Rana temporaria Linnaeus, 1758

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Ranidae > Genus: Rana > Species: Rana temporaria

Rana temporaria Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., Ed. 10, 1: 212. Type(s): Not stated and presumed lost, but syntypic series also including animals figured by "Jonst. Quadr. T. 75 f. 5, 6, 7, 8" and "Bradl. Natur. T. 21. f. 1". Type locality: "Europa"; restricted to "Schweden" by Mertens and Müller, 1928, Abh. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges., 41: 20.

Rana aquatica Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., Ed. 10, 1: 212. Substitute name for Rana temporaria Linnaeus.

Rana hyla Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., Ed. 10, 1: 213. Types: Specimens noted by indication in the original publication (see Dubois and Ohler, 1997 "1996", Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. Paris, Sect. A, Zool., 18: 335, for discussion). Lectotype designated as specimen figured by Gesnerus, 1554, Hist. Animal.: 63, by Dubois and Ohler, 1997 "1996", Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. Paris, Sect. A, Zool., 18: 335, who reproduced the figure. Type locality: "Europa" and localities for all specimens noted by indication in the original publication; restricted to region of Zürich, canton of Zürich, Switzerland, by lectotype designation. Formerly in synonymy of Hyla arborea (by Schreiber, 1875, Herpetol. Eur.: 106); this corrected to synonymy of Rana temporaria by Dubois and Ohler, 1997 "1996", Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. Paris, Sect. A, Zool., 18: 335, who considered it a junior synonym of Rana temporaria Linnaeus, 1758, under the Principle of First Revisor.

Rana muta Laurenti, 1768, Spec. Med. Exhib. Synops. Rept.: 30, 134. Types: By indication frogs illustrated by Roesel von Rosenhof, 1758, Hist. Nat. Ran. Nost.: pl. 1, 2, 3, and frontispiece. Type locality: "primo vere in paludibus inter bufones . . . . Norimbergae . . . & Viennae". Named (see page 134) as a junior synonym of Rana temporaria Linnaeus. Synonymy by Retzius, 1800, Fauna Svec., ed. 3, 1: 285; Daudin, 1802 "An. XI", Hist. Nat. Rain. Gren. Crap., Quarto: 48; Daudin, 1803 "An. XI", Hist. Nat. Gen. Part. Rept., 8: 94; Merrem, 1820, Tent. Syst. Amph.: 175; Duméril and Bibron, 1841, Erp. Gen., 8: 359; Günther, 1859 "1858", Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus.: 16; Schreiber, 1875, Herpetol. Eur.: 125; Stejneger, 1907, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 58: 113.

Rana alpina Laurenti, 1768, Spec. Med. Exhib. Synops. Rept.: 133. Types: Not designated or known to exist. Type locality: "declivibus Schneeberg", Austria; given as "declivibus montis austriaci Schneeberg" by Gmelin, 1789, Syst. Nat., Ed. 13, 1(3): 1053. Synonymy by Bonaparte, 1840, Mem. Accad. Sci. Torino, Ser. 2, 2: 443; Fatio, 1872, Fauna Vert. Suisse, 3: 322; Schreiber, 1875, Herpetol. Eur.: 125.

Rana campanisona Laurenti, 1768, Spec. Med. Exhib. Synops. Rept.: 30, 133. Type(s): By indication frog described by Gesner, 1558, Hist. Animal. Liber III:952, and Gesner, 1586, Hist. Animal. Liber 2: 809, fig. 4 and 5. Type locality: "in paludibus Europae vulgaris". Synonymy with Alytes obstreticans by Bonaparte, 1838, Iconograph. Fauna Ital., 2 (Fasc. 23): 119; Bonaparte, 1840, Mem. Accad. Sci. Torino, Ser. 2, 2: 445; Duméril and Bibron, 1841, Erp. Gen., 8: 467; Schreiber, 1875, Herpetol. Eur.: 102; Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 448. Myers and Stothers, 2006, Arch. Nat. Hist., London, 33: 253-255, showed this to be an objective synonym of Rana hyla Linnaeus, 1758.

Rana rufa Lacépède, 1788, Hist. Nat. Quadrup. Ovip. Serpens, 16mo ed., 2: 285, 457. Lacépède, 1788, Hist. Nat. Quadrup. Ovip. Serpens, Quarto ed., 1: Table following page 618. Types: Not stated, although including many animals described or figured by other authors on page 285 of 16 mo edition and page 528 of 4to edition. Type locality: "I'le de Sardaigne" and "toute l'Europe", "l'Amerique septentrionale" and "la Virginie & La Caroline". Intended as a collected replacement name for Rana temporaria Linnaeus and Rana muta Laurenti, among a group of names most of which are pre-Linnaean. Rejected as a nonbinominal work by Opinion 2104, Anonymous, 2005, Bull. Zool. Nomencl., 62: 55. Synonymy by Boulenger, 1898, Tailless Batr. Eur., 2: 301; Stejneger, 1907, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 58: 113.

Rana atra Bonnaterre, 1789, Tab. Encyclop. Method. Trois Reg. Nat., Erp.: 3. Holotype: Specimen mentioned by Laurenti, 1768, Spec. Med. Exhib. Synops. Rept.: 133, presumed lost. Type locality: "Les Alpes". Synonymy by Schreiber, 1875, Herpetol. Eur.: 119; Boulenger, 1898, Tailless Batr. Eur., 2: 301.

Ranaria temporariaRafinesque, 1814, Specchio Sci., 2, 2: 102. Based on misidentified specimens from Sicily.

Rana alpina Risso, 1826, Hist. Nat. Principales Product. Eur. Merid., 3: 93. Types: Not designated or known to exist. Type locality: "lacs alpin" = Alpine lakes in the Maritime Alps, France. Synonymy (with Rana esculenta) by Bonaparte, 1838, Iconograph. Fauna Ital., 2 (Fasc. 22): 123; Bonaparte, 1840, Mem. Accad. Sci. Torino, Ser. 2, 2: 443; Duméril and Bibron, 1841, Erp. Gen., 8: 345; Günther, 1859 "1858", Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus.: 12. Synonymy with Rana temporaria by Boulenger, 1879, Bull. Soc. Zool. France, 4: 163; Dubois and Ohler, 1996 "1994", Zool. Polon., 39: 155.

Rana flaviventris Millet de la Turtaudière, 1828, Fauna de Maine et Loire: 663. Types: Not designated or known to exist. Type locality: "les bords de la Loire" and "l'île de Saint-Jean de la Croix", France. Synonymy by Steenstrup, 1869, Vidensk. Medd. Dansk Naturhist. Foren., Ser. 2, 1869: 1 (with Rana platyrrhinus Steenstrup); Fatio, 1872, Fauna Vert. Suisse, 3: 322; Boulenger, 1879, Bull. Soc. Zool. France, 4: 163; Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 44; Boulenger, 1898, Tailless Batr. Eur., 2: 302.

Rana temporaria var. canigoensis Boubée, 1833, Bull. Hist. Nat. France: 9. Types unknown; MNHNP 1982.605 designated neotype by Dubois, 1983, Alytes, 2: 26. Type locality: "l'etang le plus élevé du Canigou, au pied du Pic (Pyrénées-Orientales)", France [neotype from "un petit lac le Pla de Cady (Mont Canigou, Pyrénées Orientales), à 2290 m. ]). Synonymy by Boulenger, 1898, Tailless Batr. Eur., 2: 302; Dubois, 1983, Alytes, 2: 19-26.

Rana glacialis Boubée, 1833, Bull. Hist. Nat. France: 10. Types: Not stated or known to exist; MNHNP 1982.605 designated neotype by Dubois, 1983, Alytes, 2: 26. Type locality: "lac du Canigou" [neotype from "petit lac sur le Pla de Cady (Mont Canigou, Pyrénées Orientales), à 2290 m"]). Synonymy by Boulenger, 1898, Tailless Batr. Eur., 2: 302; Dubois, 1983, Alytes, 2: 19-26.

Rana scotica Bell, 1839, Hist. Brit. Rept.: 102. Holotype: Skeleton belonging to Sir William Jardine, possibly now in the BMNH. Type locality: "neighborhood of Edinburgh", Scotland, UK. Considered a possible synonym by Duméril and Bibron, 1841, Erp. Gen., 8: 360. Considered a synonym of Rana temporaria by Günther, 1859 "1858", Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus.: 16; Fatio, 1872, Fauna Vert. Suisse, 3: 322; Boulenger, 1879, Bull. Soc. Zool. France, 4: 163; Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 44.

Rana platyrrhinus Steenstrup, 1846, Versamml. Deutsch. Naturforsch. Aerzte, Kiel, 24: 134. Types: ZMUC by original designation. Type locality: "Provinzen Dänemarks", Denmark. Coined as a synonym of Rana temporaria. Synonymy by Steenstrup, 1869, Vidensk. Medd. Dansk Naturhist. Foren., Ser. 2, 1869: 3 (with Rana flaviventris Steenstrup); Fatio, 1872, Fauna Vert. Suisse, 3: 322; Schreiber, 1875, Herpetol. Eur.: 125; Boulenger, 1879, Bull. Soc. Zool. France, 4: 163; Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 44; Boulenger, 1898, Tailless Batr. Eur., 2: 302.

Rana fusca Thomas, 1855, Ann. Sci. Nat., Paris, Ser. 4, 4: 365 (not of Meyer or Blyth). Synonymy by Boulenger, 1879, Bull. Soc. Zool. France, 4: 163; Stejneger, 1907, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 58: 113. Commonly placed in synonymy here, but according to Thomas, 1855, this name was intended to be a subsequent usage of Rana fusca Rösel.

Rana temporaria var. typus Koch, 1872, Ber. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges., 1871–72: 138. Types: Not designated, presumably originally in SMF, although not mentioned in type catalogue of Mertens, 1967, Senckenb. Biol., 48(A): 1-106. Type locality: "findet sich auf Wiesen und in Wälderen überall", Germany.

Rana temporaria var. montanus Koch, 1872, Ber. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges., 1871–72: 139. Types: Not designated, presumably originally in SMF, although not mentioned in type catalogue of Mertens, 1967, Senckenb. Biol., 48(A): 1-106. Type locality: "oberhalb Dreslendorf und bei Liehbenscheid auf dem Westerwalde", Germany.

Rana temporaria var. maximus Koch, 1872, Ber. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges., 1871–72: 139. Types: Not designated, presumably originally in SMF, although not mentioned in type catalogue of Mertens, 1967, Senckenb. Biol., 48(A): 1-106. Type locality: "in einem Brandweiher in dem Dorfe Medenbach bei Dillenburg in reichlicher Anzahl", Germany.

Rana temporaria var. verrucosus Koch, 1872, Ber. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges., 1871–72: 140. Types: Not designated, presumably originally in SMF, although not mentioned in type catalogue of Mertens, 1967, Senckenb. Biol., 48(A): 1-106. Type locality: "in den sandiben Waldungen des Untermaingebietes . . . . unter Steinen im Frankfurter Wald und auf der Mombacher Haide bei Mainz", Germany.

Rana temporaria var. cinereus Koch, 1872, Ber. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges., 1871–72: 140. Types: Not designated, presumably originally in SMF, although not mentioned in type catalogue of Mertens, 1967, Senckenb. Biol., 48(A): 1-106. Type locality: "auf Torfboden im Schwanheimer Walde und anderwärts in der Ebene", Germany.

Rana temporaria var. gracilis Koch, 1872, Ber. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges., 1871–72: 141. Types: Not designated, presumably originally in SMF, although not mentioned in type catalogue of Mertens, 1967, Senckenb. Biol., 48(A): 1-106. Type locality: "in den ausgedehnten Sümpfun bei Enkheim im Utermaingebiet gefunden", Germany. Preoccupied by Rana gracilis Gravenhorst, 1829.

Rana temporaria var. acutirostris Fatio, 1872, Fauna Vert. Suisse, 3: 328. Types: Not designated, although presumably in the MHNG. Type locality: Not designated, though clearly within Switzerland. Synonymy by Boulenger, 1898, Tailless Batr. Eur., 2: 302.

Rana temporaria var. obtusirostris Fatio, 1872, Fauna Vert. Suisse, 3: 329. Types: Not designated; MHNG 689.40 is lectotype according to Schätti and Perret, 1997, Rev. Suisse Zool., 104: XXX, and Schätti, Perret, and Mariaux, 2002, Cat. Comm. Types Amph. Rept. Mus. Hist. Nat. Geneve, Vers. 4.0 (Jan. 2002): 19. Type locality: Not designated but clearly within Switzerland. Synonymy by Boulenger, 1898, Tailless Batr. Eur., 2: 302.

Rana temporaria var. platyrrhinaSchreiber, 1875, Herpetol. Eur.: 125.

Rana temporaria fuscaBedriaga, 1881, Bull. Soc. Imp. Nat. Moscou, 56: 300.

Rana fusca honnorati Herón-Royer, 1881, Bull. Acad. R. Belg., Ser. 3, 1: 139. Type(s): Not stated or known to exist. Type locality: "Basses-Alpes", now Alpes de Haute Provence, France.

Rana muta var. obtusirostrisCamerano, 1884 "1883", Mem. Accad. Sci. Torino, Ser. 2, 35: 260 (p. 76 in reprint).

Rana muta var. acutirostrisCamerano, 1884 "1883", Mem. Accad. Sci. Torino, Ser. 2, 35: 260 (p. 76 in reprint).

Rana muta var. subconcolor Camerano, 1884 "1883", Mem. Accad. Sci. Torino, Ser. 2, 35: 263 (p. 79 in reprint). Types: MZUT. Type localities: "Passo dell Colma" and "Colle di San Giovanni nella valle di Viù", Italy.

Rana muta var. flavo-maculata Camerano, 1884 "1883", Mem. Accad. Sci. Torino, Ser. 2, 35: 263 (p. 79 in reprint). Types: MZUT. Type localities: "Alpi" and "Valsavaranche", Italy.

Rana muta var. nigro-guttata Camerano, 1884 "1883", Mem. Accad. Sci. Torino, Ser. 2, 35: 263 (p. 79 in reprint). Types: MZUT. Type localities: "Cascata della Frua, nell'Ossola", Italy.

Rana muta var. atra Camerano, 1884 "1883", Mem. Accad. Sci. Torino, Ser. 2, 35: 263 (p. 79 in reprint). Types: MZUT. Type localities: "Valsavaranche e dall'Ossola", Italy.

Rana fusca var. longipes Müller, 1885, Verh. Naturforsch. Ges. Basel, 7: 670. Holotype: NHMB 615 according to Forcart, 1946, Verh. Naturforsch. Ges. Basel, 57: 129. Type locality: "Oberweiler (Baden)", Switzerland. Synonymy by Boulenger, 1898, Tailless Batr. Eur., 2: 302. Preoccupied by Rana longipes Hallowell, 1859.

Rana temporaria parvipalmata López-Seoane, 1885, Zoologist, 3rd Ser., 1885: 169. Types: Not stated or known to exist. Type locality: "inhabits the north-west of Spain, equally common from the level of the sea to an elevation of 1422 feet. Near Pontevedra, Tuy, and Ferrol, . . . "; given as "La Coruña", Spain by Salvador, 1974, Guia Anf. Rept. Esp.: 241.

Rana (Crotaphitis) fuscaSchulze, 1891, Jahresber. Abhandl. Naturwiss. Ver. Magdeburg, 1890: 176.

Rana temporaria parvipalmataBoettger, 1892, Kat. Batr. Samml. Mus. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges.: 8.

Rana temporaria var. CanigonicaBelloc, 1893, C. R. Assoc. Franç. Avanc. Sci., Paris, 21: 521. Incorrect subsequent spelling.

Rana temporaria var. marmorata Werner, 1897, Rept. Amph. Österr.: 92. Holotype: Not stated, but presumably NHMW. Type locality: "Wienerwald", Austria.

Rana temporaria var. nigromaculata Werner, 1897, Rept. Amph. Österr.: 92. Holotype: Not stated, but presumably NHMW. Type locality: "Wienerwald", Austraila.

Rana temporaria var. entzi Werner, 1897, Rept. Amph. Österr.: 92. (Given as Rana temporaria var. entzi Mehelyi . . . Magyaroszag barna bekai page 19). Holotype: Not stated. Type locality: ""Retyezát-Gebirge, Siegenburgen in der Nähe des Fenoga-Sees in 2000 Meter Meereshöhe".

Bufo campanisonusBoulenger, 1897, Tailless Batr. Eur., 1: 163. Attributed in error to "Goldfuss, Handb. D. Zool., page 484 (1820)".

Hyla hylaPrazák, 1898, Zool. Jahrb., Jena, Abt. Syst., 22: 225. Thought to apply to what is now called Hyla arborea.

Rana esculenta var. alpinaPrazák, 1898, Zool. Jahrb., Jena, Abt. Syst., 22: 208. Based (seemingly in error) on Rana esculenta var. i of Schreiber, 1875, Herpetol. Eur.: 118, which is not considered equivalent by Schreiber to Rana alipina Risso, what Prazák seems to have intended.

Rana muta platyrrhina var. concolor Prazák, 1898, Zool. Jahrb., Jena, Abt. Syst., 22: 212. Types: Based on Rana temporaria var. a of Schreiber, 1875, Herpetol. Eur.: 125. Type locality: Not designated although implied to be in Bohemia. Unavailable tetranomial.

Rana muta platyrrhina var. sordida Prazák, 1898, Zool. Jahrb., Jena, Abt. Syst., 22: 213. Types: Based on Rana temporaria var. c of Schreiber, 1875, Herpetol. Eur.: 125. Type locality: Not designated although implied to be in Bohemia. Unavailable tetranomial.

Rana muta platyrrhina var. albostriata Prazák, 1898, Zool. Jahrb., Jena, Abt. Syst., 22: 213. Types: Based on Rana temporaria var. e of Schreiber, 1875, Herpetol. Eur.: 126. Type locality: Not designated although implied to be in Bohemia. Unavailable tetranomial.

Rana muta platyrrhina var. paradoxa Prazák, 1898, Zool. Jahrb., Jena, Abt. Syst., 22: 213. Types: Based on Rana temporaria var. f of Schreiber, 1875, Herpetol. Eur.: 126. Type locality: Not designated although implied to be in Bohemia. Unavailable tetranomial.

Rana muta platyrrhina var. quaturolineata Prazák, 1898, Zool. Jahrb., Jena, Abt. Syst., 22: 213. Types: Based on Rana temporaria var. g of Schreiber, 1875, Herpetol. Eur.: 126. Type locality: Not designated although implied to be in Bohemia. Unavailable tetranomial.

Rana muta platyrrhina var. alpinaPrazák, 1898, Zool. Jahrb., Jena, Abt. Syst., 22: 213. Types: Based on Rana alpina Fitzinger, 1843. Type locality: Not designated although implied to be in Bohemia. Unavailable tetranomial.

Rana méhelyi Bolkay, 1912 "1911", Mitt. Jahrb. K. Ungar. Geol. Anst., 19: 156. Holotype: MNH unnumbered elements; MNH (no catalog number) fragment of ilium of figured in original publication considered lectotype by Sanchíz, 1998, Handb. Palaeoherpetol., 4: 124. Type locality: "near Miskolcz", Hungary. [Pleistocene fossil].

Rana temporaria subsp. mehelyiEhik, 1921, Ann. Hist. Nat. Mus. Natl. Hungarici, 18: 110.

Rana muta mutaMertens, 1925, Abh. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges., 39: 50.

Alytes campanisonus campanisonusLindholm, 1929, Zool. Anz., 85: 80. Considered Bufo obstetricans Laurenti, 1768, to be a nomen nudum. Based on specimens of Alytes obstretricans.

Alytes grandis Brunner, 1957, Neues Jarhb. Mineral. Geol. Palaeont., 1957: 374. Holotype: BSPHM 1982X.6617, right ilium. Type locality: Goessweinstein, Germany. [Pleistocene fossil.] Synonymy by Sanchíz and Schleich, 1986, Estud. Geol., Madrid, 42: 471.

Rana temporaria honnoratiMertens and Wermuth, 1960, Amph. Rept. Europas: 59. Grossenbacher, 1997, in Gasc et al. (eds.), Atlas Amph. Rept. Eur.: 158.

Rana temporaria canigoensisDubois, 1983, Alytes, 2: 19.

Rana (Rana) temporariaDubois, 1987 "1986", Alytes, 5: 41, by implication; Dubois, 1992, Bull. Mens. Soc. Linn. Lyon, 61: 333; Yuan, Zhou, Chen, Poyarkov, Chen, Jang-Liaw, Chou, Matzke, Iizuka, Min, Kuzmin, Zhang, Cannatella, Hillis, and Che, 2016, Syst. Biol., 65: 835.

Rana honnoratiMensi, Lattes, Macario, Salvidio, Giacoma, and Balletto, 1992, Zool. J. Linn. Soc., 105: 293-311.

Rana aragonensis Palanca-Soler, Vieites, and Martínez-Suárez, 1995, Lucas Mallada, 7: 236. Syntypes: Not designated although including ZFMK 64548-50, MNHNP 1997.2682-2685, and MNCN 23582 according to Vences, Palanca-Soler, Vieites, and Nieto-Roman, 1997, Herpetozoa, Wien, 10: 130, who designated MNCN 23582 lectotype. Type locality: "Alto Aragón occidental", Spain; given by Vences, Palanca-Soler, Vieites, and Nieto-Roman, 1997, Herpetozoa, Wien, 10: 130, as "Respomuse at the base of the Alaitous mountain, Circo de Piedrafita, Aragón region, Spain". Synonymy by Veith, Kosuch, and Vences, 2003, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 26: 317.

Rana temporaria aragonensisVeith, Kosuch, and Vences, 2003, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 26: 317.

Rana temporaria canigoensisVeith, Kosuch, and Vences, 2003, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 26: 317.

Rana temporaria parvipalmataVeith, Kosuch, and Vences, 2003, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 26: 317.

Rana temporaria honnoratiVeith, Kosuch, and Vences, 2003, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 26: 317.

Rana (Laurasiarana) temporariaHillis and Wilcox, 2005, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 34: 311, by implication; see Dubois, 2006, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 42: 317-330, and Hillis, 2007, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 42: 331-338, for discussion.

English Names

Common Frog (Lacépède, 1802, Nat. Hist. Ovip. Quadruped. (Kerr transl.): 236; Shaw, 1802, Gen. Zool., 3(1): 97; Gray, 1831, in Cuvier, Animal Kingdom (Griffith), 9—Appendix: 100; Cuvier, 1831, Animal Kingdom (M'Murtrie), 2: 79; Wood, 1863, Illust. Nat. Hist., 3: 157; Hellmich, 1962, Rept. Amph. Eur.: 74; Arnold and Burton, 1978, Field Guide Rept. Amph. Brit. Eur.: 78; Stumpel-Rienks, 1992, Ergänzungsband Handbuch Rept. Amph. Eur., Trivialnamen der Herpetofauna Eur.: 60; Grossenbacher, 1997, in Gasc et al. (eds.), Atlas Amph. Rept. Eur.: 158; Kuzmin, 1999, Amph. Former Soviet Union: 296; Arnold, 2002, Rept. Amph. Eur., Ed. 2: 80).

Scottish Frog (Bell, 1839, Hist. Brit. Rept.: 102 [Rana scotica]).

European Common Brown Frog (Gadow, 1901, Amphibia and Reptiles: 251).

Grass Frog (Gadow, 1901, Amphibia and Reptiles: 251; Arnold and Burton, 1978, Field Guide Rept. Amph. Brit. Eur.: 78; Stumpel-Rienks, 1992, Ergänzungsband Handbuch Rept. Amph. Eur., Trivialnamen der Herpetofauna Eur.: 60; Grossenbacher, 1997, in Gasc et al. (eds.), Atlas Amph. Rept. Eur.: 158).

Brown Frog (Ananjeva, Borkin, Darevsky, and Orlov, 1988, Dict. Amph. Rept. Five Languages: 129).

European Common Frog (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 109).

Heron's Frog (Rana honnorati [no longer recognized]; Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 107).

Distribution

Vences, Sarasola-Puente, Sanchez, Amat, and Hauswaldt, 2017, Salamandra, 53Throughout Europe east to the Urals, but excluding central and southern Iberia, southern Italy, and the southern Balkans to extreme northeastern Greece; introduced into Ireland.

Comment

In the Section Rana, subgenus Rana, Rana temporaria group of Dubois, 1992, Bull. Mens. Soc. Linn. Lyon, 61: 333. A possibly distinct species from the Pyrenees and southern France was discussed by Dubois, 1982, Alytes, 1: 56-70. See comment under Rana dalmatina. See account by Kuzmin, 1999, Amph. Former Soviet Union: 296-312. Grossenbacher, 1997, in Gasc et al. (eds.), Atlas Amph. Rept. Eur.: 158-159, discussed relevant literature and distribution. Lanza, 1983, Guide Reconoscimento Spec. Animali, Anf. Rett.: 122-126, reported on the Italian populations. Barbadillo-Escrivá, 1987, Guia INCAFO Anf. Rept. Peninsula Iberica: 181-186, provided an account for the Iberian populations. Suggested to be the sister taxon of Rana pyrenaica by Veith, Kosuch, and Vences, 2003, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 26: 310-327. Rana aragonensis redescribed by Vences, Palanca-Soler, Vieites, and Nieto-Roman, 1997, Herpetozoa, Wien, 10: 129-134. Nöllert and Nöllert, 1992, Die Amph. Eur.: 320-325, provided an account and polygon map for Europe. Arnold, 2002, Rept. Amph. Eur., Ed. 2: 80-81, provided a brief account, figure, and map. Veith, Vences, Vieites, Nieto-Roman, and Palanca-Soler, 2002, Folia Zool., 51: 307-318, discussed genetic differentiation in Spain and refuted the existence of sibling species in Spain. Brief account provided by Günther IN Engelmann, Fritzsche, Günther, and Obst, 1993, Lurche Kriechtiere Eur.: 168-173. Esteban, 1997, in Pleguezuelos (ed.), Dist. Biogeogr. Anf. Rep. Esp. Portugal: 169-171, provided a brief account, photograph, and detailed map for Iberia. Gislén and Kauri, 1959, Acta Vert., Stockholm, 1: 313-322, reported on Swedish populations. Pikulik, 1996, Zemnavodnyia Pauzuny: 96-102, provided an account for the Belarus population. Llorente, Montori, Santos, and Carretero, 1995, Atlas Amf. Rept. Catalunya Andorra: 76-77, provided an account and detailed range map for Catalunya and Andorra. See comments by Dubois, 1982, Alytes, 1: 56-70, regarding Rana honnorati. According to Mensi, Lattes, Macario, Salvidio, Giacoma, and Balletto, 1992, Zool. J. Linn. Soc., 105: 293-311, evidence from hybridization suggests that Rana honnorati is distinct from Rana temporaria. Nevertheless, regarded as a subspecies of Rana temporara by Veith, Kosuch, and Vences, 2003, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 26: 317. Naumov, 2005, Acta Zool. Bulgarica, 57: 391, provided records for Bulgaria. Valakos, Pafilis, Sotiropoulos, Lymberakis, Maragou, and Foufopoulos, 2008, Amph. Rept. Greece: 130-131, provided an account for Greece. Schmeller, Palo, and Merilä, 2008, Alytes, 25: 93-98, reported on a narrow secondary contact zone of two mtDNA populations in northern Germany. See Razzetti, Zanghellini, and Bernini, 2007, in Lanza et al. (eds.), Fauna d'Italia, 42 (Amph.): 417-424, for detailed account of the Italian population. Galán, Ludewig, Kmiec, Hauswaldt, Cabana, Ferreiro, and Vences, 2010, Amphibia-Reptilia, 31: 144-148, discussed the status of Rana temporaria parvipalmata in Spain and the low genetic divergence of southern isolates. A detailed account for the population in the Netherlands was provided by van Buggenum, 2009, in Creemers and van Delft (eds.), Amph. Rept. Nederland: 209-219. Rivera, Escoriza, Maluquer-Margalef, Arribas, and Carranza, 2011, Amf. Rept. Catalunya: 87-89, provided a brief account for northeastern Spain, Andorra, and adjacent France. Korky and Webb, 1996, Bull. Irish Biogeograph. Soc., 19: 159-191, reported on larval variation in Ireland. Stojanov, Tzankov, and Naumov, 2011, Die Amph. Rept. Bulgariens: 221-232, provided a fairly detailed account and range map for Bulgaria. Matsuba, 2012, Amphibia-Reptilia, 33: 105-111, reported on molecular phylogeography of the MC1R gene in Europe. Stefani, Gentilli, Sacchi, Razzetti, Pellitteri-Rosa, Pupin, and Galli, 2012, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 65: 718-726, reported on molecular phylogeographic structure. Cogǎlniceanu, Székely, Samoilă, Iosif, Tudor, Plăiaşu, Stănescu, and Rozylowicz, 2013, ZooKeys, 296: 35-57, provided a dot map for Romania. Vences, Hauswaldt, Steinfartz, Rupp, Goesmann, Künzel, Orozco-terWengel, Vieites, Nieto-Roman, Haas, Laugsch, Gehara, Bruchmann, Pabijan, Ludewig, Rudert, Angelini, Borkin, Crochet, Crottini, Dubois, Ficetola, Galán, Geniez, Hachtel, Jovanovic, Litvinchuk, Lymberakis, Ohler, and Smirnov, 2013, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 68: 657-670, reported on molecular phylogeography. Vences, Sarasola-Puente, Sanchez, Amat, and Hauswaldt, 2017, Salamandra, 53 : 25–33, reported on deep mtDNA lineages in Rana temporaria, with particular reference to northern Spain. 

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