Kurixalus appendiculatus (Günther, 1858)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Rhacophoridae > Subfamily: Rhacophorinae > Genus: Kurixalus > Species: Kurixalus appendiculatus

Polypedates appendiculatus Günther, 1858, Arch. Naturgesch., 24: 324. Syntypes: BMNH (22 specimens) according to Günther, 1859 "1858", Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus.: 79; lectotype designation of specimen from "Philippines" by designation of Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 86, as "Type". Type locality: "Philippinen"; subsequently implied (apparently in error) to be "Philippines"; "Java"; "Singapore"; and "East Indies" by Günther, 1859 "1858", Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus.: 79; restricted to "Philippines" by lectotype designation.

Rhacophorus appendiculatusBoulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 86.

Rhacophorus phyllopygus Werner, 1900, Zool. Jahrb., Jena, Abt. Syst., 13: 494. Holotype: NHMB 1187 according to Forcart, 1946, Verh. Naturforsch. Ges. Basel, 57: 130. Type locality: "Indragiri", Sumatra, Indonesia. Synonymy by Roux, 1918, Rev. Suisse Zool., 26: 414; Van Kampen, 1923, Amph. Indo-Austral. Arch.: 255; Wolf, 1936, Bull. Raffles Mus., 12: 161; Inger, 1954, Fieldiana, Zool., 33: 374.

Rhacophorus chaseni Smith, 1924, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1924: 226. Holotype: M. Smith 5972, by original designation; now BMNH according to Wolf, 1936, Bull. Raffles Mus., 12: 161. Type locality: "Teku River, alt. 1500 m., Gunong Tahan, Malay Peninsula", Malaysia. Synonymy by Smith, 1930, Bull. Raffles Mus., 3: 113.

Rhacophorus appendiculatus chaseniSmith, 1930, Bull. Raffles Mus., 3: 113. Status as subspecies doubted by Inger, 1966, Fieldiana, Zool., 52: 285.

Rhacophorus appendiculatus appendiculatusSmith, 1930, Bull. Raffles Mus., 3: 113.

Rhacophorus (Rhacophorus) appendiculatusAhl, 1931, Das Tierreich, 55: 143; Wolf, 1936, Bull. Raffles Mus., 12: 161; Dubois, 1987 "1986", Alytes, 5: 77.

Rhacophorus (Rhacophorus) chaseniAhl, 1931, Das Tierreich, 55: 147.

Rhacophorus (Rhacophorus) appendiculatus appendiculatusWolf, 1936, Bull. Raffles Mus., 12: 161.

Leptomantis appendiculatusIskandar and Colijn, 2000, Treubia, 31: 95.

Rhacophorus appendiculatusHarvey, Pemberton, and Smith, 2002, Herpetol. Monogr., 16: 47, by implication.

Kurixalus appendiculatusYu, Zhang, and Yang, 2013, Biochem. Syst. Ecol., 47: 31; Hertwig, Schweizer, Das, and Haas, 2013, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 68: 573. 

English Names

Philippine Flying Frog (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 113).

South-east Asian Tree Frog (Das and Dutta, 1998, Hamadryad, 23: 67; Mathew and Sen, 2010, Pict. Guide Amph. NE India: 108).

Brown-eyed Tree Frog (Nutphund, 2001, Amph. Thailand: 145).

Frilled Treefrog (Chan-ard, 2003, Photograph. Guide Amph. Thailand: 154); Das, Jankowski, Makmor, and Haas, 2007, Mitt. Hamburg. Zool. Mus. Inst., 104: 164).

Rough-armed Tree Frog (Nguyen, Ho, and Nguyen, 2005, Checklist Amph. Rept. Vietnam: 39).

Frilled Tree Frog (Das, 2007, Amph. Rept. Brunei: 75).

Distribution

Arunachal Pradesh, India (and presumably into adjacent northern Myanmar); peninsular Myanmar, southern peninsular Thailand, Cambodia, and central and southern Vietnam; Malaya to Sumatra, Borneo, and the Philippines.

Comment

In the Rhacophorus (Rhacophorus) appendiculatus group of Dubois, 1987 "1986", Alytes, 5: 77 (see comment under Rhacophorus for dissenting opinion). Discussed by Bourret, 1942, Batr. Indochine: 416-420. See also Berry, 1975, Amph. Fauna Peninsular Malaysia: 96-98; and Inger, 1966, Fieldiana, Zool., 52: 285-289, for account. Dring, 1979, Bull. Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.), Zool., 34: 211, noted that the generic status of this frog is uncertain. See account of Philippine population by Brown and Alcala, 1994, Proc. California Acad. Sci., Ser. 4, 48: 206. It seems extremely unlikely that one species of treefrog would range from eastern India to the Philippines to the islands of the Sunda Shelf; detailed study of geographic variation is warranted (DRF). Orlov, Lathrop, Murphy, and Ho, 2001, Russ. J. Herpetol., 8: 20, listed this species as part of the Vietnam fauna. Das and Dutta, 1998, Hamadryad, 23: 67, regarded this species as part of the Indian fauna. See identification table by Manthey and Grossmann, 1997, Amph. Rept. Südostasiens: 122-123, to compare this species to other rhacophorids of the Sunda Shelf region. Harvey, Pemberton, and Smith, 2002, Herpetol. Monogr., 16: 47, discussed and rejected the assignment of this species to Leptomantis by Iskandar and Colijn, 2000, Treubia, 31: 1-134. Orlov, Murphy, Ananjeva, Ryabov, and Ho, 2002, Russ. J. Herpetol., 9: 97, commented on the Vietnamese distribution. Malkmus, Manthey, Vogel, Hoffmann, and Kosuch, 2002, Amph. Rept. Mount Kinabalu: 204-206, provided an account. Chan-ard, 2003, Photograph. Guide Amph. Thailand: 154-155, provided a very brief account, map for Thailand, and photograph. Nguyen, Ho, and Nguyen, 2005, Checklist Amph. Rept. Vietnam: 39, provided specific localities for Vietnam. Dutta, 1997, Amph. India Sri Lanka: 97-98, provided systematic notes, access to literature, and range for Indian population. Das, Jankowski, Makmor, and Haas, 2007, Mitt. Hamburg. Zool. Mus. Inst., 104: 164, provided a brief description for Sarawak. Orlov, Nguyen, and Ho, 2008, Russ. J. Herpetol., 15: 67-84, provided a photograph and a key to differentiate this species from others in Vietnam. Das, 2007, Amph. Rept. Brunei: 75, provided a photograph and brief account. Mathew and Sen, 2010, Pict. Guide Amph. NE India: 108, provided a brief characterization and photograph of the animal assigned to this species in northeastern India. Siler, Welton, Siler, Brown, Bucol, Diesmos, and Brown, 2011, Check List, 7: 182-195, briefly discussed this species in Aurora Province, Luzon Island, Philippines. Yu, Zhang, and Yang, 2013, Biochem. Syst. Ecol., 47: 31-37, provided evidence for the placement of this species in KurixalusGonzalez, Su, Siler, Barley, Sanguila, Diesmos, and Brown, 2014, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 72: 35-41, discussed molecular biogeography in Borneo and the Philippines.  Sumarli, Grismer, Anuar, Muin, and Quah, 2015, Check List, 11(4, Art. 1679): 15, reported a specimen from Lata Tembaka, Terregganu, West Malaysia, and briefly reported on their morphology and habitat.

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