Pelophylax lessonae (Camerano, 1882)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Ranidae > Genus: Pelophylax > Species: Pelophylax lessonae

Rana esculenta Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., Ed. 10, 1: 212. Type(s): By indication including the frogs illustrated by Roesel von Rosenhof, 1758, Hist. Nat. Ran. Nost.: 51, pl. 13, 14, and frontispiece; specimen not known to exist according to Lönnberg, 1896, Bih. K. Svenska Vetensk. Akad. Handl., 22: 1-45, and Andersson, 1900, Bih. K. Svenska Vetensk. Akad. Handl., 26: 1-29. The only surviving type specimen is actually a specimen of Rana arvalis according to Dubois and Ohler, 1996 "1994", Zool. Polon., 39: 143, and who first noted that the the specimen illustrated as Rana viridis aquaticae Roesel von Rosenhof, 1758, Hist. Nat. Ran. Nost.: pl. 13, should be considered a syntype and so designated the specimen illustrated as the lectotype of the taxon. Type locality: "In Europae fontibus"; restricted to "Mitteldeutschland" (= central Germany) by Mertens and Müller, 1928, Abh. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges., 41: 19; restricted to "Nürnberg", Germany, by Mertens and Müller, 1940, Abh. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges., 451: 18, and by lectotype designation of Dubois and Ohler, 1996 "1994", Zool. Polon., 39: 143-144. Based on a Pelophylax lessonae X Pelophylax ridibundus hybridogen.

Rana viridis Linnaeus, 1761, Fauna Svec.: 102. Reported by Dubois and Ohler, 1996 "1994", Zool. Polon., 39: 160, as an unavailable name published as a synonym of Rana esculenta. The name actually reported by Linnaeus is non-binomial, Rana viridis aquatica attributed to Roesel von Rosenhof, 1758, Hist. Nat. Ran. Nost.: 51, pl. 13. Synonymy with Rana esculenta by Günther, 1859 "1858", Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus.: 12, and Dubois and Ohler, 1996 "1994", Zool. Polon., 39: 160. Presumably a Pelophylax lessonae X Pelophylax ridibundus hybridogen.

Rana viridis Garsault, 1764, Fig. Plantes et Animaux: pl. 671. Syntypes: Animals figured on pl. 671 of the original publication. Type locality: Not stated, but presumably from the region of Paris, France. Dubois and Bour, 2010, Zootaxa, 2447: 27, have argued that Rana viridis Garsault, 1764, Fig. Plantes et Animaux: pl. 671, is a new name and not a subsequent usage of Rana viridis Linnaeus, 1761.

Rana vulgaris Lacépède, 1788, Hist. Nat. Quadrup. Ovip. Serpens, 16mo ed., 2: 457. Lacépède, 1788, Hist. Nat. Quadrup. Ovip. Serpens, Quarto ed., 1: Table following page 618 and referencing account starting on page 503. Replacement name for Rana esculenta Linnaeus, 1758, a Pelophylax lessonae X Pelophylax ridibundus hybridogen. Rejected as published in a nonbinominal work by Opinion 2104, Anonymous, 2005, Bull. Zool. Nomencl., 62: 55.

Ranaria esculenta — Rafinesque, 1814, Specchio Sci., 2, 2: 102. Based on misidentified specimens from Sicily.

Rana alpina Fitzinger, 1826, Neue Class. Rept.: 64. Type(s): Not stated, although presumably originally in NHMW. Type locality: "Alpen R. Ex Europa, Asutria et Styria". Nomen nudum. Preoccupied by Rana alpina Laurenti. Synonymy with XXX by XXX. Presumably a Pelophylax lessonae X Pelophylax ridibundus hybridogen.

Rana hispanica Fitzinger, 1826, Neue Class. Rept.: 64. Type(s): Not designated, although presumably originally in NHMW. Type locality: "Spanische R. Ex. Euopa, Hispania". Nomen nudum.

Rana maritima Risso, 1826, Hist. Nat. Principales Product. Eur. Merid., 3: 92. Types: Not stated or known to exist; Dubois and Ohler, 1996 "1994", Zool. Polon., 39:  155, suggested that a neotype designation was needed to avoid nomenclaturally threatening Rana perezi and Rana lessonae. Type locality: "Marais des bords de la mer" = marshes near the Mediterranean sea in the department of Alpes Maritimes, France. Synonymy by Bonaparte, 1838, Iconograph. Fauna Ital., 2 (Fasc. 22): 123; Bonaparte, 1840, Mem. Accad. Sci. Torino, Ser. 2, 2: 443, Duméril and Bibron, 1841, Erp. Gen., 8: 345; Günther, 1859 "1858", Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus.: 12; Schreiber, 1875, Herpetol. Eur.: 119; Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 38. See comment. Presumably a Pelophylax lessonae X Pelophylax ridibundus hybridogen.

Rana bosci Bory de Saint-Vincent, 1828, Résumé Herpetol. Hist. Nat. Rept.: 266. Types: Not stated or known to exist. Type locality: "marais de la Camargue, à l'embouchure du Rhône" [= Marshes of Camargue, Bouches-du-Rhône, France]. Placed on the Official Index of Rejected and Invalid Specific Names in Zoology by Anonymous, 1962, Bull. Zool. Nomencl., 19: 280. Synonymy with Rana maritima by Dubois and Ohler, 1996 "1994", Zool. Polon., 39: 156. Presumably a Pelophylax lessonae X Pelophylax ridibundus hybridogen.

Rana viridis Eichwald, 1830, Naturhist. Skizze Lithuanien: 234. Types: Not stated or known to exist. Type localities: Volhynien, Podolien [southern Ukraine]. Nomen nudum. Synonymy by Dubois and Ohler, 1996 "1994", Zool. Polon., 39: 156. Presumably a Pelophylax lessonae X Pelophylax ridibundus hybridogen.

Rana hispanica Bonaparte, 1839, Iconograph. Fauna Ital., 2 (Fasc. 24): pl. 81 (description by indication). Holotype: Specimen figured in pl. 81, fig. 5 of the original publication according to Dubois and Ohler, 1996 "1994", Zool. Polon., 39: 157. Type locality: Not stated; restricted to Sicily, Italy, by Mertens and Wermuth, 1960, Amph. Rept. Europas: 55, this restriction supported by discussion in Dubois and Ohler, 1996 "1994", Zool. Polon., 39: 158. Based on a hybridogen of Pelophylax bergeri x Pelophylax ridibundus according to XXX. Crochet and Dubois, 2004, In Gasc et al. (eds)., Atlas Amph. Rept. Europe, Ed. 2: 499, that because the type specimen is lost that the assignment of this name could be either to the hybridogenetic (hybrid) population or to what is currently called Pelophylax lessonae bergeri.

Rana fluviatilis Bonaparte, 1840, Mem. Accad. Sci. Torino, Ser. 2, 2: 443. Types: Not stated; Dubois and Ohler, 1996 "1994", Zool. Polon., 39: 159, suggested designating a neotype of this species that is a specimen of Rana hispanica, which Bonaparte thought might actually apply to this form. Type locality: Not designated; given as Rivers of Lombardia, Italy, by XXX. Synonymy by Dubois and Ohler, 1996 "1994", Zool. Polon., 39: 158. Based on a hybridogen of Rana bergeri x Rana ridibunda according to Crochet and Dubois, 2004, In Gasc et al. (eds)., Atlas Amph. Rept. Europe, Ed. 2: 499.

Rana viridis Duméril and Bibron, 1841, Erp. Gen., 8: 343. Types: Animals figured by Roesel von Rosenhof, 1758, Hist. Nat. Ran. Nost., as Rana viridis among many other illustrations and descriptions cited by Duméril and Bibron, 1841, Erp. Gen., 8: 343-45; lectotype designated by Dubois and Ohler, 1996 "1994", Zool. Polon., 39: 160, as the adult female figured under the name Rana viridis aquatica  Roesel von Rosenhof, 1758, Hist. Nat. Ran. Nost.: pl. 13. Type localities: Numerous by indication; restricted to Nürnberg, Germany, by lectotype designation. Nomen oblitum. Synonymy by  Dubois and Ohler, 1996 "1994", Zool. Polon., 39: 156, who noted that this description provided nomenclatural status for Rana viridis Eichwald, 1830, a nomen nudum. Name coined as a junior synonym and homonym of Rana viridis Linnaeus, 1761. Presumably a Pelophylax lessonae X Pelophylax ridibundus hybridogen.

Pelophylax esculentusFitzinger, 1843, Syst. Rept.: 31.

Rana esculenta var. lineata Massalongo, 1854, Mem. Accad. Agric. Commerc. Arti Verona, 29: 427. Types: Not stated or known to exist. Type locality: "provincia Veronese", Italy. Preoccupied by Rana lineata Schneider, 1799, Hist. Amph. Nat.: 138 (= Leptodactylus lineatus). Synonymy by Dubois and Ohler, 1996 "1994", Zool. Polon., 39: 161. Presumably a Pelophylax lessonae X Pelophylax ridibundus hybridogen.

Rana esculenta var. vulgaris Massalongo, 1854, Mem. Accad. Agric. Commerc. Arti Verona, 29: 427. Types: Not stated or known to exist. Type locality: "provincia Veronese", Italy. Synonymy with XXX by Dubois and Ohler, 1996 "1994", Zool. Polon., 39: 161. Presumably a Pelophylax lessonae X Pelophylax ridibundus hybridogen.

Rana esculenta var. roseo-virescens Massalongo, 1854, Mem. Accad. Agric. Commerc. Arti Verona, 29: 427. Types: Not stated or known to exist. Type locality: "provincia Veronese", Italy. Synonymy by Lessona, 1877, Atti R. Accad. Lincei, Ser. 3, 1: 1060; Dubois and Ohler, 1996 "1994", Zool. Polon., 39: 161. Presumably a Pelophylax lessonae X Pelophylax ridibundus hybridogen.

Rana esculenta var. marmorata Massalongo, 1854, Mem. Accad. Agric. Commerc. Arti Verona, 29: 427. Types: Not stated or known to exist. Type locality: "provincia Veronese", Italy. Senior homonym of Rana marmorata Hallowell, 1861 (= Pelophylax nigromaculata). Junior homonym of Rana marmorata Fermin, 1761. Synonymy by Dubois and Ohler, 1996 "1994", Zool. Polon., 39: 161. Presumably a Pelophylax lessonae X Pelophylax ridibundus hybridogen.

Pelophylax hispanicus — Fitzinger, 1861 "1860", Sitzungsber. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Phys. Math. Naturwiss. Kl., 42: 414.

Rana esculenta var. hispanica — Steindachner, 1867, Reise Österreichischen Fregatte Novara, Zool., Amph.: 16; Boettger, 1883, Rept. Amph. Marocco: 46. [Based on misidentified specimens from Morocco]; Boscá, 1880, Bull. Soc. Zool. France, 5: 260.

Rana agrorum Gistel, 1868, Die Lurche Europas: 165. Types: Not stated or known to exist. Type locality: Not stated; designated as Germany by Dubois and Ohler, 1996 "1994", Zool. Polon., 39: 164. Synonymy Mertens, 1936, Senckenb. Biol., 18: 76; Mertens and Wermuth, 1960, Amph. Rept. Europas: 55. Presumably a Pelophylax lessonae X Pelophylax ridibundus hybridogen.

Rana esculenta var. sylvaticus Koch, 1872, Ber. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges., 1871–72: 150. Types: Not designated, presumably originally in SMF inasmuch as Boulenger, 1891, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1891: 376, reported having examined the type (although not mentioned in the type catalogue of Mertens, 1967, Senckenb. Biol., 48(A): 1-106. Type locality: "in schattigen Weihern und Gräben der sandiben Wälder im unteren Maingebiet, so z. B. in dem Grastränkweiher bei Franfurt, bei Rödelheim und in dem Hengster bei Offenbach", Germany. Synonymy (with "Rana esculenta") by Boulenger, 1891, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1891: 376. Preoccupied by Rana sylvatica LeConte, 1825. Synonymy with Rana lessonae by Dubois and Ohler, 1996 "1994", Zool. Polon., 39: 165.

Rana meridionalis Lataste, 1876, Act. Soc. Linn. Bordeaux, Ser. 4, 1: 13. Types: Not stated but presumably in Lataste's personal collection which was deposited ultimately in the BMNH—DRF. Type locality: "Bondy" near Paris, France. Synonymy by Boulenger, 1898, Tailless Batr. Eur., 2: 271. Unavailable name for reason of being published in synonymy. Subjective senior synonym of Rana lessonae according to Dubois and Ohler, 1996 "1994", Zool. Polon., 39: 162.

Rana esculenta acutirostris Lessona, 1877, Atti R. Accad. Lincei, Ser. 3, 1: 1061. Types: Not stated. Type locality: "mezzogiorno del Piemonte, ad esempio di Saluzzo, di Mondovi, di Cuneo", Italy. Preoccupied by Rana temporaria var. acutirostris Fatio, 1872 (= Rana temporaria Linnaeus, 1758). Synonymy by Camerano, 1882 "1881", C. R. Assoc. Franç. Avanc. Sci., Paris, 10: 686, and Dubois and Ohler, 1996 "1994", Zool. Polon., 39: 166.

Rana esculenta obtusirostris Lessona, 1877, Atti R. Accad. Lincei, Ser. 3, 1: 1061. Types: Not stated. Type locality: Not stated, but implied to be the parts of Piemonte not occupied by Rana esculenta acutirostris. Preoccupied by Rana temporaria var. obtusirostris Fatio, 1872. Synonymy by Hotz and Bruno, 1980, Rend. Accad. Naz. Sci. XL, Mem. Sci. Fis. Natur., Ser. 5, 4: 86, and Dubois and Ohler, 1996 "1994", Zool. Polon., 39: 166.

Rana esculenta viridisLataste, 1880, Bull. Soc. Zool. France, 5: 61.

Rana esculenta var. lessonae Camerano, 1882 "1881", C. R. Assoc. Franç. Avanc. Sci., Paris, 10: 686. Syntypes: MZUT; MZUT An 718. 1 designated lectotype by Balletto, Cherchi, Salvidio, Lattes, Malacrida, Gasperi, and Doria, 1986, Boll. Zool., Padua, 53: 107. This lectotype designation discussed with possible problems by Gavetti and Andreone, 1993, Cat. Mus. Reg. Sci. Nat., Torino, 10: 95. Type locality: "Lombardie, de la France et même de la Sicile (Modica). En Piémont, les environs de Mondovi, Saluzzo, Cuneo, c'est-à-dire la partie méridionale du Piemont"; reported as "Padano-Venetian plains", Italy by a Balletto, Cherchi, Salvidio, Lattes, Malacrida, Gasperi, and Doria, 1986, Boll. Zool., Padua, 53: 107; restricted to "Testona (Torino: Italy)", just east of Moncalieri, Torino, Italy by lectotype designation of Balletto, Cherchi, Salvidio, Lattes, Malacrida, Gasperi, and Doria, 1986, Boll. Zool., Padua, 53: 107.

Rana esculenta var. viridisBedriaga, 1883, Arch. Naturgesch., 49: 256; Camerano, 1884 "1883", Mem. Accad. Sci. Torino, Ser. 2, 35: 245 (based on Italian specimens, presumably of Rana ridibunda).

Rana esculenta subsp. lessonaeCamerano, 1884 "1883", Mem. Accad. Sci. Torino, Ser. 2, 35: 246.

Rana esculenta subsp. lessonae var. immaculata Camerano, 1884 "1883", Mem. Accad. Sci. Torino, Ser. 2, 35: 250. Types: MZUT. Type locality: "Piemonte, Novarese, Veneto", Italy. Unavailable by reason of tetranomial nomenclature. Synonymy b Dubois and Ohler, 1996 "1994", Zool. Polon., 39: 169.

Rana esculenta subsp. lessonae var. maculata Camerano, 1884 "1883", Mem. Accad. Sci. Torino, Ser. 2, 35: 250. Types: MZUT. Type locality: "Novarese, Veneto", Italy. Unavailable by reason of tetranomial nomenclature and being preoccupied by Rana maculata Brocchi, 1877. Synonymy by Nikolskii, 1918, Fauna Rossii, Zemnovodnye: 32; Dubois and Ohler, 1996 "1994", Zool. Polon., 39: 169.

Rana esculenta subsp. lessonae var. nigrovittata Camerano, 1884 "1883", Mem. Accad. Sci. Torino, Ser. 2, 35: 250. Types: MZUT. Type locality: "Barbarighe nell'estuario Veneto", Italy. Unavailable by reason of tetranomial nomenclature. Synonymy by Dubois and Ohler, 1996 "1994", Zool. Polon., 39: 169.

Rana esculenta subsp. lessonae var. punctata Camerano, 1884 "1883", Mem. Accad. Sci. Torino, Ser. 2, 35: 250. Types: MZUT. Type locality: Novara province (Piemonte) and Veneto, Italy. Unavailable by reason of tetranomial nomenclature and being preoccupied by Rana punctata Daudin, 1802 (= Pelodytes punctatus). Synonymy by Dubois and Ohler, 1996 "1994", Zool. Polon., 39: 169.

Rana (Baliopygus) viridisSchulze, 1891, Jahresber. Abhandl. Naturwiss. Ver. Magdeburg, 1890: 177.

Rana esculenta var. alpinaBoettger, 1892, Kat. Batr. Samml. Mus. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges.: 7.

Rana esculenta var. lessonaiDürigen, 1897, Deutschl. Amph. Rept.: 427. Incorrect subsequent spelling.

Rana esculenta var. castanea Prazák, 1898, Zool. Jahrb., Jena, Abt. Syst., 22: 209. Types: Based on Rana esculenta var. lessonae pictured in fig. 1 of Boulenger, 1884, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1884: 573-576. Type locality: Not designated although implied to be in Bohemia (although Boulenger's specimens are explicitly from "Stow Bedon", Norfolk, England). Placement in what is now Rana lessonae intended by way of explanation associated with original publication.

Rana esculenta var. meridionalis Prazák, 1898, Zool. Jahrb., Jena, Abt. Syst., 22: 210. Types: Based on Rana esculenta var. v of Schreiber, 1875, Herpetol. Eur.: 119. Type locality: "Croatia" according to Schreiber, 1875, Herpetol. Eur.: 119. Placement in what is now Rana lessonae intended by way of explanation associated with original publication.

Rana esculenta var. concolor Prazák, 1898, Zool. Jahrb., Jena, Abt. Syst., 22: 208. Types: Not designated. Type locality: "Croatia" (as cited by Schreiber, 1875, Herpetol. Eur.: 118) for his Rana esculenta var. e on which this taxon is based. Presumably a Pelophylax lessonae X Pelophylax ridibundus hybridogen.

Rana esculenta var. immaculata Prazák, 1898, Zool. Jahrb., Jena, Abt. Syst., 22: 208. Types: Not designated. Type locality: Not designated although implied to be Bohemia. Based on Rana esculenta var. f of Schreiber, 1875, Herpetol. Eur.: 118. Presumably a Pelophylax lessonae X Pelophylax ridibundus hybridogen.

Rana esculenta var. grisescens Prazák, 1898, Zool. Jahrb., Jena, Abt. Syst., 22: 208. Types: Not designated. Type locality: Not designated although implied to be Bohemia. Presumably a Pelophylax lessonae X Pelophylax ridibundus hybridogen.

Rana esculenta var. paulopunctata Prazák, 1898, Zool. Jahrb., Jena, Abt. Syst., 22: 209. Types: Not designated. Type locality: "Chersones taur." (from Schreiber, 1875, Herpetol. Eur.: 119). Based on Rana esculenta var. r of Schreiber, 1875, Herpetol. Eur.: 119. Presumably a Pelophylax lessonae X Pelophylax ridibundus hybridogen.

Rana esculenta var. rubiginosa Prazák, 1898, Zool. Jahrb., Jena, Abt. Syst., 22: 209. Types: Not designated. Type locality: Not designated although implied to be in Bohemia. Based on Rana esculenta var. t of Schreiber, 1875, Herpetol. Eur.: 119. Presumably a Pelophylax lessonae X Pelophylax ridibundus hybridogen.

Rana esculenta var. bolkayi Fejérváry, 1909, Beitr. Herpetol. Rhônetales: 20. Types: Not stated. Type locality: "In den Sümpfuen bei der Rhônemündung und zwar in der Gegend von Villeneuve, Noville und Bouveret". Synonymy by Fejérváry, 1922, Mag. Tudom. Akd. Balkan Kutat. Tudomán. Eredm., 1: 32.

Rana (Rana) esculentaBoulenger, 1920, Rec. Indian Mus., 20: 9.

Rana (Rana) esculentaBoulenger, 1920, Rec. Indian Mus., 20: 9.

Rana lessonae pannonica Karaman, 1948, Prirodoslovna Istrazivanja, Zagreb, 24: 62. Types: Not stated. Type locality: "Obedska baru" and "Beocin", Vojvodina, Serbia; "Smedereva", Serbia; "Vukovar, Ilok, [and] Ludina-Vidrenjak", and "Zagreba", Croatia; "Prud", Bosnia and Herzegovina. Synonymy by Dubois and Ohler, 1996 "1994", Zool. Polon., 39: 176.

Rana lessonaeBerger, 1966, Ann. Zool., Warszawa, 23: 321.

Rana esculenta var. hungarica Toutain, 1966, Bull. Soc. Linn. Normandie, Ser. 10, 7: 180-181. Nomen nudum. Synonymy by Dubois and Ohler, 1996 "1994", Zool. Polon., 39: 207.

Rana kl. esculenta — Dubois and Günther, 1982, Zool. Jahrb., Jena, Abt. Syst., 109: 290-305.

Rana lessonae bergeri Günther In Engelmann, Fritzsche, Günther, and Obst, 1986, Lurche Kriechtiere Eur.: 180. Type(s): Not stated; male figured in original description designated lectotype by Dubois and Ohler, 1996 "1994", Zool. Polon., 39: 177. Type locality: Not stated; designated as "Region of Roma (41° 54′ N, 12° 29′ E, Lazio, Italy" by Dubois and Ohler, 1996 "1994", Zool. Polon., 39: 177.

Rana (Pelophylax) bergeri — Dubois and Ohler, 1996 "1994", Zool. Polon., 39: 177.

Rana (Pelophylax) kl. hispanica — Dubois and Ohler, 1996 "1994", Zool. Polon., 39: 157.

Rana lessonae bergeri — Crochet and Dubois, 2004, In Gasc et al. (eds)., Atlas Amph. Rept. Europe, Ed. 2: 499.

Hylarana bergeri — Chen, Murphy, Lathrop, Ngo, Orlov, Ho, and Somorjai, 2005, Herpetol. J., 15: 237, by implication.

Pelophylax bergeri — Frost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 369; Che, Pang, Zhao, Wu, Zhao, and Zhang, 2007, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 43: 1-13; by implication.

Rana (Rana) lessonaeDubois, 1987 "1986", Alytes, 5: 41, by implication.

Rana (Pelophylax) lessonaeDubois, 1992, Bull. Mens. Soc. Linn. Lyon, 61: 332.

Rana (Pelophylax) kl. esculentaDubois, 1992, Bull. Mens. Soc. Linn. Lyon, 61: 332.

Rana (Pelophylax) kl. maritima — Dubois and Ohler, 1996 "1994", Zool. Polon., 39: 155.

Rana lessonae lessonaeCrochet and Dubois, 2004, In Gasc et al. (eds)., Atlas Amph. Rept. Europe, Ed. 2: 499.

Hylarana lessonaeChen, Murphy, Lathrop, Ngo, Orlov, Ho, and Somorjai, 2005, Herpetol. J., 15: 237, by implication.

Pelophylax lessonaeFrost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 369. Che, Pang, Zhao, Wu, Zhao, and Zhang, 2007, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 43: 1-13; by implication.

English Names

Pool Frog (Arnold and Burton, 1978, Field Guide Rept. Amph. Brit. Eur.: 85; Stumpel-Rienks, 1992, Ergänzungsband Handbuch Rept. Amph. Eur., Trivialnamen der Herpetofauna Eur.: 58; Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 108; Günther, 1997, in Gasc et al. (eds.), Atlas Amph. Rept. Eur.: 148; Kuzmin, 1999, Amph. Former Soviet Union: 377; Arnold, 2002, Rept. Amph. Eur., Ed. 2: 90).

Little Water Frog (Ananjeva, Borkin, Darevsky, and Orlov, 1988, Dict. Amph. Rept. Five Languages: 124).

Green Frog (Rana esculenta [a hybrid with Rana ridibunda]: Shaw, 1802, Gen. Zool., 3(1): 103; Gray, 1831, in Cuvier, Animal Kingdom (Griffith), 9—Appendix: 100; Cuvier, 1831, Animal Kingdom (M'Murtrie), 2: 78; Wood, 1863, Illust. Nat. Hist., 3: 159; Stumpel-Rienks, 1992, Ergänzungsband Handbuch Rept. Amph. Eur., Trivialnamen der Herpetofauna Eur.: 56).

Common Water-frog (Rana esculenta [a hybrid with Rana ridibunda]: Gadow, 1901, Amphibia and Reptiles: 263).

Edible Frog (Rana esculenta [a hybrid with Rana ridibunda]: Lacépède, 1802, Nat. Hist. Ovip. Quadruped. (Kerr transl.): 197; Wood, 1863, Illust. Nat. Hist., 3: 159; Boulenger, 1891, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1891: 374; Flower, 1933, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1933: 844; Arnold and Burton, 1978, Field Guide Rept. Amph. Brit. Eur.: 87; Stumpel-Rienks, 1992, Ergänzungsband Handbuch Rept. Amph. Eur., Trivialnamen der Herpetofauna Eur.: 55; Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 107; Kuzmin, 1999, Amph. Former Soviet Union: 384; Arnold, 2002, Rept. Amph. Eur., Ed. 2: 92).

Italian Pool Frog (Pelophylax lessonae bergeriArnold, 2002, Rept. Amph. Eur., Ed. 2: 94).

Italian hybrid Frog (Rana kl. hispanica [hybridogen of Rana bergeri x Rana ridibunda]: XXX).

Distribution

France (including Corsica) and southern Sweden to Volga River basin (Russia), Italy (including Sicily), Slovenia, and Croatia, and to Romania; introduced into southern England. Isolated record in southern Norway.

Comment

Formerly often confused with "Rana esculenta", its hybridogenetic associate. See Pelophylax bergeri and Pelophylax shqipericus. See Tunner, 1978 "1977", Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien, 81: 465-474, for geographic variation. See account by Kuzmin, 1999, Amph. Former Soviet Union: 377-384. Günther, 1997, in Gasc et al. (eds.), Atlas Amph. Rept. Eur.: 148-149, discussed range and relevant literature. Lanza, 1983, Guide Reconoscimento Spec. Animali, Anf. Rett.: 132-138, reported on the Italian populations. Nöllert and Nöllert, 1992, Die Amph. Eur.: 346-349, provided an account and polygon map for Rana lessonae and on page 349-352, for its hybridogenetic associate, Rana kl. esculenta. Arnold, 2002, Rept. Amph. Eur., Ed. 2: 90-91, provided a brief account, figure, and map as did Günther IN Engelmann, Fritzsche, Günther, and Obst, 1993, Lurche Kriechtiere Eur.: 176-178. Wycherley, Doran, and Beebee, 2002, Biol. J. Linn. Soc., 77: 355-365, reported on geographic varation in male advertisement call characteristics. Wycherley, Doran, and Beebee, 2003, J. Zool., London, 258: 479-484, reported on the congruence of geographic variation in microsatellites and calls. Pikulik, 1996, Zemnavodnyia Pauzuny: 94-95, provided an account for the Belarus population. Lever, 2003, Naturalized Rept. Amph. World: 218-220, reported on introduced populations in England, west-central Spain, and the Azores. Casola, Marracci, Bucci, Ragghianti, Mancino, Hotz, Uzzell, and Guex, 2004, J. Zool. Syst. Evol. Res., 42: 234-244, provided a molecular tree of western Palearctic water frogs (as Rana) in the topology Pelophylax saharicus (Pelophylax cretensis (Pelophylax perezi (Pelophylax shqipericus (Pelophylax epeiroticus (Pelophylax lessonae + Pelophylax ridibundus))))), noting that some populations of Pelophylax lessonae were likely more closely related to Pelophylax ridibundus than other populations of "Rana lessonae". Because each individual of "Rana esculenta" is a hybrid with a genome of Pelophylax lessonae and a genome of Pelophylax ridibundus, "Pelophylax esculentus" or Pelophylax kl. esculentus must be regarded as a kind of frog, not a species, a pattern-class in the Pelophylax ridibundus-Rana lessonae hybridogenetic complex. "Pelophylax esculentus" had a hybrid origin from Pelophylax lessonae and Pelophylax ridibundus, according to Berger, 1968, Acta Zool. Cracov., 13: 301-324. See Dubois, 1982, Alytes, 1: 42-49, for an outline of the complex. See also Berger, 1983, Experientia, 39: 127-130, and Spolsky and Uzzell, 1986, Mol. Biol. Evol., 3: 44-56. Many older records apply to Pelophylax lessonae. Unidentified members of this complex have been introduced on Sardinia, according to Auclair, Auclair, and Brugiere, 1983, Alytes, 2: 53-55. See account by Kuzmin, 1999, Amph. Former Soviet Union: 3384-389. Günther, 1997, in Gasc et al. (eds.), Atlas Amph. Rept. Eur.: 138-139, discussed range and relevant literature. Rana maritima was removed from the synonymy of Pelophylax esculentus, by Dubois and Ohler, 1996 "1994", Zool. Polon., 39: 155, where it had been placed by Bonaparte, 1840, Mem. Accad. Sci. Torino, Ser. 2, 2: 443, Duméril and Bibron, 1841, Erp. Gen., 8: 345; Günther, 1859 "1858", Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus.: 12; Schreiber, 1875, Herpetol. Eur.: 119; Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 38, on the assumption that this was the correct name for the taxon subsequently named Rana grafi. Dubois, 1998, Amphibia-Reptilia, 19: 21, suggested that the name Rana maritima might apply to Pelophylax bergeri or Pelophylax hispanicus. Arnold, 2002, Rept. Amph. Eur., Ed. 2: 92, provided a brief account, figure, and map. Wycherley, Doran, and Beebee, 2002, Biol. J. Linn. Soc., 77: 355-365, reported on geographic varation in male advertisement call characteristics. Brief account for Europe provided by Günther IN Engelmann, Fritzsche, Günther, and Obst, 1993, Lurche Kriechtiere Eur.: 173-175. Gislén and Kauri, 1959, Acta Vert., Stockholm, 1: 295-300, reported on Swedish populations. Snell, Tetteh, and Evans, 2005, Biol. J. Linn. Soc., 85: 41-51, reported on phylogeography and suggested that the population in Britain is native. Ogielska, Kierzkowski, and Rybacki, 2005, Canad. J. Zool., 82: 1894-1901, discussed genome composition in the Pelophylax lessonae--Pelophylax ridibundus--Pelophylax "esculentus" hybridogenetic complex (as Rana). Zeisset and Beebee, 2007, Herpetol. J., 17: 255-260, reported on molecular phylogeography. Capula, Sacchi, and Razzetti, 2007, in Lanza et al. (eds.), Fauna d'Italia, 42 (Amph.): 386-392, discussed the Pelophylax kl. esculentus complex, with which this species interacts. See account for Italy by Capula, Razzetti, and Sacchi, 2007, in Lanza et al. (eds.), Fauna d'Italia, 42 (Amph.): 396-401. Mulder and Creemers, 2009, in Creemers and van Delft (eds.), Amph. Rept. Nederland: 229-235, provided a detailed account for the population in the Netherlands. Cogǎlniceanu, Székely, Samoilă, Iosif, Tudor, Plăiaşu, Stănescu, and Rozylowicz, 2013, ZooKeys, 296: 35-57, provided a dot map for Romania of this species and its hybridogenetic parasite Pelophylax kl. esculentus. Tognarelli, Zuffi, Marracci, and Ragghianti, 2014, Amphibia-Reptilia, 35: 99–105, reported on morphometric techniques to separate Pelophylax lessonae and its hybridogenetic associate in Tuscany, Italy. Uzzell and Hotz, 1979, Mitt. Zool. Mus. Berlin, 55: 13-27, and Uzzell, 1983, Herpetologica, 39: 225-234, suggested that "Rana lessonae" from the Italian peninsula represented an undescribed species. Dubois and Ohler, 1996 "1994", Zool. Polon., 39: 177, who also discussed that this name might represent a distinct species in Sicily and Calabria. The existence of this lineage was confirmed by Sinsch and Schneider, 1996, J. Zool. Syst. Evol. Res., 34: 63-73. See Paolucci, Borriello, Botte, Zerani, and Magni, 1988 "1987", Boll. Zool., Padua, 54: 341-346, for relevant data. See Plötner, 1998, J. Zool. Syst. Evol. Res., 36: 191-201, and Plötner and Ohst, 2001, Mitt. Mus. Naturkd. Berlin, Zool., 77: 5-21, for discussion of relationships. Arnold, 2002, Rept. Amph. Eur., Ed. 2: 94, provided a brief account, figure, and map (as Rana bergeri). The hybridogen now called Pelophylax kl. hispanicus was noted by Uzzell and Hotz, 1979, Mitt. Zool. Mus. Berlin, 55: 15, as a distinct hybridogenetic population. Hispanicus was removed from the synonymy of Pelophylax perezi by Dubois and Ohler, 1996 "1994", Zool. Polon., 39: 157, where it had been placed by XXX. While noting that it may still be found to be a junior synonym of Rana lessonae, Dubois and Ohler attached the name Rana hispanica to the hybridogenetic population formerly known as the "southern hybrid" by Uzzell and Hotz, 1979, Mitt. Zool. Mus. Berlin, 55: 15. Records for this species from Corsica are based on specimens of Rana bergeri (J. Speybroeck, personal commun.). Crochet and Dubois, 2004, In Gasc et al. (eds)., Atlas Amph. Rept. Europe, Ed. 2: 499, discussed the recent literature of this species and suggested the bergeri be treated as a subspecies of Pelophylax lessonae and this seems to have enjoyed widespread acceptance in Europe (and is accepted here) although it requires application of the reproductive species concept rather than a lineage-based one. See discussion of this species and the hybridogenetic system Pelophylax kl. hispanicus in Italy by Capula, Sacchi, and Razzetti, 2007, in Lanza et al. (eds.), Fauna d'Italia, 42 (Amph.): 381-386. Canestrelli and Nascetti, 2008, J. Biogeograph., 35: 1923–1936, reported on phylogeography in the Italian peninsula and Sicily and regarded this lineage as a subspecies of Pelophylax lessonaeMikulíček, Kautman, Kautman, and Pruvost, 2014, J. Zool. Syst. Evol. Res., 53: 124–132, reported on hybridogenetic system with Pelophylax ridibundus in western Slovakia (producing Pelophylax kl. esculenta). Dubey, Leuenberger, and Perrin, 2014, Biol. J. Linn. Soc., 112: 442–449, suggested on the basis of molecular data that most native populations in Switzerland are extinct, replaced by introduced populations of the Pelophylax ridibundus complex, such as Pelophylax bergeri.  Karaica, Buj, Čavlović, and Stanković, 2016, Salamandra, 52: 161–170, reported on comparative morphology and ecology of the Pelophylax ridibundus/Pelophylax lessonae/Pelophylax "esculentus" complex in Croatia.

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