Ambystoma macrodactylum Baird, 1850

Class: Amphibia > Order: Caudata > Family: Ambystomatidae > Genus: Ambystoma > Species: Ambystoma macrodactylum

Ambystoma macrodactyla Baird, 1850 "1849", J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, Ser. 2, 1: 292. Syntypes: ANSP according to the original publication, but not found subsequently; including USNM 4042 according to Cochran, 1961, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 220: 5. Type locality: "Astoria, [Clatsop County,] Oregon", USA. Incorrect original spelling. 

Ambystoma macrodactylumGray, 1850, Cat. Spec. Amph. Coll. Brit. Mus., Batr. Grad.: 37.

Amblystoma macrodactylumCope, 1868 "1867", Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 19: 198.

Amblystoma Krausei Peters, 1882, Sitzungsber. Ges. Naturforsch. Freunde Berlin, 1882: 145. Holotype: ZMB 10364, according to Bauer, Good, and Günther, 1993, Mitt. Zool. Mus. Berlin, 69: 290. Type locality: "Buffalo (America septentrionalis)" (apparently in error inasmuch as Peters makes it clear on page 146 that this locality is Buffalo, New York, the source of a specimen of Thamnophis sirtalis). On page 146 Peters states that the type of Amblystoma krausei came . . . . "von Montana, and dem Flatheads-river", USA. Synonymy by Boulenger, 1883, Zool. Rec., 19: 26; Mittleman, 1948, Herpetologica, 4: 94.

Amblystoma epixanthum Cope, 1883, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 35: 16. Syntypes: MCZ 4900 (exchanged from ANSP, according to Barbour and Loveridge, 1929, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 69: 210), and ANSP 3880–83 (according to Fowler and Dunn, 1917, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 69: 10; these given as ANSP 13880–13883, by Malnate, 1971, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 123: 347 who noted that 13882 had been sent to MCZ). Type locality: "South [Fork of] Boise River, [Atlanta, Ellmore County], Idaho", USA. Given as "swamp near head of the South Boise River, south side of the Sawtooth Mountain Range, Idaho", USA, by Slevin, 1928, Occas. Pap. California Acad. Sci., 16: 29. Synonymy by Slevin, 1928, Occas. Pap. California Acad. Sci., 16: 29; Stejneger and Barbour, 1933, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept., Ed. 3: 6; Mittleman, 1948, Herpetologica, 4: 94.

Ambystoma krausiiBoulenger, 1883, Zool. Rec., 19: 26. Incorrect subsequent spelling.

Ambystoma stejnegeri Ruthven, 1912, Proc. U.S. Natl. Mus., 41: 517. Holotype: USNM 48598, by original designation. Type locality: "Bloomfield, Davis County, Iowa", USA, in error according to Mittleman, 1948, Herpetologica, 4: 94, who made the synonymy.

Ambystoma epixanthumFowler and Dunn, 1917, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 69: 11.

Ambystoma macrodactylumBishop, 1943, Handb. Salamanders: 139.

Ambystoma macrodactylum macrodactylumMittleman, 1948, Herpetologica, 4: 92.

Ambystoma macrodactylum krauseiMittleman, 1948, Herpetologica, 4: 94.

Ambystoma macrodactylum croceum Russell and Anderson, 1956, Herpetologica, 12: 137. Holotype: MVZ 63734, by original designation. Type locality: "Rio del Mar [Valencia Lagoon], Santa Cruz County, California", USA.

Ambystoma (Ambystoma) macrodactylumTihen, 1958, Bull. Florida State Mus., Biol. Sci., 3: 3, 39.

Ambystoma macrodactylum columbianum Ferguson, 1961, Am. Midl. Nat., 65: 313. Holotype: USNM 142228, by original designation. Type locality: "near a small lake located 0.5 miles N. Anthony Lakes (SW 1/4, Sec. 7, R37E, T7S), Union Co[unty]., Oregon, (Elev. 7100 feet)", USA.

Ambystoma macrodactylum croceumFerguson, 1961, Am. Midl. Nat., 65: 311-338.

Ambystoma macrodactylum sigillatumFerguson, 1961, Am. Midl. Nat., 65: 316. Holotype: USNM 142212, by original designation. Type locality: "100 yards W. of the boat landing in Eagle Cove of Crater Lake, Klamath Co[unty]., Oregon, (Elev. 6170 feet)", USA.

Ambystoma croceumCollins, 1991, Herpetol. Rev., 22: 43. Recognition as a distinct species due to it being diagnosable and allopatric. 

Ambystoma (Xiphonura) macrodactylum macrodactylumDubois and Raffaëlli, 2012, Alytes, 28: 48. See comment under Ambystoma regarding the status of subgenera. 

Ambystoma (Xiphonura) macrodactylum columbianum — Dubois and Raffaëlli, 2012, Alytes, 28: 48. See comment under Ambystoma regarding the status of subgenera. 

Ambystoma (Xiphonura) macrodactylum croceum — Dubois and Raffaëlli, 2012, Alytes, 28: 48. See comment under Ambystoma regarding the status of subgenera. 

Ambystoma (Xiphonura) macrodactylum krausei — Dubois and Raffaëlli, 2012, Alytes, 28: 48. See comment under Ambystoma regarding the status of subgenera. 

Ambystoma (Xiphonura) macrodactylum sigillatum — Dubois and Raffaëlli, 2012, Alytes, 28: 48. See comment under Ambystoma regarding the status of subgenera. 

English Names

Flat-footed Salamander (Ambystoma macrodactylum: Yarrow, 1882, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 24: 21).

Long-toed Salamander (Ambystoma macrodactylum: Storer, 1925, Univ. California Publ. Zool., 27: 42; Slevin, 1928, Occas. Pap. California Acad. Sci., 16: 29; Bishop, 1943, Handb. Salamanders: 139; Stebbins, 1951, Amph. W. North Am.: 36; Schmidt, 1953, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept., Ed. 6: 20; Conant, Cagle, Goin, Lowe, Neill, Netting, Schmidt, Shaw, Stebbins, and Bogert, 1956, Copeia, 1956: 173; Stebbins, 1966, Field Guide W. North Am. Rept. Amph.: 35; Collins, Huheey, Knight, and Smith, 1978, Herpetol. Circ., 7: 4; Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 27; Collins, 1997, Herpetol. Circ., 25: 5; Crother, Boundy, Campbell, de Queiroz, Frost, Highton, Iverson, Meylan, Reeder, Seidel, Sites, Taggart, Tilley, and Wake, 2001 "2000", Herpetol. Circ., 29: 18; SStebbins, 2003, Field Guide W. Rept. Amph., Ed. 3: 156; Tilley, Highton, and Wake, 2012, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 39: 13; Collins and Taggart, 2009, Standard Common Curr. Sci. Names N. Am. Amph. Turtles Rept. Crocodil., ed. 6: 10; Tilley, Highton, and Wake, 2012, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 39: 23).

Eastern Long-toed Salamander (Ambystoma macrodactylum columbianum: Stebbins, 1966, Field Guide W. North Am. Rept. Amph.: 35; Collins, Huheey, Knight, and Smith, 1978, Herpetol. Circ., 7: 4; Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 27; Collins, 1997, Herpetol. Circ., 25: 5; Crother, Boundy, Campbell, de Queiroz, Frost, Highton, Iverson, Meylan, Reeder, Seidel, Sites, Taggart, Tilley, and Wake, 2001 "2000", Herpetol. Circ., 29: 18; Tilley, Highton, and Wake, 2012, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 39: 13; Collins and Taggart, 2009, Standard Common Curr. Sci. Names N. Am. Amph. Turtles Rept. Crocodil., ed. 6: 10; Tilley, Highton, and Wake, 2012, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 39: 23; Highton, Bonett, and Jockusch, 2017, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 43: 22).

Central Long-toed Salamander (Ambystoma macrodactylum columbianum: Stebbins, 2003, Field Guide W. Rept. Amph., Ed. 3: 157).

Eastern Long-toed Salamander (Ambystoma macrodactylum krausei: Stebbins, 2003, Field Guide W. Rept. Amph., Ed. 3: 157).

Santa Cruz Long-toed Salamander (Ambystoma macrodactylum croceum: Stebbins, 1966, Field Guide W. North Am. Rept. Amph.: 35; Collins, Huheey, Knight, and Smith, 1978, Herpetol. Circ., 7: 4; Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 27; Collins, 1997, Herpetol. Circ., 25: 5; Crother, Boundy, Campbell, de Queiroz, Frost, Highton, Iverson, Meylan, Reeder, Seidel, Sites, Taggart, Tilley, and Wake, 2001 "2000", Herpetol. Circ., 29: 18; Stebbins, 2003, Field Guide W. Rept. Amph., Ed. 3: 157; Tilley, Highton, and Wake, 2012, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 39: 13; Collins and Taggart, 2009, Standard Common Curr. Sci. Names N. Am. Amph. Turtles Rept. Crocodil., ed. 6: 10; Tilley, Highton, and Wake, 2012, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 39: 23; Highton, Bonett, and Jockusch, 2017, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 43: 22).

Northern Long-toed Salamander (Ambystoma macrodactylum krausei: Stebbins, 1966, Field Guide W. North Am. Rept. Amph.: 35; Collins, Huheey, Knight, and Smith, 1978, Herpetol. Circ., 7: 4; Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 27; Collins, 1997, Herpetol. Circ., 25: 5; Crother, Boundy, Campbell, de Queiroz, Frost, Highton, Iverson, Meylan, Reeder, Seidel, Sites, Taggart, Tilley, and Wake, 2001 "2000", Herpetol. Circ., 29: 18; Tilley, Highton, and Wake, 2012, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 39: 13; Collins and Taggart, 2009, Standard Common Curr. Sci. Names N. Am. Amph. Turtles Rept. Crocodil., ed. 6: 10; Tilley, Highton, and Wake, 2012, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 39: 23; Highton, Bonett, and Jockusch, 2017, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 43: 22).

Western Long-toed Salamander (Ambystoma macrodactylum macrodactylum: Stebbins, 1966, Field Guide W. North Am. Rept. Amph.: 35; Collins, Huheey, Knight, and Smith, 1978, Herpetol. Circ., 7: 4; Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 27; Collins, 1997, Herpetol. Circ., 25: 5; Crother, Boundy, Campbell, de Queiroz, Frost, Highton, Iverson, Meylan, Reeder, Seidel, Sites, Taggart, Tilley, and Wake, 2001 "2000", Herpetol. Circ., 29: 18; Stebbins, 2003, Field Guide W. Rept. Amph., Ed. 3: 157; Tilley, Highton, and Wake, 2012, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 39: 14; Collins and Taggart, 2009, Standard Common Curr. Sci. Names N. Am. Amph. Turtles Rept. Crocodil., ed. 6: 10; Tilley, Highton, and Wake, 2012, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 39: 23; Highton, Bonett, and Jockusch, 2017, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 43: 23).

Southern Long-toed Salamander (Ambystoma macrodactylum sigillatum: Stebbins, 1966, Field Guide W. North Am. Rept. Amph.: 35; Collins, Huheey, Knight, and Smith, 1978, Herpetol. Circ., 7: 4; Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 27; Collins, 1997, Herpetol. Circ., 25: 5; Crother, Boundy, Campbell, de Queiroz, Frost, Highton, Iverson, Meylan, Reeder, Seidel, Sites, Taggart, Tilley, and Wake, 2001 "2000", Herpetol. Circ., 29: 18; Stebbins, 2003, Field Guide W. Rept. Amph., Ed. 3: 157; Tilley, Highton, and Wake, 2012, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 39: 14; Collins and Taggart, 2009, Standard Common Curr. Sci. Names N. Am. Amph. Turtles Rept. Crocodil., ed. 6: 10; Tilley, Highton, and Wake, 2012, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 39: 23; Highton, Bonett, and Jockusch, 2017, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 43: 23).

Distribution

Southeastern Alaska south through British Columbia and Vancouver I. (Canada), south to northern and central California (Santa Cruz County on the coast and in the northern Sierra Nevada Mountains) (USA) and eastward into Alberta (Canada), Idaho and western Montana (USA).

Comment

See detailed accounts by Ferguson, 1963, Cat. Am. Amph. Rept., 4: 1–2, Petranka, 1998, Salamand. U.S. Canada: 70–75, and Pilliod, 2005, in Lannoo (ed.), Amph. Declines: 617–621. Hodge, 1973, HISS News J., 1: 23, provided a record for in southeastern Alaska and mapped the range. Ream, 2013, Herpetol. Rev., 44: 619, provided a record for Revillagigedo Island, Alaska, USA. Raffaëlli, 2013, Urodeles du Monde, 2nd ed.: 110–112, provided a brief account, photo, and map. Altig and McDiarmid, 2015, Handb. Larval Amph. US and Canada: 87–88, provided an account of larval morphology. Lee-Yaw and Irwin, 2012, J. Evol. Biol., 25: 2276–2287, provided a molecular phylogeographic study that suggested that the nominal subspecies likely represent evolutionary species, although they did not make any taxonomic changes. 

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