph. Turtles Rept. Crocodil., ed. 6: 10; Tilley, Highton, and Wake, 2012, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 39: 24; Powell, Conant, and Collins, 2016, Field Guide Rept. Amph. E. North Am., 4th ed.: 37; Highton, Bonett, and Jockusch, 2017, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 43: 23).

Two-toed Salamander (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 27).

Distribution

Coastal plain from eastern Virginia to the southern tip of Florida and west through southern Georgia, southern Alambama and southern Mississippi, to southeastern Louisiana north of Lake Pontchartrain, USA.

Comment

See detailed accounts by Salthe, 1973, Cat. Am. Amph. Rept., 148: 1–2, Petranka, 1998, Salamand. U.S. Canada: 132–134, and Johnson and Owen, 2005, in Lannoo (ed.), Amph. Declines: 642–645. Raffaëlli, 2013, Urodeles du Monde, 2nd ed.: 228, provided a brief account, photograph, and map. Altig and McDiarmid, 2015, Handb. Larval Amph. US and Canada: 98–99, provided an account of larval morphology. See account of biology and life history in South Florida by Meshaka and Lane, 2015, Herpetol. Conserv. Biol., 10 (Monogr. 5): 10–13. 

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