Telmatobius culeus (Garman, 1876)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Telmatobiidae > Genus: Telmatobius > Species: Telmatobius culeus

Cyclorhamphus culeus Garman, 1876, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 3: 276. Syntypes: MCZ 1077-78, 1080, 1088, 1091, 1810-12 (according to Barbour and Loveridge, 1929, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 69: 247-248), UMMZ 48072 (formerly MCZ 1080), UMMZ 50096 (formerly MCZ 1079; Kluge, 1983, Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan, 166: 29), NHMW 22866 (exchanged from MCZ according to Häupl and Tiedemann, 1978, Kat. Wiss. Samml. Naturhist. Mus. Wien, 2: 15, and Häupl, Tiedemann, and Grillitsch, 1994, Kat. Wiss. Samml. Naturhist. Mus. Wien, 9: 20). Type locality: "abundant in the extensive beds of weeds which occur on the bottom of Lake Titicaca . . . . Numbers were brought up in the trawl at more than four miles from the shore"; specific type localities given by Barbour and Loveridge, 1929, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 69: 247-248 as "Achegache, Bolivia" (MCZ 1077), "Molino, Peru" (MCZ 1078), "Desaguadero Gulf, Bolivia" (MCZ 1079, lot of 5), "Carapata, Bolivia" (MCZ 1080, lot of 3), "Puno, Peru" (MCZ 1088), "Puno, Peru" (MCZ 1810-12, lot of 6).

Telmatobius culeusBarbour and Noble, 1920, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 63: 409.

Telmatobius escomeli Angel, 1923, Ann. Sci. Nat., Paris, Ser. 10, 6: 108. Holotype: MNHNP 1922. 242, according to Guibé, 1950 "1948", Cat. Types Amph. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat.: 26. Type locality: "lac Titicaca (région péruvienne)"; corrected to Lagunilla, Puno, Peru, by Schmidt, 1954, Fieldiana, Zool., 34: 284. Synonymy with Telmatobius culeus by Parker, 1940, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, Ser. 3, 1: 212.

Telmatobius escomeli escomeliParker, 1940, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, Ser. 3, 1: 212.

Telmatobius culeus albiventris Parker, 1940, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, Ser. 3, 1: 211. Syntypes: BMNH (13 specimens), not traced. Type locality: "Lago Pequeño, collected chiefly around Taquiri Island and near Taraco Point", Lake Titicaca, Peru.

Telmatobius escomeli crawfordi Parker, 1940, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, Ser. 3, 1: 212. Syntypes: BMNH (25 specimens), by original designation. Type locality: "Lagunilla Saracocha", Puno, Peru. Synonymy with Telmatobius culeus by Benavides, Ortiz, and Sites, 2002, Herpetologica, 58: 31.

Telmatobius escomeli exsul Vellard, 1951, Mem. Mus. Hist. Nat. Javier Prado, 1: 66. Holotype: MUSM 326; given as MUSM 7678 (renumbered) by Morales, Carrillo, and Ortega, 1990, Publ. Mus. Hist. Nat. Univ. Nac. Mayor San Marcos, 33: 4. Type locality: "pozo de agua junto a las termas de Yura" (= pond near the hot springs at Yura), Arequipa, Peru. Subspecies rejected by Sinsch, Salas, and Canales, 1995, Alytes, 13: 38.

Telmatobius albiventris albiventrisVellard, 1951, Mem. Mus. Hist. Nat. Javier Prado, 1: 56.

Telmatobius albiventris parkeri Vellard, 1951, Mem. Mus. Hist. Nat. Javier Prado, 1: 58. Syntypes: MUSM 157 (7 specimens); MUSM 7653 (renumbered) designated lectotype by Morales, Carrillo, and Ortega, 1990, Publ. Mus. Hist. Nat. Univ. Nac. Mayor San Marcos, 33: 3. Type locality: "laguna de Arapa, al norte del lago Titicaca", Peru.

Telmatobius albiventris punensis Vellard, 1951, Mem. Mus. Hist. Nat. Javier Prado, 1: 57. Syntypes: MUSM 237 (5 specimens) (Isla Amantani) and 238 (8 specimens) (Bahia de Puno). MUSM 12423 (renumbered) designated lectotype by Morales, Carrillo, and Ortega, 1990, Publ. Mus. Hist. Nat. Univ. Nac. Mayor San Marcos, 33: 3. Type localities: "Isla Amantani, frente a Puno", Puno, Peru and "bahia de Puno", Puno, Peru. Restricted to Isla Amatani, frente a Puno by lectotype designation.

Telmatobius culeus exsulVellard, 1953, Mem. Mus. Hist. Nat. Javier Prado, 2: 1-53.

Telmatobius culeus culeusVellard, 1953, Mem. Mus. Hist. Nat. Javier Prado, 2: 1-53.

Telmatobius culeus dispar Vellard, 1953, Mem. Mus. Hist. Nat. Javier Prado, 2: 40. Syntypes: MNHNP and MUSM; MNHNP 1957. 854 designated lectotype by Lavilla, 1988, Alytes, 7: 14. Subsequent lectotype designation as MUSM 7772 (renumbered) by Morales, Carrillo, and Ortega, 1990, Publ. Mus. Hist. Nat. Univ. Nac. Mayor San Marcos, 33: 4, is invalid; see comments by Lavilla, 1997, Cuad. Herpetol., 11: 75-80. Type locality: "en la parte inferior del río Coata (o río Juliaca), entre su unión con el río Cabanillas y el lago Titicaca", Peru. Subspecies rejected by Sinsch, Salas, and Canales, 1995, Alytes, 13: 38.

Telmatobius culeus escomeliVellard, 1953, Mem. Mus. Hist. Nat. Javier Prado, 2: 36. Subspecies rejected by Sinsch, Sinsch, Salas, and Canales, 1995, Alytes, 13: 38.

Telmatobius culeus fluviatilis Vellard, 1953, Mem. Mus. Hist. Nat. Javier Prado, 2: 40. Types: (18 specimens) no indication of depository, according to Lavilla, 1988, Alytes, 7: 6-18. Morales, Carrillo, and Ortega, 1990, Publ. Mus. Hist. Nat. Univ. Nac. Mayor San Marcos, 33: 4, regarded the syntypes as being in MUSM and designated MUSM 7755 (renumbered) as lectotype. Type locality: "en la parte inferior del río Coata (o río Juliaca), entre su unión con el río Cabanillas y el lago Titicaca", Peru. Subspecies rejected by Sinsch, Salas, and Canales, 1995, Alytes, 13: 38.

Telmatobius culeus lacustris Vellard, 1953, Mem. Mus. Hist. Nat. Javier Prado, 2: 41. Types: (3 specimens), depository not identifiable, according to Lavilla, 1988, Alytes, 7: 6-18. Morales, Carrillo, and Ortega, 1990, Publ. Mus. Hist. Nat. Univ. Nac. Mayor San Marcos, 33: 4, regarded the syntypes as being in MUSM and designated MUSM 7674 (renumbered) as lectotype. Type localities: "la laguna de la hacienda de Checayani, cerca de Azangaro, al norte del Titcaca" and "Umayo, cerca de Silustani", Peru. Subspecies rejected by Sinsch, Salas, and Canales, 1995, Alytes, 13: 38.

Telmatobius crawfordi crawfordiVellard, 1953, Mem. Mus. Hist. Nat. Javier Prado, 2: 45.

Telmatobius crawfordi semipalmatus Vellard, 1953, Mem. Mus. Hist. Nat. Javier Prado, 2: 47. Syntypes: 12 specimens, depository not identifiable, according to Lavilla, 1988, Alytes, 7: 6-18. MUSM considered to be location of syntypes and MUSM 7685 (renumbered) designated lectotype by Morales, Carrillo, and Ortega, 1990, Publ. Mus. Hist. Nat. Univ. Nac. Mayor San Marcos, 33: 4. Type locality: "en pozos honos de agua formados a la salida del lago de Chajchora y unidos al riachuelo que sirve de desaguadero al lago. Chajchora se encuentra a unos 20 km. de distancia de Saracocha y poco mas alto que esta última localidad", Peru. Synonymy with Telmatobius culeus implied by Benavides, Ortiz, and Sites, 2002, Herpetologica, 58: 31, although this particular taxon was not examined by them.

Telmatobius culeus albiventrisSchmidt, 1954, Fieldiana, Zool., 34: 284.

Telmatobius culeus parkeriSchmidt, 1954, Fieldiana, Zool., 34: 284. Vellard, 1992, in Dejoux and Iltis (eds.), Lake Titicaca: 453.

Telmatobius culeus punensisSchmidt, 1954, Fieldiana, Zool., 34: 284. Vellard, 1992, in Dejoux and Iltis (eds.), Lake Titicaca: 453.

Telmatobius albiventris albiventrisVellard, 1960, Mem. Mus. Hist. Nat. Javier Prado, 10: 1-20.

Telmatobius albiventris globulosus Vellard, 1960, Mem. Mus. Hist. Nat. Javier Prado, 10: 14. Type: MUSM 7747 (formerly 330), according to Morales, Carrillo, and Ortega, 1990, Publ. Mus. Hist. Nat. Univ. Nac. Mayor San Marcos, 33: 3. Type locality: "las playas de Copani . . . entre 2 y 3 metros de profundidad", Lake Titicaca, Huiñamarca, Peru.

Telmatobius albiventris punensisVellard, 1960, Mem. Mus. Hist. Nat. Javier Prado, 10: 1-20.

Telmatobius culeus albiventrisVellard, 1992, in Dejoux and Iltis (eds.), Lake Titicaca: 453.

Telmatobius culeus globulosusVellard, 1992, in Dejoux and Iltis (eds.), Lake Titicaca: 453.

Telmatobius culeus lacustrisVellard, 1992, in Dejoux and Iltis (eds.), Lake Titicaca: 453.

Telmatobius culeus crawfordiVellard, 1992, in Dejoux and Iltis (eds.), Lake Titicaca: 453.

English Names

Titicaca Water Frog (Telmatobius culeus: Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 84).

Crawford's Water Frog (Telmatobius crawfordi: Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 84).

White Water Frog (Telmatobius albiventris: Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 84).

Distribution

Region in vicinity of Lake Titicaca and Laguna de Arapa, Peru and Bolivia; Lake Umayo, Peru; Lake Chajchora, Peru, ca. 3810 m elevation.

Comment

All six subspecies discussed by Vellard, 1953, Mem. Mus. Hist. Nat. Javier Prado, 2: 1-53, were rejected by Sinsch, Salas, and Canales, 1995, Alytes, 13: 38 (not including former Telmatobius crawfordi). See discussion of taxonomic chaos by De la Riva, Köhler, Lötters, and Reichle, 2000, Rev. Esp. Herpetol., 14: 49. Thee subspecies of former Telmatobius crawfordi discussed by Vellard, 1953, Mem. Mus. Hist. Nat. Javier Prado, 2: 1-53, one of which, Telmatobius crawfordi microcephalus, was transferred to Telmatobius marmoratus. Former Telmatobius albiventris contained four subspecies; see Vellard, 1951, Mem. Mus. Hist. Nat. Javier Prado, 1: 1-89, and Vellard, 1960, Mem. Mus. Hist. Nat. Javier Prado, 10: 1-20. De la Riva, Köhler, Lötters, and Reichle, 2000, Rev. Esp. Herpetol., 14: 49, considered former Telmatobius albiventris a synonym of Telmatobius culeus following Vellard, 1992, in Dejoux and Iltis (eds.), Lake Titicaca: 449-457. See also Benavides, Ortiz, and Sites, 2002, Herpetologica, 58: 31-55. See comments by Lehr, 2005, in Lavilla and De la Riva (eds.), Monogr. Herpetol., 7: 51. Benavides, 2005, in Lavilla and De la Riva (eds.), Monogr. Herpetol., 7:167-185, could not distinguish Telmatobius culeus from Telmatobius marmoratus in the Lake Titicaca drainage on the basis of molecular evidence. De la Riva, 2005, in Lavilla and De la Riva (eds.), Monogr. Herpetol., 7: 71-72, provided an account. See photograph, map, description of geographic range and habitat, and conservation status in Stuart, Hoffmann, Chanson, Cox, Berridge, Ramani, and Young, 2008, Threatened Amph. World: 412. Brunetti, Muñoz-Saravia, Barrionuevo, and Reichle, 2017, Canad. J. Zool., 95: 335–343, reported on underwater vocalization. In the Telmatobius marmoratus group of Barrionuevo, 2017, Cladistics, 33: 41–68. 

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