Ambystoma jeffersonianum (Green, 1827)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Caudata > Family: Ambystomatidae > Genus: Ambystoma > Species: Ambystoma jeffersonianum

Salamandra jeffersoniana Green, 1827, Contrib. Maclurian Lyc. Arts Sci., 1: 4. Type(s): Not stated; according to Uzzell, 1967, Cat. Am. Amph. Rept., 47: 1, USNM 3968 might be the holotype (see Yarrow, 1882, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 24: 150, and Cope, 1889, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 34: 94). Type locality: "Near Chartier's creek in the vicinity of Jefferson College [formerly] at Cannonsburg", Washington County, Pennsylvania, USA.

Xiphonura jeffersonianaTschudi, 1838, Classif. Batr.: 93.

Salamandra jeffersoniana — Holbrook, 1842, N. Am. Herpetol., Ed. 2, 5: 52. 

Salamandra granulata Holbrook, 1842, N. Am. Herpetol., Ed. 2, 5: 63. Type(s): Including specimen figured on pl. 20; not now known to exist, although Cochran, 1961, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 220: 24 (maybe correctly) listed USNM 3981 (2 specimens), as syntypes of Salamandra granulata DeKay (which is nomenclaturally a subsequent usage of Salamandra granulata Holbrook) but according to Cochran, 1961, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 220: 24, and Uzzell, 1967, Cat. Am. Amph. Rept., 47: 2, these are referrable to the Ambystoma jeffersonianum complex, likely Ambystoma jeffersonianum. Type locality: "the northern districts of New York", USA. See Adler, 1976, Holbrook’s N. Am. Herpetol.: xxxviii, for discussion of authorship, and who considered Holbrook to have precedence over De Kay, 1842, Zool. New York, 1: 78. Synonymy with Salamandra jeffersoniana by Cope, 1868 "1867", Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 19: 195. Adler, 1976, Holbrook’s N. Am. Herpetol.: xxxix, noted that the synonymy is questionable. Duméril, Bibron, and Duméril, 1854, Erp. Gen., 9: 81, suggested that it may be a synonym of Plethodon glutinosus (sensu lato).

Ambystoma jeffersonianaBaird, 1850 "1849", J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, Ser. 2, 1: 283.

Ambystoma fuscum Hallowell, 1858, J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, Ser. 2, 3: 355, also described as new by Hallowell, 1858 "1857", Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 9: 10. Holotype : ANSP 1379 according to Fowler and Dunn, 1917, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 69: 10; and Malnate, 1971, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 123: 348. Type locality: "Indiana, near Hanover College", Hanover, Jefferson County, Indiana, USA. Synonymy by Cope, 1868 "1867", Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 19: 197.

Plethodon persimilis Gray, 1859, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1859: 230. Syntypes: Not stated, presumably in BMNH but not reported subsequently. Type locality: "Siam" (in error); thought in error to be from "Laos Mountains?" by Mivart, 1868 "1867", Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1867: 699; designated as "vicinity of New York City", USA, by Schmidt, 1953, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept., Ed. 6: 19. This designation considered invalid by Fouquette and Dubois, 2014, Checklist N.A. Amph. Rept.: 80. Synonymy by Noble, 1926, Am. Mus. Novit., 212: 17.

Pectoglossa persimilisMivart, 1868 "1867", Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1867: 698.

Amblystoma jeffersonianumCope, 1868 "1867", Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 19: 195.

Amblystoma platineum Cope, 1868 "1867", Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 19: 198. Syntypes: "[USNM] No. 7145 . . . [and] 4688" from original publication; by museum records, USNM 3998 and 39444 (recatalogued from 3988) (according to Cochran, 1961, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 220: 5), and ANSP 1299 ? (regarded as 'type' by Fowler and Dunn, 1917, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 69: 10); see Uzzell, 1964, Copeia, 1964: 292, for discussion. Type locality: "Cleveland, [Cuyahoga County,] Ohio", USA, and "Unknown". Resurrected by Uzzell, 1964, Copeia, 1964: 257-300, for an hypothesized gynogenetic hybrid origin lineage of Ambystoma laterale x Ambystoma jeffersonianum; that a unitary gynogenetic lineage exists was rejected by Lowcock, Licht, and Bogart, 1987, Syst. Zool., 36: 328-336. See Ambystoma laterale synonymy for further entries.

Amblystoma jeffersonianum var. fuscumCope, 1868 "1867", Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 19: 197. Incorrect subsequent spelling of the genus. 

Amblystoma persimileStrauch, 1870, Mem. Acad. Imp. Sci. St. Petersbourg, Ser. 7, 16 (4): 65.

Amblystoma jeffersonianum jeffersonianumCope, 1875, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 1: 26. Incorrect subsequent spelling of the genus. 

Ambystoma jeffersonianum platineumFowler and Dunn, 1917, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 69: 10.

Ambystoma jeffersonianum fuscumFowler and Dunn, 1917, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 69: 10.

Ambystoma jeffersonianumDunn, 1918, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 62: 458.

Amblystoma persimilisBourret, 1927, Fauna Indochine, Vert., 3: 254.

Ambystoma tremblayi Comeau, 1943, Ann. Assoc. Canad.-Franç. Avance. Sci., 9: 124. Holotype: Deposition unclear from the original paper, but apparently likely originally in the Section of Biology of the Université Laval, Quebec, Canada; considered lost by Brame, 1959, Herpetologica, 15: 20. Type locality: Not stated in original publication; designated as "Cap Rouge, [Quebec County,] Province of Quebec, Canada", by Brame, 1959, Herpetologica, 15: 20 (who also argued that the name is a nomen nudum [although characters that purport to distinguish the taxon are provided in the original—DRF]). Recognized as a gynogenetic lineage by Uzzell, 1964, Copeia, 1964: 257-300; considered part of a hybrid swarm of a Ambystoma laterale x Ambystoma jeffersonianum, and not a unitary lineage, by Lowcock, Licht, and Bogart, 1987, Syst. Zool., 36: 328-336. See Ambystoma laterale account.

Ambystoma (Ambystoma) jeffersonianumTihen, 1958, Bull. Florida State Mus., Biol. Sci., 3: 3, 39.

Ambystoma (Xiphonura) jeffersonianumDubois and Raffaëlli, 2012, Alytes, 28: 147. See comment under Ambystoma regarding the status of subgenera. 

English Names

Granulated Salamander (Salamandra granulata [a no longer recognized nomen dubium]: De Kay, 1842, Zool. New York, 1: 78; Amblystoma jeffersonianum: Smith, 1877, Tailed Amph.: 40).

Jefferson's Salamander (Jordan, 1878, Man. Vert. North. U.S., Ed. 2: 196; Yarrow, 1882, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 24: 20; Hay, 1892, Annu. Rep. Dept. Geol. Nat. Res. Indiana for 1891: 439; Brimley, 1907, J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc., 23: 153; Bishop, 1943, Handb. Salamanders: 133; Schmidt, 1953, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept., Ed. 6: 19).

Plumbeous Salamander (Rhoads, 1895, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 47: 402).

Jefferson Salamander (; Fowler, 1907, Annu. Rep. N.J. State Mus. for 1906: 50; Conant, Cagle, Goin, Lowe, Neill, Netting, Schmidt, Shaw, Stebbins, and Bogert, 1956, Copeia, 1956: 173; Conant, 1975, Field Guide Rept. Amph. E. Cent. N. Am., Ed. 2: 254; Collins, Huheey, Knight, and Smith, 1978, Herpetol. Circ., 7: 4; Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 27; Collins, 1997, Herpetol. Circ., 25: 5; Crother, Boundy, Campbell, de Queiroz, Frost, Highton, Iverson, Meylan, Reeder, Seidel, Sites, Taggart, Tilley, and Wake, 2001 "2000", Herpetol. Circ., 29: 18; Tilley, Highton, and Wake, 2012, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 39: 13; Collins and Taggart, 2009, Standard Common Curr. Sci. Names N. Am. Amph. Turtles Rept. Crocodil., ed. 6: 10; Tilley, Highton, and Wake, 2012, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 39: 23; Powell, Conant, and Collins, 2016, Field Guide Rept. Amph. E. North Am., 4th ed.: 32; Highton, Bonett, and Jockusch, 2017, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 43: 22).

Brown Salamander (Ambystoma jeffersonianum fuscum [no longer recognized]: Yarrow, 1882, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 24: 21).

Distribution

Central New Hampshire and southern Quebec (Canada) southwest to southern Indiana, extreme eastern Illinois, central Kentucky, western Virginia and West Virginia; involved in an extensive hybrid zone with Ambystoma laterale to the northwest of this area so distribution is highly provisional (see comment). 

Comment

See detailed accounts by Uzzell, 1967, Cat. Am. Amph. Rept., 47: 1–2, and (especially) Petranka, 1998, Salamand. U.S. Canada: 58–63. Involved in widespread development of hybrid swarms with Ambystoma laterale, Ambystoma texanum, and Ambystoma tigrinum (see Petranka, 1998, Salamand. U.S. Canada: 122–129, for summary). Phillips, Uzzell, Spolsky, Serb, Szafoni, and Pollowy, 1997, J. Herpetol., 31: 530–535, applied the name Ambystoma platineum to a triploid population and reportedly gynogenetic population at Kickapoo State Park, Ohio, USA. Bogart, 2003, in Sever (ed.), Reprod. Biol. Phylogeny Urodela: 109–134, discussed complex hybridization with Ambystoma laterale, Ambystoma texanum, and Ambystoma tigrinum. Bogart and Klemens, 2008, Am. Mus. Novit., 3627: 1–58, provided records of this species in the northeastern USA and its associated unisexual kleptogenic populations. Bi, Bogart, and Fu, 2008, Chromosome Res., 16: 275–289, reported on genealogical relationships of kleptogenic populations in Ontario, Canada. Brodman, 2005, in Lannoo (ed.), Amph. Declines: 611–613, provided a detailed account. Phillips and Mui, 2005, in Lannoo (ed.), Amph. Declines: 640–642, discussed the uniparental and hybrid swarms formerly called Ambystoma tremblayi and Ambystoma platineum.  Raffaëlli, 2013, Urodeles du Monde, 2nd ed.: 107–108, provided a brief account, photo, and map. Altig and McDiarmid, 2015, Handb. Larval Amph. US and Canada: 85–86, provided an account of larval morphology. 

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