Rhacophorus smaragdinus (Blyth, 1852)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Rhacophoridae > Subfamily: Rhacophorinae > Genus: Rhacophorus > Species: Rhacophorus smaragdiinus

Polypedates smaragdinus Blyth, 1852, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, 21: 355. Syntypes: Not stated, but ZSI 10282–285, according to Ohler and Deuti, 2018, Zootaxa, 4375: 278, who designated ZSI 10282 lectotype. Type locality: "Naga hills, Asám", India. Considered a possible senior synonym of Rana livida by Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 69; Boulenger, 1890, Fauna Brit. India, Rept. Batr.: 462; Boulenger, 1920, Rec. Indian Mus., 20: 214; Bourret, 1942, Batr. Indochine: 371. Considered a nomen dubium, likely within the Rana livida group, by Bain, Lathrop, Murphy, Orlov, and Ho, 2003, Am. Mus. Novit., 3417: 3, who discussed the history of this name. Identified by Ohler and Deuti, 2018, Zootaxa, 4375: 273–280.  

Rhacophorus maximus Günther, 1858, Arch. Naturgesch., 24: 325. Syntypes: BMNH (4 specimens) according to Günther, 1859 "1858", Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus.: 83. BMNH 43.7.21.59 ("Afghanistan") and 58.8.2.24 ("Nepal") according to Dutta, 1997, Amph. India Sri Lanka: 104. Type locality: "Nepal" and "Afghanistan" (the latter outside of know range; presumed to be in error). Type locality restricted to Khasia by Anderson, 1871, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1871: 210, this in error as this is not one of the original type localities unless Anderson's intention was to correct the data associated with one or more of the types. Synonymy by Ohler and Deuti, 2018, Zootaxa, 4375: 278. 

Rhacophorus gigas Jerdon, 1870, Proc. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, 1870: 84. Types: including ZSIC 10300 according to Ohler and Deuti, 2018, Zootaxa, 4375: 279. Type localities: "Sikkim and Khasi Hills", India. Synonymy with Rhacophorus maximus by Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 88; Boulenger, 1890, Fauna Brit. India, Rept. Batr.: 472; Wolf, 1936, Bull. Raffles Mus., 12: 203. Synonymy with Rhacophorus smaragdinus by Ohler and Deuti, 2018, Zootaxa, 4375: 279. 

Rhacophorus (Rhacophorus) maximusAhl, 1931, Das Tierreich, 55: 169; Dubois, 1987 "1986", Alytes, 5: 77.

Rhacophorus nigropalmatus maximusWolf, 1936, Bull. Raffles Mus., 12: 203.

Rhacophorus maximusInger, 1966, Fieldiana, Zool., 52: 321.

Rhacophorus smaragdinusOhler and Deuti, 2018, Zootaxa, 4375: 273. 

English Names

Nepal Flying Frog (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 113; Li, Zhao, and Dong, 2010, Amph. Rept. Tibet: 63).

Large Tree Frog (Das and Dutta, 1998, Hamadryad, 23: 67; Ahmed, Das, and Dutta, 2009, Amph. Rept. NE India: 51; Mathew and Sen, 2010, Pict. Guide Amph. NE India: 111).

Günther's Tree Frog (Chanda, 2002, Handb. Indian Amph.: 175; Li, Zhao, and Dong, 2010, Amph. Rept. Tibet: 63).

Giant Treefrog (Schleich, Anders, and Kästle, 2002, in Schleich and Kästle (eds.), Amph. Rept. Nepal: 80; Chan-ard, 2003, Photograph. Guide Amph. Thailand: 158; Dinesh, Radhakrishnan, Gururaja, and Bhatta, 2009, Rec. Zool. Surv. India, Occas. Pap., 302: 119; Li, Zhao, and Dong, 2010, Amph. Rept. Tibet: 63).

Yellow-spotted Tree Frog (Nutphund, 2001, Amph. Thailand: 144).

White-lipped Treefrog (Fei, Ye, and Jiang, 2010, Colored Atlas of Chinese Amph.: 464).

Distribution

Northeastern India (Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Mizorum, Manipur, Meghalaya, West Bengal), Nepal, western Thailand, southern China (southern Yunnan and eastern Xizang),  and northern Vietnam and southern Laos (Khammouane Province); possibly northern Bangladesh.

Comment

In the Rhacophorus (Rhacophorus) reinwardtii group of Dubois, 1987 "1986", Alytes, 5: 77; see comment under Rhacophorus for dissenting opinion regarding the recognition of this group. See account (as Rhacophorus maximus) by Liu and Hu, 1961, Tailless Amph. China: 257-258. Resurrected (as Rhacophorus maximus) from subspecies status under Rhacophorus nigropalmatus by Inger, 1966, Fieldiana, Zool., 52: 321. See accounts (as Rhacophorus maximus) by Liu and Hu, 1961, Tailless Amph. China: 257-258, and Yang, 1991, Amph. Fauna of Yunnan: 215-216. Chanda, 2002, Handb. Indian Amph.: 176, and Sarkar and Ray, 2006, In Alfred (ed.), Fauna of Arunachal Pradesh, Part 1: 311, provided brief accounts(as Rhacophorus maximus). Anders, 2002, in Schleich and Kästle (eds.), Amph. Rept. Nepal: 337-340, provided an account (as Rhacophorus maximus), figure, and map for the Nepal population and who noted that records for this species from Sri Lanka are erroneous. See brief account (as Rhacophorus maximus) by Shrestha, 2001, Herpetol. Nepal: 94-95. Sarkar, Biswas, and Ray, 1992, State Fauna Ser., 3: 93-94, provided a brief account (as Rhacophorus maximus) for West Bengal, India. Chan-ard, 2003, Photograph. Guide Amph. Thailand: 158-159, provided a very brief account (as Rhacophorus maximus), map for Thailand, and photograph. Dutta, 1997, Amph. India Sri Lanka: 104, provided bibliography and range (as Rhacophorus maximus). Ao, Bordoloi, and Ohler, 2003, Zoos' Print J., 18: 1117-1125, provided a specific locality (as Rhacophorus maximus) for Nagaland, northeastern India. Devi and Shamungou, 2006, J. Exp. Zool. India, 9: 317-324, provided a record (as Rhacophorus maximus) for Manipur, northeastern India. Orlov, Nguyen, and Ho, 2008, Russ. J. Herpetol., 15: 67-84, provided a photograph (from China) and reported this species (as Rhacophorus maximus) in Vietnam but did not note specific localities. Nguyen, Tran, Nguyen, and Pham, 2008, Herpetol. Rev., 39: 364, provided a record (as Rhacophorus maximus) for Bac Giang Province, northeastern Vietnam. Yang, 2008, in Yang and Rao (ed.), Amph. Rept. Yunnan: 114-115, provided a brief account (as Rhacophorus maximus) for Yunnan, China. Fei, Hu, Ye, and Huang, 2009, Fauna Sinica, Amph. 2: 802-806, provided an accoun (as Rhacophorus maximus) and a spot map for China and assigned this species to their Rhacophorus maximus group. Sen and Mathew, 2009, Rec. Zool. Surv. India, Occas. Pap., 285: 128, provided records (as Rhacophorus maximus) for Nagaland, northeastern India. Ahmed, Das, and Dutta, 2009, Amph. Rept. NE India: 51, provided a brief account (as Rhacophorus maximus) for northeastern India. Mathew and Sen, 2010, Pict. Guide Amph. NE India: 111-112, provided a brief characterization and photographs (as Rhacophorus maximus). Fei, Ye, and Jiang, 2010, Colored Atlas of Chinese Amph.: 464, provided a brief account (as Rhacophorus maximus) for China including photographs of specimens and habitat. Wildenhues, Gawor, Nguyen, Nguyen, Schmitz, and Ziegler, 2010, Rev. Suisse Zool., 117: 679-696, reported on larval morphology (as Rhacophorus maximus). Li, Zhao, and Dong, 2010, Amph. Rept. Tibet: 63, provided an account (as Rhacophorus maximus) for Xizang, China. See Shah and Tiwari, 2004, Herpetofauna Nepal: 82, for account (as Rhacophorus maximus) for Nepal. Fei, Ye, and Jiang, 2012, Colored Atlas Chinese Amph. Distr.: 542, provided an account, photographs, and a range map (as Rhacophorus maximus). Luu, Calame, Nguyen, Ohler, Bonkowski, and Ziegler, 2014, Herpetol. Notes, 7: 419-423, provided the first record (as Rhacophorus maximus) in Laos (Khammouane Province), suggesting the possibility of its presence in the central highlands of Vietnam. Pham, Nguyen, Ziegler, and Nguyen, 2017, Herpetol. Notes, 10: 379–381, provided records (as Rhacophorus maximus) for Son La Province, Vietnam, with notes on morphology and ecology. Pham, An, Herbst, Bonkowski, Ziegler, and Nguyen, 2017, Bonn Zool. Bull., 66: 37–53, provided records (as Rhacophorus maximus) for Cao Bang Province, Vietnam, along with observatons on morphology and natural history.   

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