Polypedates leucomystax (Gravenhorst, 1829)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Rhacophoridae > Subfamily: Rhacophorinae > Genus: Polypedates > Species: Polypedates leucomystax

Hyla leucomystax Gravenhorst, 1829, Delic. Mus. Zool. Vratislav., 1: 26. Type(s): Breslau Mus. (presumably MNHHWU), according to Stejneger, 1907, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 58: 157. Type locality: "Java", Indonesia.

Hyla sexvirgata Gravenhorst, 1829, Delic. Mus. Zool. Vratislav., 1: 28. Holotype in Breslau Mus. (MNHHWU?). by original statement and according to Stejneger, 1907, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 58: 157. Type locality: "Java", Indonesia. Synonymy by Tschudi, 1838, Classif. Batr.: 75; Stejneger, 1907, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 58: 157; Boulenger, 1890, Fauna Brit. India, Rept. Batr.: 474; Boulenger, 1912, in Robinson (ed.), Vert. Fauna of the Malay Peninsula: 248; Van Kampen, 1923, Amph. Indo-Austral. Arch.: 249.

Hyla quadrilineata Wiegmann, 1834, Nova Acta Phys. Med. Acad. Caesar Leopold Carol., Halle, 17: 260. Types: Not stated, although clearly including animal figured in pl. 22, fig. 1 of the original publication. Type locality: "Java"; corrected to Manila, Luzon [Philippines], by Wolf, 1936, Bull. Raffles Mus., 12: 137-217. Synonymy by Tschudi, 1838, Classif. Batr.: 75; Theobald, 1868, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, 37: 84; Stejneger, 1907, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 58: 157; Boulenger, 1890, Fauna Brit. India, Rept. Batr.: 474; Boulenger, 1912, in Robinson (ed.), Vert. Fauna of the Malay Peninsula: 248; Van Kampen, 1923, Amph. Indo-Austral. Arch.: 249; Wolf, 1936, Bull. Raffles Mus., 12: 178; and Inger, 1954, Fieldiana, Zool., 33: 382.

Polypedates leucomystaxTschudi, 1838, Classif. Batr.: 34, 75; Duméril and Bibron, 1841, Erp. Gen., 8: 520; Siedlecki, 1909, Biol. Zentralbl., 29: 704; Fei, Ye, and Huang, 1990, Key to Chinese Amph.: 184.

Hyla leucopogon Tschudi, 1838, Classif. Batr.: 75. Types: RMNH, by original designation. Type locality: Not stated. RMNH jar label name proposed in synonymy of Hyla leucomystax Gravenhorst, 1829.

Hyla quadrivirgata Tschudi, 1838, Classif. Batr.: 75. Types: RMNH, by original designation. Type locality: Not stated. RMNH jar label name proposed in synonymy of Hyla leucomystax Gravenhorst, 1829.

Polypedates rugosus Duméril and Bibron, 1841, Erp. Gen., 8: 520. Syntypes: MNHNP. Type locality: "Java", Indonesia, and "Manille" (= Manila), Philippines. Synonymy by Boulenger, 1890, Fauna Brit. India, Rept. Batr.: 475; Stejneger, 1907, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 58: 157; Ahl, 1931, Das Tierreich, 55: 134; Wolf, 1936, Bull. Raffles Mus., 12: 178.

Polypedates quadrilineatusGünther, 1859 "1858", Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus.: 79; Günther, 1864, Rept. Brit. India: 429.

Limnodytes celebensis Fitzinger, 1861 "1860", Sitzungsber. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Phys. Math. Naturwiss. Kl., 42: 413. Types: Presumably NHMW, but not mentioned in recent type lists. Type locality: "Celebes", Indonesia. Nomen nudum. Synonymy (with Polypedates quadrilineatus) by Steindachner, 1864, Verh. Zool. Bot. Ges. Wien, 14: 253. Considered a junior synonym of Rhacophorus maculatus var. quadrilineata [sic] by Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 84.

Rhacophorus maculatus var. quadrilineataBoulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 84.

Hylorana longipes Fischer, 1885, Arch. Naturgesch., 51: 47. Holotype: BMNH 1947.2.8.37 (formerly 1885.6.15.1), according to Dubois, 1987 "1986", Alytes, 5: 81. Type locality: "Pagat, Distrikt Batang Alai", southeastern Borneo, Indonesia. Synonymy by Boulenger, 1886, Zool. Rec., 22: 23 (with Rhacophorus maculatus quadrilineata); by Stejneger, 1907, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 58: 157; Van Kampen, 1923, Amph. Indo-Austral. Arch.: 246; Wolf, 1936, Bull. Raffles Mus., 12: 178; and Dubois, 1987 "1986", Alytes, 5: 81. Not mentioned by Inger, 1966, Fieldiana, Zool., 52: 307.

Polypedates maculatus quadrilineatusFischer, 1885, Arch. Naturgesch., 51: 43.

Rhacophorus leucomystaxBoulenger, 1889, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1889: 29; Taylor and Elbel, 1958, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull., 38: 1068.

Rhacophorus leucomystax leucomystaxMocquard, 1890, Nouv. Arch. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. Paris, Ser. 3, 2: 122, 150.

Rhacophorus leucomystax quadrilineatusMocquard, 1890, Nouv. Arch. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. Paris, Ser. 3, 2: 122, 150.

Rhacophorus leucomystax var. sexvirgataBoettger, 1894, in Semon (ed.), Zool. Froschungsreisen Aust. Malay. Archipel., 5: 113.

Rhacophorus leucomystax quadrilineataWerner, 1903, Abh. Math. Physik. Cl. Bayer. Akad. Wiss., 22: 369. ]

Rhacophorus maculatus leucomystaxAnnandale, 1912, Rec. Indian Mus., 8: 14.

Rhacophorus maculatus himalayensis Annandale, 1912, Rec. Indian Mus., 8: 14, 24. Types: Not stated, although presumably originally including specimens in ZSIC. Type locality: "The Eastern Himalayas, Assam, western China". Synonymy by Ahl, 1931, Das Tierreich, 55: 127. See comment under Polypedates teraiensis.

Hyla wirzi Roux, 1927, Rev. Suisse Zool., 34: 121. Holotype: NHMB 3898 according to Forcart, 1946, Verh. Naturforsch. Ges. Basel, 57: 132. Type locality: "Région du lac Sentani, Nouvelle-Guinee hollandaise septentrionale [= northern Dutch New Guinée, near Djayapura, formerly Hollandia], West Irian, Indonesia. Considered a likely synonym of Polypedates leucomystax by Tyler, 1968, Zool. Verh., Leiden, 96: 7. Menzies, 2006, Frogs New Guinea & Solomon Is.: 271, regarded the synonymy as correct and the type locality possible.

Rhacophorus (Polypedates) leucomystaxBourret, 1927, Fauna Indochine, Vert., 3: 264.

Rhacophorus (Polypedates) quadrilineatusBourret, 1927, Fauna Indochine, Vert., 3: 264.

Rhacophorus kampeni Ahl, 1927, Sitzungsber. Ges. Naturforsch. Freunde Berlin, 1927: 43. Holotype: ZMB. Type locality: "Sumatra", Indonesia. Synonymy by Wolf, 1936, Bull. Raffles Mus., 12: 178.

Rhacophorus (Rhacophorus) kampeniAhl, 1931, Das Tierreich, 55: 116.

Rhacophorus (Rhacophorus) leucomystaxAhl, 1931, Das Tierreich, 55: 134; Dubois, 1987 "1986", Alytes, 5: 77.

Rhacophorus (Rhacophorus) himalayanusAhl, 1931, Das Tierreich, 55: 137.

Rhacophorus (Rhacophorus) leucomystax leucomystax — Wolf, 1936, Bull. Raffles Mus., 12: 178.

Rhacophorus (Rhacophorus) wirziForcart, 1946, Verh. Naturforsch. Ges. Basel, 57: 132.

Rhacophorus leucomystax quadrilineatusInger, 1954, Fieldiana, Zool., 33: 382.

Polypedates leucomystaxDutta, 1997, Amph. India Sri Lanka: 93.

English Names

Java Whipping Frog (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 113; Schleich, Anders, and Kästle, 2002, in Schleich and Kästle (eds.), Amph. Rept. Nepal: 80).

Common tree Frog (Kelaart, 1853, Prodr. Faunae Zeylan., 1: 193; Lim and Lim, 1992, Guide Amph. Rept. Singapore: 38).

Brown Tree Frog (Karsen, Lau, and Bogadek, 1986, Hong Kong Amph. Rept.: 31).

Malayan House Frog (Kiew, 1987, Malayan Nat. J., 41: 421).

Four-lined Tree Frog (Lim and Lim, 1992, Guide Amph. Rept. Singapore: 38).

Four-lined Treefrog (Grismer, 2012, Field Guide Amph. Rept. Seribuat Arch.: 62).

White-lipped Tree Frog (Polypedates leucomystax leucomystax: Maeda and Matsui, 1990, Frogs Toads Japan, Ed. 2: 161; Goris and Maeda, 2004, Guide Amph. Rept. Japan: 115).

Malayan Tree Frog (Ananjeva, Borkin, Darevsky, and Orlov, 1988, Dict. Amph. Rept. Five Languages: 133).

Brown Tree Frog (Ananjeva, Borkin, Darevsky, and Orlov, 1988, Dict. Amph. Rept. Five Languages: 133).

Bamboo Tree Frog (Shrestha, 2001, Herpetol. Nepal: 91).

House Tree Frog (Nutphund, 2001, Amph. Thailand: 138).

Jar Tree Frog (Nutphund, 2001, Amph. Thailand: 138).

Stripe Tree Frog (Nutphund, 2001, Amph. Thailand: 140).

Common Treefrog (Chan-ard, 2003, Photograph. Guide Amph. Thailand: 152).

Four-lined Tree Frog (Das, Jankowski, Makmor, and Haas, 2007, Mitt. Hamburg. Zool. Mus. Inst., 104: 162).

Distribution

Possibly eastern India and Nepal (see comment under Polypedates teraiensis) to Myanmar to southern China (see comment under Polypedates megacephalus) to Philippines, Sumatra, Sulawesi, and Borneo (Sarawak, Malaysia, and Brunei) (distribution highly provisional); introduced into the southern Ryukyus, Japan. See comment. 

Comment

In the Rhacophorus (Rhacophorus) leucomystax group of Dubois, 1987 "1986", Alytes, 5: 77; see comment under Polypedates. See Taylor, 1962, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull., 43: 496-505, for an account of the Thai populations (as Rhacophorus leucomystax); Okada, 1931, Tailless Batr. Japan. Empire: 184-185, for review (as Rhacophorus leucomystax) of Taiwan (China) population. See Bourret, 1942, Batr. Indochine: 425-430, for review (also as Rhacophorus leucomystax) of southeastern Asia populations. See also Berry, 1975, Amph. Fauna Peninsular Malaysia: 101-102, for account. See also Inger, 1954, Fieldiana, Zool., 33: 376-384, for Philippine population, and Liu, 1950, Fieldiana, Zool. Mem., 2: 370, and Liu and Hu, 1961, Tailless Amph. China: 250-261, for Chinese population (as Rhacophorus leucomystax and Rhacophorus dennysii), who included Polypedates feyi Chen, 1929, China J. Sci. Arts, Shanghai, 10: 198-199, in synonymy of Rhacophorus dennysi. The attribution of the name Hyla leucomystax to either Boie or Kuhl in Gravenhorst is in error. Gravenhorst used the label (=manuscript) name of Boie as provided by the Curator De Haan. As Gravenhorst is responsible for the description, he is the author, under the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (1984) according to M.S. Hoogmoed IN Frost, 1985, Amph. Species World: 541. See comment under Rhacophorus dennysi. Discussed by Dubois, 1987 "1986", Alytes, 5: 79-81. See account for Philippine population by Brown and Alcala, 1994, Proc. California Acad. Sci., Ser. 4, 48: 185-220 [203]. Two call types have been detected in Sabah, Malaysia, suggesting that this species is a composite (Stuebing in Inger and Tan, 1996, Raffles Bull. Zool., 44: 566). See accounts by Ye, Fei, and Hu, 1993, Rare and Economic Amph. China: 329, and by Inger, Orlov, and Darevsky, 1999, Fieldiana, Zool., N.S., 92: 25-26. Orlov, Lathrop, Murphy, and Ho, 2001, Russ. J. Herpetol., 8: 35-36, provided an account for the Vietnam population and noted the likely occurrence of five species masquerading under this name in that country alone. Iskandar, 1998, Amph. Java Bali: 89-90, provided a brief account for the Javan population. Lim and Lim, 1992, Guide Amph. Rept. Singapore: 38, provided a brief account. Maeda and Matsui, 1990, Frogs Toads Japan, Ed. 2: 158-161, provided an account for the Japanese population, and noted that the population in Okinawa is introduced from Indochina. Kuraishi, Matsui, and Ota, 2009, Pacific Sci., 63: 317-325, discussed the origin of the Ryukyu population and on the basis of molecular evidence suggested that the source population is in the Philippines. Karsen, Lau, and Bogadek, 1986, Hong Kong Amph. Rept.: 31, provided a brief account. See brief account and photo by Manthey and Grossmann, 1997, Amph. Rept. Südostasiens: 128-129, and (p. 138; without discussion regarded Rhacophorus kampeni as distinct. Huang, 1990, Fauna Zhejiang, Amph. Rept.: 86-88, provided an account. Zhang and Wen, 2000, Amph. Guangxi: 127-128, provided an account for Guangxi. Orlov, Murphy, Ananjeva, Ryabov, and Ho, 2002, Russ. J. Herpetol., 9: 96, commented on the Vietnamese distribution. See brief account by Shrestha, 2001, Herpetol. Nepal: 92-93. See comment under Rana scutigera, which is likely a junior synonym. Reported for southwestern Cambodia by Ohler, Swan, and Daltry, 2002, Raffles Bull. Zool., 50: 465-481. Nutphund, 2001, Amph. Thailand: 138-140, provided a brief characterization and photographs. Malkmus, Manthey, Vogel, Hoffmann, and Kosuch, 2002, Amph. Rept. Mount Kinabalu: 194-196, provided an account. Lever, 2003, Naturalized Rept. Amph. World: 226, regarded the populations in the Philippines and Ryukyus as indroduced. Chan-ard, 2003, Photograph. Guide Amph. Thailand: 152-153, provided a very brief account, map for Thailand, and photograph. Goris and Maeda, 2004, Guide Amph. Rept. Japan: 115-117, provided an account for Japan, map, and photograph. Teynié, David, Ohler, and Luanglath, 2004, Hamadryad, 29: 36, provided a record and comments for a member of this species group for Laos. Nguyen, Ho, and Nguyen, 2005, Checklist Amph. Rept. Vietnam: 38, provided specific localities for Vietnam. Reported for Pulau Langkawi, Kadeh, northwestern West Malaysia, by Grismer, Youmans, Wood, Ponce, Wright, Jones, Johnson, Sanders, Gower, Yaakob, and Lim, 2006, Hamadryad, 30: 61-74. See comment under Polypedates insularis. McKay, 2006, Field Guide Amph. Rept. Bali: 40-41, provided a brief account and photograph. Menzies, 2006, Frogs New Guinea & Solomon Is.: 271-272, regarded an old record for Papua New Guinea (as Hyla wirzi) as possibly correct. Das, Jankowski, Makmor, and Haas, 2007, Mitt. Hamburg. Zool. Mus. Inst., 104: 162, provided a brief description for Sarawak, Malaysia (Borneo). Yang, 2008, in Yang and Rao (ed.), Amph. Rept. Yunnan: 110-111, provided a brief account for a species in this complex (as Polypedates leucomystax) for Yunnan, China. Das, 2007, Amph. Rept. Brunei: 72, provided a photograph and brief account. See comment under Polypedates teraiensis. Mathew and Sen, 2010, Pict. Guide Amph. NE India: 103-104, provided a brief characterization and photographs of animals from northeastern India assigned by them to this species. Sheridan, Bickford, and Su, 2010, Raffles Bull. Zool., 58: 369–379, reported on significant call differences between populations in Singapore and Thailand showing only small genetic distances. Mahony, Hasan, Kabir, Ahmed, and Hossain, 2009, Hamadryad, 34: 80–94, and Sarker and Howlader, 2012, Herpetol. Rev., 43: 301, provided records assigned to this species from Bangladesh (but see comments under Polypedates teraiensis). Brown, Linkem, Siler, Sukumaran, Esselstyn, Diesmos, Iskandar, Bickford, Evans, McGuire, Grismer, Supriatna, and Andayani, 2010, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 57: : 598–619, reported on mtDNA phylogeography, which provisionally suggests that a number of subtaxa may be recognizable within nominal Polypedates leucomystax. Lü, Pang, Yang, and Zhang, 2010, Asian Herpetol. Res., Ser. 2, 1: 86–89, discussed confusion in identification of, and distribution of mtDNA haplotypes in, Polypedates megacephalus and Polypedates leucomystax in Yunnan, China. Population on Sulawesi now assigned to Polypedates iskandari. Wanger, Motzke, Saleh, and Iskandar, 2011, Salamandra, 47: 17–29, reported the species from central Sulawesi, Indonesia. Gaulke, 2011, Herpetofauna Panay Island: 110–114, provided a brief account for Panay Island, Philippines. O'Shea, Sanchez, Heacox, Kathriner, Carvalho, Ribeiro, Soares, Araujo, and Kaiser, 2012, Asian Herpetol. Res., Ser. 2, 3: 114–126, reported a population on East Timor that might be specifically distinct. See brief account by Grismer, 2012, Field Guide Amph. Rept. Seribuat Arch.: 62–64, for the Seribuat Archipelago, West Malaysia. Kuraishi, Matsui, Hamidy, Belabut, Ahmad, Panha, Sudin, Yong, Jiang, Ota, Thong, and Nishikawa, 2013, Zool. Scripta, 42: 54-70: 1–16, applied molecular evidence to the Polypedates leucomystax group and suggested that it is composed of multiple named and unnamed species and they attempted to delimit these species geographically, although ranges remains substantially provisional.Pan, Dang, Wang, Zheng, Rao, and Li, 2013, Asian Herpetol. Res., 4: 124–133, provided a phylogeny reconstruction of the Polypedates leucomystax complex that suggests that this species is restricted to southern Myanmar and Indonesia and Malaysia; but see the recent naming of Polypedates discantus from peninsular Malaysia and adjacent Thailand. Shahriza and Ibrahim, 2014, Check List, 10: 253–259, provided a photograph and brief natural history observations for a population in Kedah, West Malaysia. Sumarli, Grismer, Anuar, Muin, and Quah, 2015, Check List, 11(4, Art. 1679): 14 reported specimens from Mount Tebu, Lata Belatan, Lata Tembaka, and the base of Mount Lawit,Terregganu, West Malaysia, and briefly reported on their morphology and habitat.

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