Ambystoma mavortium Baird, 1850

Class: Amphibia > Order: Caudata > Family: Ambystomatidae > Genus: Ambystoma > Species: Ambystoma mavortium

Ambystoma mavortia Baird, 1850 "1849", J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, Ser. 2, 1: 292. Holotype: USNM 3990, according to Yarrow, 1882, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 24: 149; the status of this specimen questioned by Cochran, 1961, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 220: 21. Type locality: "New Mexico" (probably the Rio Grande valley between Santa Fe, New Mexico, and El Paso, Texas—see Gehlbach, 1967, Cat. Am. Amph. Rept., 52: 1–4). Synonymy with Ambystoma tigrinum by Garman, 1884, Bull. Essex Inst., 16: 36; Cope, 1889, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 34: 68; Dunn, 1940, Copeia, 1940: 158.

Ambystoma mavortiumGray, 1850, Cat. Spec. Amph. Coll. Brit. Mus., Batr. Grad.: 37; Hallowell, 1858, J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, Ser. 2, 3: 352.

Ambystoma proserpine Baird and Girard, 1852, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 6: 173. Syntypes: USNM by original designation; including USNM 4082 (3 specimens from Salado), according to Cochran, 1961, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 220: 5. Type locality: "at Salado [Creek], four miles from [east of] San Antonio, [Bexar County,] Texas" (6 specimens), USA, and "on the route from Montgomery, Mexico" ("specimens"). Restricted to "San Antonio, Bexar County", Texas, USA, by Smith and Taylor, 1950, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull., 33: 360. Synonymy with Ambystoma mavortium by Strauch, 1870, Mem. Acad. Imp. Sci. St. Petersbourg, Ser. 7, 16 (4): 64; Cope, 1868 "1867", Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 19: 184; Cope, 1889, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 34: 68; Dunn, 1940, Copeia, 1940: 161.

Siredon lichenoides Baird and Girard, 1852, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 6: 68. Syntypes: USNM, by original designation; USNM 4061 (2 specimens) according to Cochran, 1961, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 220: 25. Type locality: "in a lake [Spring Lake] at the head of Santa Fé Creek, [Santa Fe County,] in New Mexico", USA. Synonymy by Smith, 1877, Tailed Amph.: 43; Hartmann, 1879, Sitzungsber. Ges. Naturforsch. Freunde Berlin, 1879: 76 (with Ambystoma mavortium); Fowler and Dunn, 1917, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 69: 8.

Ambystoma nebulosum Hallowell, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 6: 209. Syntypes: Not stated; including USNM 4702a (according to Cochran, 1961, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 220: 7) and ANSP 1294 according to Lowe, 1955, Trans. Kansas Acad. Sci., 58: 244; USNM 4702a designated lectotype by Lowe, 1955, Trans. Kansas Acad. Sci., 58: 244. Type locality: "New Mexico", USA; corrected by Hallowell, 1854, Report Sitgreaves Exped. Zuni and Colorado Rivers, Rept.: 144, and Hallowell, 1858, J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, Ser. 2, 3: 352, to "San Francisco mountain", [near Flagstaff, now in Coconino County, Arizona] New Mexico [Territory, which then encompassed this region]", USA. Synonymy by Smith, 1877, Tailed Amph.: 42; Cope, 1889, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 34: 76; Fowler and Dunn, 1917, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 69: 8.

Ambystoma maculatum Hallowell, 1858 "1857", Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 9: 215. Also described as new by Hallowell, 1858, J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, Ser. 2, 3: 355. Holotype: Originally in ANSP, according to Hallowell, 1858, J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, Ser. 2, 3: 355, although perhaps USNM 14481 (questioned by Gehlbach, 1966, Copeia, 1966: 881) (or ? ANSP 1300). Type locality: "New Mexico" (= now in either Arizona or New Mexico), USA. Secondary homonym of Lacerta maculata Shaw, 1802 = Ambystoma maculatum). Synonymy with Ambystoma tigrinum utahense by Lowe, 1955, Trans. Kansas Acad. Sci., 58: 246; with Ambystoma tigrinum nebulosus by Gehlbach, 1966, Copeia, 1966: 881; with Ambystoma mavortium by Cope, 1868 "1867", Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 19: 184.

Amblystoma prosperpineBaird, 1859, Rep. U.S-Mex. Bound. Surv., 2(Pt. 2-Rept.): 29.

Siredon melanostica Cooper, 1859, Nat. Hist. Washington Terr.: 306. Holotype: USNM, presumably the same specimen subsequently named by Baird as Siredon lichenoides melanstictum. Type locality: "near Fort Union, Nebraska", USA. Named as a "well marked variety" of Siredon lichenoides

Siredon lichenoides melanostictum Baird, 1860, In Cooper, 1860, Rep. Upon Explor Surv. Route Railroad Mississippi–Pacific Ocean, 12 (Book 2, Pt. 3, No. 4): 306. Holotype: USNM "4073" (= 7043), according to Gehlbach, 1966, Copeia, 1966: 881. Type locality: "between Fort Union and Fort Benton, Nebraska", USA; restricted to "100 miles west of Fort Union, North Dakota; this is in the Missouri River valley near Frazer, Valley County, Montana", USA, by Gehlbach, 1966, Copeia, 1966: 881. Synonymy by Bishop, 1942, Copeia, 1942: 256.

Amblystoma mavortiumCope, 1868 "1867", Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 19: 184.

Amblystoma trisruptum Cope, 1868 "1867", Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 19: 194. Holotype: USNM 4068 according to Yarrow, 1882, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 24: 150. Type locality: "Ocate River, [Mora County,] N[ew]. M[exico].", USA. Synonymy with Ambystoma tigrinum (sensu lato) by Garman, 1884, Bull. Essex Inst., 16: 36. Synonymy with Ambystoma tigrinum mavortium by Dunn, 1940, Copeia, 1940: 158.

Sirenodon lichenoidesDesor, 1870, Bull. Soc. Neuchatel. Sci. Nat., 8: 268.

Ambystoma tigrinum nebulosumDunn, 1940, Copeia, 1940: 158.

Ambystoma tigrinum slateri Dunn, 1940, Copeia, 1940: 159. Holotype: USNM 108982 (formerly CPS 2489) by original designation. Type locality: "Five miles southeast of Coulee Dam, Grant County, Washington", USA. Placed in synonymy of Ambystoma tigrinum melanostictum by Bishop, 1942, Copeia, 1942: 256.

Ambystoma tigrinum mavortiumDunn, 1940, Copeia, 1940: 158.

Ambystoma tigrinum diaboli Dunn, 1940, Copeia, 1940: 160. Holotype: UMMZ 50156, by original designation. Type locality: "Devil's Lake, [Ramsey County,] North Dakota", USA.

Ambystoma tigrinum melanostictumBishop, 1942, Copeia, 1942: 256.

Ambystoma tigrinum proserpineSmith and Taylor, 1948, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 194: 14.

Ambystoma tigrinum stebbinsi Lowe, 1954, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, 67: 243. Holotype: UAZ 665, by original designation. Type locality: "J.A. Jones Ranch, in Parker Canyon, southwest side of the Huachuca Mountains, ca. 5,000 feet, Santa Cruz County, Arizona", USA. Regarded as indistinguishable from Ambystoma tigrinum nebulosum by Gehlbach, 1967, Cat. Am. Amph. Rept., 52: 1–4. Taxonomic status supported by Jones, Collins, Kocher, and Mitton, 1988, Copeia, 1988: 621–635. Storfer, Mech, Reudink, Ziemba, Warren, and Collins, 2004, Copeia, 2004: 783–796, reported introgression with introduced Ambystoma tigrinum mavortium.

Ambystoma tigrinum utahense Lowe, 1955, Trans. Kansas Acad. Sci., 58: 246. Holotype: MVZ 29481, by original designation. Type locality: "Lapoint, Uintah County, Utah", USA.

Ambystoma (Ambystoma) tigrinum stebbinsiTihen, 1958, Bull. Florida State Mus., Biol. Sci., 3: 36.

Ambystoma (Ambystoma) tigrinum nebulosumTihen, 1958, Bull. Florida State Mus., Biol. Sci., 3: 36.

Ambystoma tigrinum nebulosumGehlbach, 1967, Cat. Am. Amph. Rept., 52: 1–4.

Ambystoma mavortiumShaffer and McKnight, 1996, Evolution, 50: 430, by implication.

Ambystoma mavortium diaboliIrschick and Shaffer, 1997, Herpetologica, 53: 30–40, by implication; Collins, 1997, Herpetol. Circ., 25:5.

Ambystoma mavortium mavortiumIrschick and Shaffer, 1997, Herpetologica, 53: 30–40, by implication; Collins, 1997, Herpetol. Circ., 25: 5.

Ambystoma mavortium melanostictumIrschick and Shaffer, 1997, Herpetologica, 53: 30–40, by implication; Collins, 1997, Herpetol. Circ., 25:5.

Ambystoma mavortium nebulosumIrschick and Shaffer, 1997, Herpetologica, 53: 30–40, by implication; Collins, 1997, Herpetol. Circ., 25:5.

Ambystoma mavortium stebbinsiIrschick and Shaffer, 1997, Herpetologica, 53: 30–40, by implication; Collins, 1997, Herpetol. Circ., 25:5. Regarded as indistinguishable from Ambystoma tigrinum nebulosum by Gehlbach, 1967, Cat. Am. Amph. Rept., 52: 1–4.

Ambystoma (Heterotriton) mavortiumDubois and Raffaëlli, 2012, Alytes, 28: 77–161. See comment under Ambystoma regarding subgenera in this genus. 

Ambystoma (Heterotriton) mavortium mavortium — Fouquette and Dubois, 2014, Checklist N.A. Amph. Rept.: 68. See comment under Ambystoma regarding subgenera in this genus. 

Ambystoma (Heterotriton) mavortium diaboli — Fouquette and Dubois, 2014, Checklist N.A. Amph. Rept.: 69. 

Ambystoma (Heterotriton) mavortium melanostictum — Fouquette and Dubois, 2014, Checklist N.A. Amph. Rept.: 70. 

Ambystoma (Heterotriton) mavortium stebbinsi — Fouquette and Dubois, 2014, Checklist N.A. Amph. Rept.: 71. 

English Names

Spotted Salamander (Ambystoma mavortium: Yarrow, 1876, List Skeletons and Crania: 40). 

Axolotl (Yarrow, 1882, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 24: 20).

New Mexican Salamander (Amblystoma trisruptum [no longer recognized]: Yarrow, 1882, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 24: 20).

Tiger Salamander (part) (Schmidt, 1953, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept., Ed. 6: 27; Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 27).

Barred Tiger Salamander (Ambystoma mavortium: Collins, 1997, Herpetol. Circ., 25: 5; Tilley, Highton, and Wake, 2012, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 39: 14; Liner and Casas-Andreu, 2008, Herpetol. Circ., 38: 27; Collins and Taggart, 2009, Standard Common Curr. Sci. Names N. Am. Amph. Turtles Rept. Crocodil., ed. 6: 10).

Devil's Lake Tiger Salamander (Ambystoma mavortium diaboli: Bishop, 1943, Handb. Salamanders: 162).

Gray Tiger Salamander (Ambystoma mavortium diaboli: Conant, Cagle, Goin, Lowe, Neill, Netting, Schmidt, Shaw, Stebbins, and Bogert, 1956, Copeia, 1956: 173; Stebbins, 1966, Field Guide W. North Am. Rept. Amph.: 33; Conant, 1975, Field Guide Rept. Amph. E. Cent. N. Am., Ed. 2: 256; Collins, Huheey, Knight, and Smith, 1978, Herpetol. Circ., 7: 4; Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 27; Collins, 1997, Herpetol. Circ., 25: 5; Crother, Boundy, Campbell, de Queiroz, Frost, Highton, Iverson, Meylan, Reeder, Seidel, Sites, Taggart, Tilley, and Wake, 2001 "2000", Herpetol. Circ., 29: 18; Tilley, Highton, and Wake, 2012, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 39: 14; Collins and Taggart, 2009, Standard Common Curr. Sci. Names N. Am. Amph. Turtles Rept. Crocodil., ed. 6: 10; Tilley, Highton, and Wake, 2012, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 39: 24; Powell, Conant, and Collins, 2016, Field Guide Rept. Amph. E. North Am., 4th ed.: 34; Highton, Bonett, and Jockusch, 2017, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 43: 23).

Yellow-Barred Tiger Salamander (Ambystoma mavortium mavortium: Bishop, 1943, Handb. Salamanders: 165; Schmidt, 1953, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept., Ed. 6: 27).

Barred Tiger Salamander (Ambystoma mavortium mavortium: Conant, Cagle, Goin, Lowe, Neill, Netting, Schmidt, Shaw, Stebbins, and Bogert, 1956, Copeia, 1956: 173; Stebbins, 1966, Field Guide W. North Am. Rept. Amph.: 34; Conant, 1975, Field Guide Rept. Amph. E. Cent. N. Am., Ed. 2: 256; Collins, Huheey, Knight, and Smith, 1978, Herpetol. Circ., 7: 4; Liner, 1994, Herpetol. Circ., 23: 9; Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 27; Collins, 1997, Herpetol. Circ., 25: 5; Crother, Boundy, Campbell, de Queiroz, Frost, Highton, Iverson, Meylan, Reeder, Seidel, Sites, Taggart, Tilley, and Wake, 2001 "2000", Herpetol. Circ., 29: 18; Tilley, Highton, and Wake, 2012, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 39: 14; Liner and Casas-Andreu, 2008, Herpetol. Circ., 38: 27; Collins and Taggart, 2009, Standard Common Curr. Sci. Names N. Am. Amph. Turtles Rept. Crocodil., ed. 6: 10; Tilley, Highton, and Wake, 2012, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 39: 24; Powell, Conant, and Collins, 2016, Field Guide Rept. Amph. E. North Am., 4th ed.: 34; Highton, Bonett, and Jockusch, 2017, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 43: 23).

Northwestern Tiger Salamander (Ambystoma mavortium nebulosum: Bishop, 1943, Handb. Salamanders: 172).

Blotched Tiger Salamander (Ambystoma mavortium melanostictum: Conant, Cagle, Goin, Lowe, Neill, Netting, Schmidt, Shaw, Stebbins, and Bogert, 1956, Copeia, 1956: 173; Conant, 1975, Field Guide Rept. Amph. E. Cent. N. Am., Ed. 2: 256; Collins, Huheey, Knight, and Smith, 1978, Herpetol. Circ., 7: 4; Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 27; Collins, 1997, Herpetol. Circ., 25: 5; Crother, Boundy, Campbell, de Queiroz, Frost, Highton, Iverson, Meylan, Reeder, Seidel, Sites, Taggart, Tilley, and Wake, 2001 "2000", Herpetol. Circ., 29: 18; Tilley, Highton, and Wake, 2012, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 39: 14; Collins and Taggart, 2009, Standard Common Curr. Sci. Names N. Am. Amph. Turtles Rept. Crocodil., ed. 6: 10; Tilley, Highton, and Wake, 2012, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 39: 24; Powell, Conant, and Collins, 2016, Field Guide Rept. Amph. E. North Am., 4th ed.: 34; Highton, Bonett, and Jockusch, 2017, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 43: 23).

Clouded Tiger Salamander (Ambystoma mavortium nebulosum: Bishop, 1943, Handb. Salamanders: 168; Schmidt, 1953, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept., Ed. 6: 23),

Arizona Tiger Salamander (Ambystoma mavortium nebulosum: Conant, Cagle, Goin, Lowe, Neill, Netting, Schmidt, Shaw, Stebbins, and Bogert, 1956, Copeia, 1956: 173; Stebbins, 1966, Field Guide W. North Am. Rept. Amph.: 33; Collins, Huheey, Knight, and Smith, 1978, Herpetol. Circ., 7: 4; Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 27; Collins, 1997, Herpetol. Circ., 25: 5; Crother, Boundy, Campbell, de Queiroz, Frost, Highton, Iverson, Meylan, Reeder, Seidel, Sites, Taggart, Tilley, and Wake, 2001 "2000", Herpetol. Circ., 29: 18; Tilley, Highton, and Wake, 2012, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 39: 14; Collins and Taggart, 2009, Standard Common Curr. Sci. Names N. Am. Amph. Turtles Rept. Crocodil., ed. 6: 10; Tilley, Highton, and Wake, 2012, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 39: 24; Highton, Bonett, and Jockusch, 2017, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 43: 23).

Sonora Tiger Salamander (Ambystoma mavortium stebbinsi: Conant, Cagle, Goin, Lowe, Neill, Netting, Schmidt, Shaw, Stebbins, and Bogert, 1956, Copeia, 1956: 173; Stebbins, 1966, Field Guide W. North Am. Rept. Amph.: 34; Tilley, Highton, and Wake, 2012, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 39: 24).

Sonoran Tiger Salamander (Ambystoma mavortium stebbinsi: Collins, Huheey, Knight, and Smith, 1978, Herpetol. Circ., 7: 4; Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 27; Collins, 1997, Herpetol. Circ., 25: 5; Crother, Boundy, Campbell, de Queiroz, Frost, Highton, Iverson, Meylan, Reeder, Seidel, Sites, Taggart, Tilley, and Wake, 2001 "2000", Herpetol. Circ., 29: 19; Tilley, Highton, and Wake, 2012, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 39: 14; Collins and Taggart, 2009, Standard Common Curr. Sci. Names N. Am. Amph. Turtles Rept. Crocodil., ed. 6: 10; Highton, Bonett, and Jockusch, 2017, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 43: 23).

Utah Tiger Salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum utahense [no longer recognized]: Conant, Cagle, Goin, Lowe, Neill, Netting, Schmidt, Shaw, Stebbins, and Bogert, 1956, Copeia, 1956: 173; Stebbins, 1966, Field Guide W. North Am. Rept. Amph.: 33).

Western Tiger Salamander (Ambystoma mavortium: Tilley, Highton, and Wake, 2012, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 39: 23; Powell, Conant, and Collins, 2016, Field Guide Rept. Amph. E. North Am., 4th ed.: 34; Highton, Bonett, and Jockusch, 2017, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 43: 23).

Distribution

Isolated population in eastern Washington (USA) and southern British Columbia (Canada); Great Plains of Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba (Canada) south through the Rocky Mountains, through Utah to northern and southeastern Arizona and east to eastern South Dakota, eastern Kansas, Oklahoma, and south to northern Sonora and eastern Chihuahua (Mexico), and South Texas, USA.

Comment

See comments under Ambystoma tigrinum, Ambystoma velasci, and Ambystoma californiense, with which this species has had a long and difficult taxonomic history. See discussion of the Ambystoma tigrinum complex by Collins, Mitton, and Pierce, 1980, Copeia, 1980: 938–941, as well as by Shaffer and McKnight, 1996, Evolution, 50: 417–433. Irschick and Shaffer, 1997, Herpetologica, 53: 30–49, partitioned (by implication) former Ambystoma tigrinum into four species: Ambystoma tigrinum; Ambystoma mavortium; Ambystoma velasci; and Ambystoma californiensePetranka, 1998, Salamand. U.S. Canada: 108–121, provided a detailed account for Ambystoma tigrinum sensu lato (in the sense of including Ambystoma velasci and Ambystoma mavortium as subspecies)Highton, 2000, in Bruce et al., Biol. Plethodontid Salamanders: 221, suggested that populations from south-central Colorado and the northeastern Great Plains might represent distinct species. Webb, 2004, Bull. Maryland Herpetol. Soc., 40: 122–143, discussed the range in Mexico and variation in the intermountain West and northwestern Mexico. Raffaëlli, 2007, Les Urodèles du Monde: 81–83, provided brief accounts by subspecies, maps, and figures. Varela-Romero, Hendrickson, and Simons, 1987, Herpetol. Rev., 18: 56, provided a significant record in northern Sonora, Mexico. Johnson, Thomson, Micheletti, and Shaffer, 2011, Conserv. Genetics, 12: 355–370, implied that Ambystoma mavortium is a synonym of Ambystoma tigrinum, but the effect of this on the recognition on Ambystoma velasci or of the many species in the Ambystoma tigrinum group in Mexico was not discussed. Lemos-Espinal, 2007, Anf. Rept. Chihuahua Mexico: 24–26, provided an account for Chihuahua. See comment under Ambystoma silvense. Lemos-Espinal and Smith, 2007, Anf. Rept. Coahuila México: 27–28, provided an account (as Ambystoma tigrinum mavortium) for Coahuila, Mexico. Farr, Lazcano, and Lavín-Murcio, 2013, Herpetol. Rev., 44: 632–633, discussed the absence of this species from Tamaulipas, Mexico, and suggested that specimens from adjacent Texas, USA, were there as a result of the release of bait animals. Raffaëlli, 2013, Urodeles du Monde, 2nd ed.: 94–95, provided a brief account, photo, and map. Altig and McDiarmid, 2015, Handb. Larval Amph. US and Canada: 94–96, provided an account of larval morphology. Hossack, Muths, Rorabaugh, Lemos-Espinal, Sigafus, Chambert, Carreón Arroyo, Hurtado Felix, Toyos Martinez, and Jones: 177–180, provided specific localities in northern Sonora, Mexico. 

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