Pelophylax nigromaculatus (Hallowell, 1861)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Ranidae > Genus: Pelophylax > Species: Pelophylax nigromaculatus

Rana esculenta var. japonica Günther, 1859 "1858", Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus.: 13. Syntypes: BMNH. Type localities: "Euphrates Expedition" (3 specimens), "Chusan" (3 specimens), "China" (1 specimen), "Ningpo" (6 specimens), "Japan" (4 specimens). Nomen nudum until provided with diagnosis by Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 40. Synonymy by Dubois and Ohler, 1996 "1994", Zool. Polon., 39: 162.

Rana esculenta var. japonica Maak, 1859, Puteshestvie na Amur: 153. Type(s): Not stated or known to exist. Type locality: Left shore of Amur River below the Khingan range, Evrejskaja Autonomous Region, Russia. Nomen nudum. Based on specimens of Rana nigromaculata, according to Liu, 1950, Fieldiana, Zool. Mem., 2: 309. See discussion by Dubois and Ohler, 1996 "1994", Zool. Polon., 39: 162. Preoccupied by Rana temporaria var. japonica Günther, 1859 "1858", Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus.: 17. Synonymy (with Rana esculenta chinensis) by Boulenger, 1898, Tailless Batr. Eur., 2: 206; with Rana nigromaculata by Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 40; Nikolskii, 1918, Fauna Rossii, Zemnovodnye: 34.

Rana nigromaculata Hallowell, 1861 "1860", Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 12: 500. Holotype: Deposition not stated; presumably USNM or ANSP. Type locality: "Japan"; see discussion by Dubois and Ohler, 1996 "1994", Zool. Polon., 39: 163.

Rana marmorata Hallowell, 1861 "1860", Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 12: 500. Syntypes: 2 specimens, these being USNM 12159 (2 specimens), according to Cochran, 1961, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 220: 75) and ANSP 14421, according to Malnate, 1971, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 123: 351. Type locality: "Simoda" (= Shimoda), Honshu, Japan. Synonymy with Rana esculenta by Günther, 1864, Rept. Brit. India: 408; (with Rana esculenta var. chinensis) by Boulenger, 1898, Tailless Batr. Eur., 2: 272. Synonymy by Stejneger, 1907, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 58: 94. Selected by action of first revisor by Camerano, 1879, Atti Accad. Sci. Torino, Cl. Sci. Fis. Mat. Nat., 14: 871, to be senior to Rana nigromaculata Hallowell, 1861. Secondary homonym of Pyxicephalus marmoratus Peters, 1854. Primary junior homonym of Rana marmorata Massalongo, 1854 (= Rana esculenta). Considered a senior synonym of Rana nigromaculata (under First Revisor Principle) by Camerano, 1879, Atti Accad. Sci. Torino, Cl. Sci. Fis. Mat. Nat., 14: 871.

Hoplobatrachus reinhardtii Peters, 1867, Monatsber. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1867: 711. Syntypes: ZMB 5900 (2 specimens) according to Bauer, Günther, and Klipfel, 1995, in Bauer et al. (eds.), Herpetol. Contr. W.C.H. Peters: 49. Type locality: "Malacca oder China"; restricted to China by Liu, 1950, Fieldiana, Zool. Mem., 2: 209; see comments by Dubois and Ohler, 1996 "1994", Zool. Polon., 39: 164. Synonymy by Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 40; Boulenger, 1891, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1891: 376; Stejneger, 1907, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 58: 94.

Hoplobatrachus davidi David, 1873 "1872", J. N. China Branch R. Asiat. Soc., N.S., 7: 227. Types: Not designated or known to exist. Type localities: "Pékin" and "Japon". Restricted to "Beijing, China" by Dubois and Ohler, 1996 "1994", Zool. Polon., 39: 165. Nomen nudum. Synonymy (with Rana esculenta japonica) by Boettger, 1888, Ber. Offenbach. Ver. Naturkd., 1888: 155, and by Dubois and Ohler, 1996 "1994", Zool. Polon., 39: 165.

Rana reinhardtiiMöllendorff, 1877 "1876", J. N. China Branch R. Asiat. Soc., N.S.,, 11: 105.

Rana esculenta marmorataLataste, 1880, Bull. Soc. Zool. France, 5: 61.

Rana esculenta var. japonica Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 40. Syntypes: BMNH. Type localities: "Euphrates Expedition" (3 specimens), "Chusan" (3 specimens), "China" (1 specimen), "Ningpo" (6 specimens), "Japan" (4 specimens). Nomenclatural validation of Rana esculenta japonica Günther, 1859. Preoccupied by Rana temporaria var. japonica Günther, 1859 "1858", Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus.: 17.Synonymy (with Rana esculenta chinensis) by Boulenger, 1898, Tailless Batr. Eur., 2: 206; with Rana nigromaculata by Nikolskii, 1918, Fauna Rossii, Zemnovodnye: 34.

Rana esculenta var. nigromaculataBoulenger, 1891, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1891: 376. Boettger, 1892, Kat. Batr. Samml. Mus. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges.: 5.

Rana esculenta var. chinensisBoulenger, 1898, Tailless Batr. Eur., 2: 272. Boulenger, 1918, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., Ser. 9, 2: 249, noted that his Rana esculenta var. chinensis is synonymous with Rana nigromaculata. Synonymy provided by Liu, 1950, Fieldiana, Zool. Mem., 2: 309.

Rana chinensisStone, 1899, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 51: 183. Bolkay, 1911, Proc. Washington Acad. Sci., 13: 75.

Rana nigromaculata schybanovi Terentjev, 1923, Proc. First Congr. Russ. Zool. Anat. Hist. Petrograd: 35. Syntypes: ZISP 1233-1234, according to XXX. Type locality: China. Nomen nudum. Synonymy by Liu and Hu, 1961, Tailless Amph. China: 168; Zhao and Adler, 1993, Herpetol. China: 146.

Rana nigromaculata nigromaculataTerentjev, 1923, Proc. First Congr. Russ. Zool. Anat. Hist. Petrograd: 35. Schmidt, 1927, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 54: 563.

Rana nigromaculata mongolia Schmidt, 1925, Am. Mus. Novit., 175: 1. Holotype: AMNH 18149, by original designation. Type locality: "Mai Tai Chao [= Tumd Zuoqi], northern Shansi [now part of Nei Mongol Autonomous Region]", China.

Rana nigromaculata reinhardtiiSchmidt, 1927, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 54: 564. Distinctiveness from Rana nigromaculata nigromaculata rejected by Boring, 1938 "1938–1939", Peking Nat. Hist. Bull., 13: 106.

Rana nigromaculata schybanovi Terentjev, 1927, Zool. Anz., 74: 83. Syntypes: ZISP (2 specimens), according to XXX. Type locality: "China".

Rana (Rana) nigromaculataNakamura and Ueno, 1963, Japan. Rept. Amph. Color: 44.

Pelophylax nigromaculataFei, Ye, and Huang, 1990, Key to Chinese Amph.: 133-134. Ye, Fei, and Hu, 1993, Rare and Economic Amph. China: 224.

Rana (Pelophylax) nigromaculataDubois, 1992, Bull. Mens. Soc. Linn. Lyon, 61: 332.

Hylarana nigromaculataChen, Murphy, Lathrop, Ngo, Orlov, Ho, and Somorjai, 2005, Herpetol. J., 15: 237, by implication.

Pelophylax nigromaculatusFei, Ye, Huang, Jiang, and Xie, 2005, in Fei et al. (eds.), Illust. Key Chinese Amph.: 111. Frost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 369; Che, Pang, Zhao, Wu, Zhao, and Zhang, 2007, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 43: 1-13; by implication.

English Names

Black-spotted Frog (Ananjeva, Borkin, Darevsky, and Orlov, 1988, Dict. Amph. Rept. Five Languages: 126; Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 108; Kuzmin, 1999, Amph. Former Soviet Union: 392).

Black-spotted Pond Frog (Maeda and Matsui, 1990, Frogs Toads Japan, Ed. 2: 87; Fei, 1999, Atlas Amph. China: 162; Yang, Kim, Min, and Suh, 2001, Monogr. Korean Amph.: 66; Goris and Maeda, 2004, Guide Amph. Rept. Japan: 78).

Dark-spotted Pond Frog (Karsen, Lau, and Bogadek, 1986, Hong Kong Amph. Rept.: 24).

Dark-spotted Frog (Kuzmin and Maslova, 2003, Adv. Amph. Res. Former Soviet Union, 8: 322).

Common Pond Frog (Boring, Liu, and Chou, 1932, Handb. N. China, Amph. Rept.: 30).

Chinese Edible Frog (Ananjeva, Borkin, Darevsky, and Orlov, 1988, Dict. Amph. Rept. Five Languages: 126).

Three-striped Pond Frog (Karsen, Lau, and Bogadek, 1986, Hong Kong Amph. Rept.: 24).

Distribution

Lower Amur and Ussuri River valleys (Far East Russia) through northeastern to west-central China, and the Korean Peninsula; Japan (Honshu, Shikoku, and Kyushu), below 2200 m elevation. Isolated populations in eastern Xinjiang (likely introduced) and Yunnan, China and eastern Mongolia (see comment).

Comment

Reviewed by Kawamura, 1962, J. Sci. Hiroshima Univ., B—Zool., 20: 181-193; Pope, 1931, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 61: 515-520; Liu, 1950, Fieldiana, Zool. Mem., 2: 309-313; Liu and Hu, 1961, Tailless Amph. China: 169; and Kawamura and Nishioka, 1979, Mitt. Zool. Mus. Berlin, 55: 171-185. Distribution mapped by Zhao, Macey, and Papenfuss, 1988, Asiat. Herpetol. Res., 2: 1-3. See comment under Pelophylax tenggerensis. See Yang, Yu, and Park, 1988, Korean J. Zool., 31: 1-10, for discussion of relationship with Pelophylax plancyi. See account by Kuzmin, 1999, Amph. Former Soviet Union: 392-399. Yang, 1991, Amph. Fauna of Yunnan: 141-142, and Fei, 1999, Atlas Amph. China: 164-165, provided a brief account, map, and figure. Nishioka, Sumida, and Ohtani, 1992, Sci. Rep. Lab. Amph. Biol. Hiroshima Univ., 11: 1-70, reported on allozyme variation within Japan. Highton, 2000, in Bruce et al., Biol. Plethodontid Salamanders: 236, suggested on the basis of previously published allozyme evidence, that the Japanese population is a distinct species from that on the Chinese-Korean mainland. Maeda and Matsui, 1990, Frogs Toads Japan, Ed. 2: 84-87, provided an account for Japan. Fei and Ye, 2001, Color Handbook Amph. Sichuan: 176-177, provided a brief account and illustration. Huang, 1990, Fauna Zhejiang, Amph. Rept.: 67-69, provided an account for Zhejiang populations. Zhang and Wen, 2000, Amph. Guangxi: 82, provided an account (as Pelophylax nigromaculata) for Guangxi. Liu, Wang, and Zhou, 2002, Herpetol. Sinica, 9: 157-161, reported on minor 16S rRNA geographic variation across China and Japan. Yang, Kim, Min, and Suh, 2001, Monogr. Korean Amph.: 66-67, provided a brief account, figure, and map for South Korea. Fan, Guo, and Liu, 1998, Amph. Rept. Shanxi Prov.: 63-66, provided an account for Shanxi. Goris and Maeda, 2004, Guide Amph. Rept. Japan: 78-80, provided an account, map, and photograph. Kuzmin and Maslova, 2003, Adv. Amph. Res. Former Soviet Union, 8: 322-340, provided an extensive account and regarded Rana nigromaculata as most closely related to Rana lessonae. In the Pelophylax nigromaculatus group of Fei, Ye, Huang, Jiang, and Xie, 2005, in Fei et al. (eds.), Illust. Key Chinese Amph.: 111. Zhang, Yan, Zhang, and Zhou, 2008, BMC Evol. Biol., 8(21): 1-16, reported on post-Pleistocene biogeography. Yang, 2008, in Yang and Rao (ed.), Amph. Rept. Yunnan: 69-70, provided a brief account (as Rana nigromaculata) for Yunnan. See statement of geographic range, habitat, and conservation status (as Rana nigromaculata) in Stuart, Hoffmann, Chanson, Cox, Berridge, Ramani, and Young, 2008, Threatened Amph. World: 633. Fei, Hu, Ye, and Huang, 2009, Fauna Sinica, Amph. 3: 1061-1071, provided an account, figures, and map for China and included it in their Pelophylax nigromaculatus group. Fei, Ye, and Jiang, 2010, Colored Atlas of Chinese Amph.: 286-287, provided a brief account including photographs of specimens and habitat. Fei, Ye, and Jiang, 2012, Colored Atlas Chinese Amph. Distr.: 324–325, provided an account, photographs, and a range map.  Terbish, Munkhbayar, and Munkhbaatar, 2013, Guide Amph. Rept. Mongolia: 24, suggested that the species has not recently been seen in Mongolia.Via DNA analysis the Xinjiang, China, population was identified by Wang, Liu, Zhu, Gao, and Li, 2016, Asian Herpetol. Res., 7: 69–74, to be introduced from the Beijing and Chongqing regions of China. Itoh, 2017, Curr. Herpetol., Kyoto, 36: 135–141, provided information on female vocalizations. 

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