Raorchestes tinniens (Jerdon, 1854)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Rhacophoridae > Subfamily: Rhacophorinae > Genus: Raorchestes > Species: Raorchestes tinniens

Phyllomedusa ? tinniens Jerdon, 1853, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, 22: 533. Holotype: Not stated, presumably originally ZSIC; reported as lost by Jerdon, 1870, Proc. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, 1870: 67, and considered lost by Bossuyt and Dubois, 2001, Zeylanica, 6: 15, who designated as neotype MNHNP 1985.0527 and described it on page 64-66. BMNH specimens of "Phyllomedusa tinniens" purchased from Jerdon should be evaluated as to possible primary type status—DRF. Type locality: South India; by implication. Neotype from "South-East of the Ooty Lake, Udhagamangalam ('Ootacamund', 'Ooty') (11° 24′ N, 76° 42′ E), Nilgiri Hills, Tamil Nadu, India".

Ixalus tinniensJerdon, 1870, Proc. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, 1870: 85.

Ixalus punctatus Anderson, 1871, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, 40: 27. Holotype: In ZSIC according to the original publication; ZSIC 2709 is holotype according to Sclater, 1892, List Batr. Indian Mus.: 21; lost according to Chanda, Das, and Dubois, 2001 "2000", Hamadryad, 25: 111, and Bossuyt and Dubois, 2001, Zeylanica, 6: 23, who designated MNHNP 1985.527 as neotype. Type locality: "Nilgiris", India. Neotype from "South-East of the Ooty Lake, Udhagamangalam ('Ootacamund', 'Ooty') (11° 24′ N, 76° 42′ E), Nilgiri Hills, Tamil Nadu India". Synonymy by Bossuyt and Dubois, 2001, Zeylanica, 6: 23.

Ixalus montanus Günther, 1876 "1875", Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1875: 574. Syntypes: BMNH, including BMNH 1947.2.6.13-15 (formerly 1872.4.14.303-305) according to Bossuyt and Dubois, 2001, Zeylanica, 6: 26, who designated (p. 25) and described (pp. 70-72) BMNH 1947.2.6.14 as lectotype. Type locality: "Kudra Mukh at an elevation of 6000 feet", India. Synonymy with Ixalus glandulosus by Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 103. Synonymy with Phyllomedusa tinniens by Bossuyt and Dubois, 2001, Zeylanica, 6: 26.

Philautus punctatusBoulenger, 1890, Fauna Brit. India, Rept. Batr.: 104.

Philautus melanensis Rao, 1937, Proc. Indian Acad. Sci., Ser. B, 6: 411. Holotype: CCB; now lost according to Dubois, 1984, Alytes, 3: 157. Type locality: "Kempholey, Hassan", Karnataka, India. Synonymy by Bossuyt and Dubois, 2001, Zeylanica, 6: 50.

Philautus (Philautus) tinniensBossuyt and Dubois, 2001, Zeylanica, 6: 15.

Pseudophilautus tinniensLi, Che, Murphy, Zhao, Zhao, Rao, and Zhang, 2009, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 53: 519. Provisional arrangement and by implication.

Raorchestes tinniensBiju, Shouche, Dubois, Dutta, and Bossuyt, 2010, Curr. Sci., Bangalore, 98: 1120, by implication.

English Names

Rao's Bubble-nest Frog (Philautus melanensis [no longer recognized]: Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 112).

Black Bush Frog (Philautus melanensis [no longer recognized]: Das and Dutta, 1998, Hamadryad, 23: 66).

Spotted Bush Frog (Philautus punctatus [no longer recognized]: Chanda, 2002, Handb. Indian Amph.: 164).

Spotted Bush Frog (Dinesh, Radhakrishnan, Gururaja, and Bhatta, 2009, Rec. Zool. Surv. India, Occas. Pap., 302: 110).

Distribution

Nilgiri Hills (Avalanche, Coonoor, Kothagiri, Naduvattam, Parsons Valley, and Udhagamandalam), Tamil Nadu, South India, 1700-2000 m elevation, extending into adjacent Kerala (see comment).

Comment

Removed from the synonymy of Ixalus glandulosus by Bossuyt and Dubois, 2001, Zeylanica, 6: 15, where it had been placed tentatively by Günther, 1876 "1875", Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1875: 573, and more formally by Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 103. Brief accounts provided by Chanda, 2002, Handb. Indian Amph.: 162 (as Philautus melanensis), page 164-167, 217-220 (as Philautus punctatus). See photograph, map, description of geographic range and habitat, and conservation status in Stuart, Hoffmann, Chanson, Cox, Berridge, Ramani, and Young, 2008, Threatened Amph. World: 535. Biju and Bossuyt, 2009, Zool. J. Linn. Soc., 155: 374-444 [434-436], provided an account, distribution map, and discussed relationships. A brief characterization, photograph, and dot map provided by Subramanian, Dinesh, and Radhakrishnan, 2013, Atlas of Endemic Amph. W. Ghats: 158. Sivaprasad, 2013, Common Amph. Kerala: 54–55, provided a brief account, photograph, and dot map for Kerala, India, including an imprecise record for the state. 

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