Lithobates septentrionalis (Baird, 1854)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Ranidae > Genus: Lithobates > Species: Lithobates septentrionalis

Rana septentrionalis Baird, 1854, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 7: 61. Type(s): Not stated; presumably USNM, ANSP, or Philadelphia Mus. Type locality: "Northern Minnesota"; restricted to "Lake Itasca", Clearwater County, Minnesota, USA, by Schmidt, 1953, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept., Ed. 6: 80. Fouquette and Dubois, 2014, Checklist N.A. Amph. Rept.: 423, regarded the original publication date to be 1856, but see Fox, 1913, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia,, Index, 1812-1912: vii–xiv.

Rana sinuata Baird, 1854, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 7: 61. Syntypes: Not stated; USNM 3420 (5 specimens) according to Cochran, 1961, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 220: 76. Type locality: "Sackett's Harbor, [Jefferson County,] N[ew]. Y[ork].", USA. Synonymy by Cope, 1875, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 1: 32; Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 37.

Rana (Rana) septentrionalisDubois, 1987 "1986", Alytes, 5: 41, by implication.

Rana (Aquarana) septentrionalisDubois, 1992, Bull. Mens. Soc. Linn. Lyon, 61: 331.

Rana (Novirana, Aquarana) septentrionalisHillis and Wilcox, 2005, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 34: 305. See Dubois, 2006, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 42: 317-330, Hillis, 2007, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 42: 331-338, and Dubois, 2007, Cladistics, 23: 390-402, for relevant discussion of nomenclature. Invalid name formulation under the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (1999) as discussed by Dubois, 2007, Cladistics, 23: 395.

Rana (Novirana) septentrionalis — Hillis and Wilcox, 2005, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 34: 305. Interpretation by Fouquette and Dubois, 2014, Checklist N.A. Amph. Rept.: 423, of the nomenclatural act of Hillis and Wilcox, 2005. 

Lithobates septentrionalisFrost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 369; Che, Pang, Zhao, Wu, Zhao, and Zhang, 2007, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 43: 1-13; by implication.

Lithobates (Aquarana) septentrionalisDubois, 2006, C. R. Biol., Paris, 329: 829; Dubois, 2006, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 42: 325.

Rana (Aquarana) septentrionalisHillis, 2007, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 42: 335-336, by implication and for purposes of discussion; Yuan, Zhou, Chen, Poyarkov, Chen, Jang-Liaw, Chou, Matzke, Iizuka, Min, Kuzmin, Zhang, Cannatella, Hillis, and Che, 2016, Syst. Biol., 65: 835. 

Rana (Lithobates) septentrionalis — Fouquette and Dubois, 2014, Checklist N.A. Amph. Rept.: 423. 

English Names

Rocky Mountain Frog (Yarrow, 1882, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 24: 25).

Northern Frog (Dickerson, 1906, The Frog Book: 224).

Mink Frog (Wright and Wright, 1933, Handb. Frogs Toads U.S. Canada: xi; Schmidt, 1953, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept., Ed. 6: 80; Conant, Cagle, Goin, Lowe, Neill, Netting, Schmidt, Shaw, Stebbins, and Bogert, 1956, Copeia, 1956: 177; Conant, 1975, Field Guide Rept. Amph. E. Cent. N. Am., Ed. 2: 342; Collins, Huheey, Knight, and Smith, 1978, Herpetol. Circ., 7: 13; Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 109; Collins, 1997, Herpetol. Circ., 25: 13; Crother, Boundy, Campbell, de Queiroz, Frost, Highton, Iverson, Meylan, Reeder, Seidel, Sites, Taggart, Tilley, and Wake, 2001 "2000", Herpetol. Circ., 29: 15; Frost, McDiarmid, and Mendelson, 2008, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 37: 8; Collins and Taggart, 2009, Standard Common Curr. Sci. Names N. Am. Amph. Turtles Rept. Crocodil., ed. 6: 8; Frost, McDiarmid, Mendelson, and Green, 2012, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 39: 18; Frost, Lemmon, McDiarmid, and Mendelson, 2017, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 43: 15).


Southwestern Newfoundland west to southeastern Manitoba (Canada), south to northern New York on the east and Wisconsin and northern Minnesota on the west (USA).


In the Rana catesbeiana group of XXX. In the equivalent Rana clamitans group of Dubois, 1987 "1986", Alytes, 5: 41, and in the equivalent subgenus Aquarana of Dubois, 1992, Bull. Mens. Soc. Linn. Lyon, 61: 331. Reviewed by Hedeen, 1977, Cat. Am. Amph. Rept., 202: 1–2. Dodd, 2013, Frogs U.S. and Canada, 2 : 608–617, provided an account that summarized relevant literature. Elliot, Gerhardt, and Davidson, 2009, Frogs and Toads of N. Am.: 196–197, provided an account, photos, and advertisement call. Altig and McDiarmid, 2015, Handb. Larval Amph. US and Canada: 236–237, provided an account of larval morphology and biology. 

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