Ambystoma tigrinum (Green, 1825)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Caudata > Family: Ambystomatidae > Genus: Ambystoma > Species: Ambystoma tigrinum

Siren operculata Palisot de Beauvois, 1799, Trans. Am. Philos. Soc., 4: 281. Type(s): Animal figured on figs. 1 and 2 of the original publication; not now known to exist. Type locality: "in a Swamp in Jersey near the Delaware, not very distant from the middle ferry opposite the City of Philadelphia", USA. This name placed on the Official Index of Rejected and Invalid Species Names in Zoology by Anonymous, 1963, Bull. Zool. Nomencl., 20: 102–104, Anonymous, 1963, Bull. Zool. Nomencl., 20:193–194. Synonymy by Smith and Tihen, 1961, Bull. Zool. Nomencl., 18: 214. See comment by Fouquette and Dubois, 2014, Checklist N.A. Amph. Rept.: 72. 

Proteus neocaesariensis Green, 1818, J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1: 358. Type(s): Not designated, although presumably originally in ANSP. Type locality: Not stated, but presumably vicinity of Princeton, New Jersey, USA. This name placed on the Official Index of Rejected and Invalid Species Names in Zoology by Anonymous, 1963, Bull. Zool. Nomencl., 20: 102–104, Anonymous, 1963, Bull. Zool. Nomencl., 20: 193–194. Synonymy with Siren operculata by Say, 1818, J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1: 406. Synonymy by Smith and Tihen, 1961, Bull. Zool. Nomencl., 18: 214.

Axolotus philadelphicus Jarocki, 1822, Zool. Universal List Animals, 3: 179. Substitute name for Siren operculata Beauvois, 1799. This name placed on the Official Index of Rejected and Invalid Species Names in Zoology by Opinion 649, Anonymous, 1963, Bull. Zool. Nomencl., 20: 102–104, and Opinion 662, Anonymous, 1963, Bull. Zool. Nomencl., 20: 199–200. Synonymy by Smith and Tihen, 1961, Bull. Zool. Nomencl., 18: 214.

Salamandra tigrina Green, 1825, J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 5: 116. Type(s): Not known to exist; USNM 3970 given as "type" by Yarrow, 1882, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 24: 148, although this specimen is not from the stated type locality. Fouquette and Dubois, 2014, Checklist N.A. Amph. Rept.: 72, conjectured that this specimen is a paratype and cited ASW as the source of this information. Type locality: "near Moore's town [Moorestown, Burlington County,] in New Jersey", USA. Placed on the Official Index of Species Names in Zoology by Anonymous, 1963, Bull. Zool. Nomencl., 20: 102–104, 193–194. See comment under Gyrinus mexicanus.

Salamandra ingens Green, 1831, J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 6: 254. Holotype: Not designated although reasonable to assume to be in ANSP; ANSP 1309, according to Fowler and Dunn, 1917, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 69: 8. Type locality: "in a fresh water stream near near New Orleans", Louisiana, USA. Synonymy by Cope, 1868 "1867", Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 19: 179.

Salamandra lurida Sager, 1839, Am. J. Sci. Arts, 36: 323. Holotype: Not stated; USNM 39442, according to Cochran, 1961, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 220: 24 (the 'type' of Amblystoma tigrinum Green' reported by Yarrow, 1882, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 24: 148, USNM 3970, is a paratype). Type locality: Not stated, although likely in the vicinity of Detroit, Michigan, USA; see Cope, 1889, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 34: 84 and Dunn, 1940, Copeia, 1940: 154–162. Given as "Detroit, Wayne County, Michigan", USA, by Cochran, 1961, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 220: 24. Antedated (but apparently not preoccupied) by Salamandra lurida Rafinesque, 1832, Atlantic. J. and Friend of Knowledge, Philadelphia, 1: 63, an unassignable nomen nudum according to A.H. Brame, personal commun. Synonymy by Cope, 1868 "1867", Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 19: 179.

Triton tigrinusHolbrook, 1842, N. Am. Herpetol., Ed. 2, 5: 79.

Triton ingensHolbrook, 1842, N. Am. Herpetol., Ed. 2, 5: 85.

Ambystoma tigrinaBaird, 1850 "1849", J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, Ser. 2, 1: 284.

Ambystoma luridaBaird, 1850 "1849", J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, Ser. 2, 1: 353.

Ambystoma episcopus Baird, 1850 "1849", J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, Ser. 2, 1: 293. Holotype: Not stated or known to exist, presumably originally either in ANSP or USNM. Type locality: "Kemper County, Mississippi", USA. Synonymy by Cope, 1868 "1867", Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 19: 179.

Heterotriton ingensGray, 1850, Cat. Spec. Amph. Coll. Brit. Mus., Batr. Grad.: 33.

Proteus neocaesareanusGray, 1850, Cat. Spec. Amph. Coll. Brit. Mus., Batr. Grad.: 45; Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Grad. Batr. Apoda Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 63. Incorrect subsequent spelling.

Siredon harlanii Duméril, Bibron, and Duméril, 1854, Erp. Gen., 9: 181. Syntypes: 2 specimens including MNHNP 4777 (the other lost), which was designated lectotype by Gehlbach, 1966, Copeia, 1966: 882. Type locality: "Caroline (U.S.A.)." Type locality stated to be "Spring Lake, New Mexico", USA by Schmidt, 1953, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept., Ed. 6: 23, apparently in error. Named in synonymy with Axolotes maculatus Owen and Siredon maculatus Baird. Synonymy with Ambystoma tigrinum mavortium by Bishop, 1945, Herpetologica, 3: 24; this revised to a synonym of Ambystoma tigrinum tigrinum by Gehlbach, 1966, Copeia, 1966: 882. See comments by Thireau, 1986, Cat. Types Urodeles Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat., Rev. Crit.: 32–33.

Ambistoma tigrinumJan, 1857, Cenni Mus. Civ. Milano: 55. Incorrect subsequent spelling.

Ambystoma bicolor Hallowell, 1858 "1857", Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 9: 215. Holotype: ANSP 10584, according to Fowler and Dunn, 1917, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 69: 8. Type locality: "New Jersey, near Beesley's Point, [Cape May County]", USA. Synonymy by Garman, 1884, Bull. Essex Inst., 16: 36; Fowler and Dunn, 1917, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 69: 8.

Ambystoma ingensHallowell, 1858, J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, Ser. 2, 3: 353.

Amblystoma conspersum Cope, 1859, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 11: 123. Holotype: ANSP 10589 according to Fowler and Dunn, 1917, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 69: 10; Malnate, 1971, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 123: 347. Type locality: "Londongrove, Chester Co[unty]., Pennsylvania", USA. Synonymy by Dunn, 1940, Copeia, 1940: 156.

Amblystoma prosperpineBaird, 1859, Rep. U.S-Mex. Bound. Surv., 2(Pt. 2-Rept.): 29.

Amblystoma obscurum Baird In Cope, 1868 "1867", Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 19: 192. Holotype: USNM 3994 according to Cochran, 1961, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 220: 5. Type locality: "Fort Des Moines, [Polk County,] Iowa", USA. Synonymy by Garman, 1884, Bull. Essex Inst., 16: 36; Dunn, 1940, Copeia, 1940: 156.

Amblystoma xiphias Cope, 1868 "1867", Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 19: 192. Holotype: USNM 14470 (formerly USNM 4135) according to Cochran, 1961, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 220: 6. Type locality: "Columbus, [Franklin County,] Ohio", USA. Synonymy by Dunn, 1940, Copeia, 1940: 156.

Amblystoma tigrinumBoulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Grad. Batr. Apoda Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 43.

Amblystoma bicolorBoulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Grad. Batr. Apoda Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 42.

Amblystoma conspersumBoulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Grad. Batr. Apoda Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 42.

Amblystoma copeianum Hay, 1885, Proc. U.S. Natl. Mus., 8: 209. Holotype: USNM 14112 according to Cochran, 1961, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 220: 5. Type locality: "Irvington, [Marion County,] near Indianapolis", USA. Synonymy by Dunn, 1940, Copeia, 1940: 156.

Ambystoma sopeanumBrimley, 1907, J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc., 23: 153. Incorrect subsequent spelling of Ambystoma copeianum (?)—DRF.

Ambystoma conspersumFowler and Dunn, 1917, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 69: 10.

Ambystoma tigrinum — Dunn, 1940, Copeia, 1940: 158.

Ambystoma tigrinum tigrinumDunn, 1940, Copeia, 1940: 158.

Ambystoma tigrinum proserpineSmith and Taylor, 1948, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 194: 14.

Ambystoma (Ambystoma) tigrinumTihen, 1958, Bull. Florida State Mus., Biol. Sci., 3: 3.

Ambystoma (Heterotriton) tigrinumDubois and Raffaëlli, 2012, Alytes, 28: 77–161, by implication.

English Names

Tiger Triton (Triton tigrinus: De Kay, 1842, Zool. New York, 1: 83).

Newjersey Proteus (Proteus neocaesariensis: Green, 1818, J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1: 358.

Axolotl (Ambystoma tigrinumYarrow, 1876, List Skeletons and Crania: 40). 

Sprinkled Salamander (Amblystoma conspersum [no longer recognized]: Yarrow, 1882, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 24: 20).

Smaller Spotted Salamander (Ambystoma conspersum [no longer recognized]: Jordan, 1878, Man. Vert. North. U.S., Ed. 2: 195; Brimley, 1907, J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc., 23: 153).

Beesley's Point Salamander (Amblystoma bicolor [no longer recognized]: Yarrow, 1882, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 24: 20).

Cope's Salamander (Ambystoma copeianum [no longer recognized]: Hay, 1892, Annu. Rep. Dept. Geol. Nat. Res. Indiana for 1891: 434).

Two colored Salamander (Ambystoma bicolor [no longer recognized]: Jordan, 1878, Man. Vert. North. U.S., Ed. 2: 195; Brimley, 1907, J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc., 23: 153).

Ring Necked Salamander (Ambystoma bicolor [no longer recognized]: Fowler, 1907, Annu. Rep. N.J. State Mus. for 1906: 44).

Speckled Salamander (Ambystoma conspersum [no longer recognized]: Fowler, 1907, Annu. Rep. N.J. State Mus. for 1906: 44).

Dusky Salamander (Amblystoma obscurum [no longer recognized]: Yarrow, 1882, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 24: 20).

Yellow Salamander (Amblystoma xiphias [no longer recognized]: Yarrow, 1882, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 24: 20).

Ohio Salamander (Ambystoma xiphias [no longer recognized]: Brimley, 1907, J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc., 23: 153).

Long-tailed Salamander (Ambystoma xiphias [no longer recognized]: Jordan, 1878, Man. Vert. North. U.S., Ed. 2: 196).

Tiger Triton (Ambystoma tigrinum [sensu lato]: Fowler, 1907, Annu. Rep. N.J. State Mus. for 1906: 47; Brimley, 1915, J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc., 30: 4).

Tigerine Salamander (Salamandra tigrina: Gray, 1831, in Cuvier, Animal Kingdom (Griffith), 9—Appendix: 107).

Tiger Salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum [in the narrow sense]: Jordan, 1878, Man. Vert. North. U.S., Ed. 2: 195).

Tiger Salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum [in the broad sense of including Ambystoma mavortium and Ambystoma velasci]: Yarrow, 1882, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 24: 20; Davis and Rice, 1883, Bull. Chicago Acad. Sci., 1: 26; Fowler, 1907, Annu. Rep. N.J. State Mus. for 1906: 47; Brimley, 1907, J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc., 23: 153; Schmidt, 1953, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept., Ed. 6: 21; Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 27; Crother, Boundy, Campbell, de Queiroz, Frost, Highton, Iverson, Meylan, Reeder, Seidel, Sites, Taggart, Tilley, and Wake, 2001 "2000", Herpetol. Circ., 29: 18).

Eastern Tiger Salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum tigrinum [now applying to Ambystoma tigrinum (sensu stricto)]: Bishop, 1943, Handb. Salamanders: 159; Schmidt, 1953, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept., Ed. 6: 21; Conant, 1975, Field Guide Rept. Amph. E. Cent. N. Am., Ed. 2: 255; Collins, Huheey, Knight, and Smith, 1978, Herpetol. Circ., 7: 4; Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 27; Collins, 1997, Herpetol. Circ., 25: 5; Crother, Boundy, Campbell, de Queiroz, Frost, Highton, Iverson, Meylan, Reeder, Seidel, Sites, Taggart, Tilley, and Wake, 2001 "2000", Herpetol. Circ., 29: 19; Tilley, Highton, and Wake, 2012, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 39: 14; Collins and Taggart, 2009, Standard Common Curr. Sci. Names N. Am. Amph. Turtles Rept. Crocodil., ed. 6: 10; Tilley, Highton, and Wake, 2012, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 39: 24; Powell, Conant, and Collins, 2016, Field Guide Rept. Amph. E. North Am., 4th ed.: 36; Highton, Bonett, and Jockusch, 2017, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 43: 23)

Distribution

Extreme southeastern Manitoba (Canada) through Minnesota and Wisconsin to Michigan, thence south to East Texas; Long Island, New York (USA), south along the Atlantic coastal plain to northern Florida and southeastern Louisiana, excluding the Mississippi embayment and the Appalachian Mountains.

Comment

See comments under Ambystoma californiense, Ambystoma mavortium, Ambystoma tigrinum, and Ambystoma velasci. Last revised by Irschick and Shaffer, 1997, Herpetologica, 53: 30-49. See account by Petranka, 1998, Salamand. U.S. Canada: 108 (written previously to the partition into Ambystoma mavortium, Ambystoma velasci, and Ambystoma tigrinum) and Lannoo and Phillips, 2005, in Lannoo (ed.), Amph. Declines: 636–639, in the sense of including at least Ambystoma mavortium. Bogart, 2003, in Sever (ed.), Reprod. Biol. Phylogeny Urodela: 109–134, discussed complex hybridization with Ambystoma jeffersonianum, Ambystoma texanum, and Ambystoma lateraleRaffaëlli, 2013, Urodeles du Monde, 2nd ed.: 93, provided a brief account, photo, and map. Altig and McDiarmid, 2015, Handb. Larval Amph. US and Canada: 94–96, provided an account of larval morphology.  

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