Pelophylax bedriagae (Camerano, 1882)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Ranidae > Genus: Pelophylax > Species: Pelophylax bedriagae

Rana esculenta var. bedriagae Camerano, 1882 "1881", C. R. Assoc. Franç. Avanc. Sci., Paris, 10: 688. Syntypes: MZUT, but not reported recently. Type locality: "Damas [= Damascus]", Syria.

Rana (Rana) bedriagaeDubois, 1987 "1986", Alytes, 5: 41, by implication.

Rana levantina Schneider and Sinsch, 1992, Z. Zool. Syst. Evolutionsforsch., 30: 297-315. Type(s): Not designated; holotype subsequently noted as ZFMK 52836 by Schneider, Sinsch, and Nevo, 1992, Zool. Anz., 228: 97-106. Type locality: Not designated; subsequently noted as "Birket Ata, 5 km south of Hadera, Israel" by Schneider, Sinsch, and Nevo, 1992, Zool. Anz., 228: 97-106. Synonymy by Dubois and Ohler, 1996 "1994", Zool. Polon., 39: 179, without discussion (following unpublished dissertation of P. Beerli, 1994), and by Schneider and Sinsch, 1999, Z. Zool. Syst. Evolutionsforsch., 37: 57.

Rana (Pelophylax) bedriagaeDubois, 1992, Bull. Mens. Soc. Linn. Lyon, 61: 332.

Hylarana bedriagaeChen, Murphy, Lathrop, Ngo, Orlov, Ho, and Somorjai, 2005, Herpetol. J., 15: 237, by implication.

Pelophylax bedriagaeFrost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 369. Che, Pang, Zhao, Wu, Zhao, and Zhang, 2007, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 43: 1-13; by implication.

Pelophylax bedriagae bedriagaeBülbül, Matsui, Kutrup, and Eto, 2011, Zool. Sci., Tokyo, 28: 936.

English Names

Bedriaga's Frog (Rana bedriaga: Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 106).

Hadera Frog (Rana levantina [no longer recognized]: Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 108).

Levant Water Frog (Arnold, 2002, Rept. Amph. Eur., Ed. 2: 97).

Levant Green Frog (Baha El Din, 2006, Guide Rept. Amph. Egypt: 42).


Upper Nile (from approximately the vicinity of Luxor) and the Delta of Egypt through Israel to western Turkey, Greek Thrace, and Cyprus; east through Iraq to western Iran; Belgium, Switzerland, and Malta (introduced); 


Most closely related to Pelophylax perezi (as Rana) according to the original publication (but see below). In the Section Pelophylax, subgenus Pelophylax; by implication. Relationships (as Rana levantina) with Pelophylax ridibundus, Pelophylax perezi, and Pelophylax balcanicus discussed by Sinsch and Eblenkamp, 1994, Z. Zool. Syst. Evolutionsforsch., 32: 35-43. Plötner, 1998, J. Zool. Syst. Evol. Res., 36: 191-201, suggested that Pelophylax bedriagae is the sister taxon of Pelophylax ridibundus. See also Schneider, Sinsch, and Nevo, 1992, Zool. Anz., 228: 97-106, for a formal description of Pelophylax levantinus. Pelophylax bedriagae removed from the synonymy of Pelophylax ridibundus (as Rana), by Dubois, 1992, Bull. Mens. Soc. Linn. Lyon, 61: 332, for populations in Israel formerly referred to Rana ridibunda; on the basis of call data supplied by Schneider and Sofianidou, 1985, Zool. Anz., 214: 309-319 (who considered the Israel population an unnamed subspecies of Rana ridibunda). This use of Rana levantina accepted by Beerli, Hotz, Tunner, Heppich, and Uzzell, 1994, Not. Nat., Philadelphia, 470: 1-9, for Anatolian water frogs. See Plötner, 1998, J. Zool. Syst. Evol. Res., 36: 191-201, and Plötner and Ohst, 2001, Mitt. Mus. Naturkd. Berlin, Zool., 77: 5-21, for discussion of relationships. See study of Sinsch and Schneider, 1999, J. Zool. Syst. Evol. Res., 37: 67-75, for multivariate comparison of Pelophylax bedriagae and Pelophylax ridibundus. Plötner, Ohst, Böhme, and Schreiber, 2002 "2001", Amphibia-Reptilia, 22: 397-412, provided evidence that nominal Rana bedriagae is composed of several cryptic species (one on Cyprus, two in Syria, and three in Anatolian Turkey [including what is now Pelophylax caralitanus]), interleaved with various cryptic species currently confused with Pelophylax ridibundus: one in Greece, and two in Kazakhstan (one of which may be Pelophylax ridibundus sensu stricto). Disi, Modry, Necas, and Rifai, 2001, Amph. Rept. Hashemite Kingdom Jordan: 102-104, provided an account for the Jordanian population. Arnold, 2002, Rept. Amph. Eur., Ed. 2: 97, provided a brief account, figure, and map. Sinsch, Schneider, Kaya, and Arikan, 2003 "2002", Herpetol. J., 12: 141-153, discussed morphometrics of Turkish frogs and discerned two allopatric morphs, the one restricted to Ulubey, Turkey, is clearly an unnamed species. Schneider, 2001, Bonn. Zool. Beitr., 50: 35-48, delimited the range in southern Turkey. Schneider, 2001, Herpetofauna, Weinstadt, 23: 24-33, provided a detailed account of the species. Hraoui-Bloquet, Sadek, Sindaco, and Venchi, 2002, Zool. Middle East, 27: 36, provided definitive records for Lebanon. Sciberras and Schembri, 2006, Herpetol. Rev., 37: 102, provided as record for Malta which they considered to represent an introducted population. Baha El Din, 2006, Guide Rept. Amph. Egypt: 41-43, provided an account for Egypt. See comment under Pelophylax cerigensis. See brief account for Greece by Valakos, Pafilis, Sotiropoulos, Lymberakis, Maragou, and Foufopoulos, 2008, Amph. Rept. Greece: 98-99. Holsbeek, Mergeay, Hotz, Plötner, Volckaert, and De Meester, 2008, Mol. Ecol., 17: 5023-5035, noted mtDNA introgression of this species in introduced populations of Pelophylax ridibundus in Belgium. Bülbül, Matsui, Kutrup, and Eto, 2011, Zool. Sci., Tokyo, 28: 930-936, reported on mtDNA trees and suggested that pending resolution of the presence or scale of hybridization between Pelophyax bedriagae and Pedlophylax caralitanus that they be considered subspecies, although previous morphological work had considered them distinct species; these authors also noted an unnamed species that is likely the sister taxon of Pelophylax caralitanus + Pelophylax bedriagae in south-central Turkey and likely into adjacent Syria. Dubey, Leuenberger, and Perrin, 2014, Biol. J. Linn. Soc., 112: 442–449, noted an introduced population in Switzerland. MtDNA analysis suggests that the species extends through Iraq to western Iran, according to Pesarakloo, Rastegar-Pouyani, Rastegar-Pouyani, Kami, Najibzadeh, Khosravani, and Oraie, 2017, MtDNA, Part A, 28: 392–398. Speybroeck, Beukema, Bok, and Van Der Voort, 2016, Field Guide Amph. Rept. Brit. Eur.: 192–194, provided a brief account (of Pelophylax cf bedriage) and range map. Pesarakloo, Najibzadeh, Rastegar-Pouyani, and Rastegar-Pouyani, 2018, Biologia, Bratislava, 73: 673–681, reported on bioacoustics and morphometrics of the western Iran population. 

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