Lithobates palmipes (Spix, 1824)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Ranidae > Genus: Lithobates > Species: Lithobates palmipes

Rana palmipes Spix, 1824, Animal. Nova Spec. Nov. Test. Ran. Brasil.: 5. Syntypes: Not designated but including animal figured on pl. 5, fig. 2 in the original publication; ZSM (4 specimens), including ZSM 963/0 (2 specimens), now lost, according to Hoogmoed and Gruber, 1983, Spixiana, München, Suppl., 9: 359, who provided discussion. See also comments by Glaw and Franzen, 2006, Spixiana, München, 29: 186. Type locality: "in aquis stagnantibus fluminis Amazonum" = stagnant waters of the Amazon River, Brazil.

Lithobates palmipes Fitzinger, 1843, Syst. Rept.: 31. Types: Not designated. Type locality: "Am[erica]." Synonymy, and consideration as a subsequent usage of Rana palmipes Spix, 1824, by Dubois, 1981, Monit. Zool. Ital., N.S., Suppl., 15: 249. See discussion by Dubois, 2007, Cladistics, 23: 390–402. 

Rana juninensis Tschudi, 1845, Arch. Naturgesch., 11: 167. Types: Not designated, although presumably originally in MHNN. Type locality: "Republica Peruana"; given as "Laguna von Junin, 13000 Füss u. M.", Peru, by Tschudi, 1846 "1845", Untersuch. Fauna Peruana, Herpetol.: 63. Type locality is suspect if identification and synonymy is correct. Possible confusion with Telmatobius?—DRF. Synonymy by Peters, 1873, Monatsber. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1873: 622; Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 48; Boulenger, 1919, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., Ser. 9, 3: 415.

Lithobates palmipesJan, 1857, Cenni Mus. Civ. Milano: 53.

Ranula gollmeri Peters, 1859, Monatsber. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1859: 402. Syntypes: ZMB 3193 (2 specimens) according to Bauer, Günther, and Klipfel, 1995, in Bauer et al. (eds.), Herpetol. Contr. W.C.H. Peters: 50. Type locality: "Carácas", Venezuela. Synonymy by Peters, 1872, Monatsber. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1872: 205; Peters, 1873, Monatsber. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1873: 622; Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 48.

Rana affinis Peters, 1859, Monatsber. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1859: 403. Syntypes: ZMB 3291 and 7186 according to Bauer, Günther, and Klipfel, 1995, in Bauer et al. (eds.), Herpetol. Contr. W.C.H. Peters: 50. Type locality: "Carácas", Venezuela. Synonymy by Peters, 1872, Monatsber. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1872: 205; Peters, 1873, Monatsber. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1873: 622; Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 48.

Rana clamata var. guianensis Peters, 1863, Monatsber. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1863: 412. Holotype: ZMB 3116 according to Bauer, Günther, and Klipfel, 1995, in Bauer et al. (eds.), Herpetol. Contr. W.C.H. Peters: 50. Type locality: "wirklich aus Guiana" [= Guyana]. Synonymy by Boulenger, 1891, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., Ser. 6, 8: 453-457.

Ranula affinisCope, 1866, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 18: 130.

Pohlia palmipesSteindachner, 1867, Reise Österreichischen Fregatte Novara, Zool., Amph.: 15.

Ranula palmipesCope, 1871, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 23: 222.

Ranula brevipalmata Cope, 1874, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 26: 131. Holotype: ANSP 11398, according to Malnate, 1971, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 123: 349 Type locality: "Nauta", Loreto, Peru. Secondary homonym of Rana brevipalmata Peters, 1871. Secondary homonym of Rana brevipalmata Peters, 1871. Synonymy by Boulenger, 1919, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., Ser. 9, 3: 415.

Ranula nigrilatus Cope, 1874, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 26: 131. Types: Presumably ANSP, not located. Type locality: "Nauta", Departamento Loreto, Peru. Synonymy by Boulenger, 1919, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., Ser. 9, 3: 415.

Hylarana brevipalmataBrocchi, 1877, Bull. Soc. Philomath., Paris, Ser. 7, 1: 175.

Rana (Ranula) affinisSumichrast, 1880, Bull. Soc. Zool. France, 5: 189.

Rana nigrilatusBoulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 49.

Rana copii Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 49. Replacement name for Ranula brevipalmata Cope, 1874.

Rana brevipalmataFowler, 1913, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 65: 166.

Ranula nigrilatusBoulenger, 1920, Proc. Am. Acad. Arts Sci., 55: 473.

Rana palmipes forma rionapensis Andersson, 1945, Ark. Zool., 37A(2): 3. Holotype: NHRM by original indication. Type locality: "Rio Napo, 400 m", eastern Ecuador.

Rana (Rana) palmipesDubois, 1987 "1986", Alytes, 5: 42, by implication.

Rana (Lithobates) palmipesDubois, 1992, Bull. Mens. Soc. Linn. Lyon, 61: 330; Hillis, 2007, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 42: 335-336, by implication; Yuan, Zhou, Chen, Poyarkov, Chen, Jang-Liaw, Chou, Matzke, Iizuka, Min, Kuzmin, Zhang, Cannatella, Hillis, and Che, 2016, Syst. Biol., 65: 835.

Rana (Novirana, Sierrana, Ranula, Lithobates) palmipesHillis and Wilcox, 2005, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 34: 305. See Dubois, 2006, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 42: 317-330, Hillis, 2007, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 42: 331-338, and Dubois, 2007, Cladistics, 23: 390-402, for relevant discussion of nomenclature. Invalid name formulation under the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (1999) as discussed by Dubois, 2007, Cladistics, 23: 395.

Lithobates palmipesFrost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 369. Che, Pang, Zhao, Wu, Zhao, and Zhang, 2007, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 43: 1-13; by implication.

Lithobates (Lithobates) palmipesDubois, 2006, C. R. Biol., Paris, 329: 829; Dubois, 2006, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 42: 325.

English Names

Amazon River Frog (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 109).

Spring Chicken (Ananjeva, Borkin, Darevsky, and Orlov, 1988, Dict. Amph. Rept. Five Languages: 127).

Distribution

Northern and Amazonian South America east of the Andes, including Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Venezuela, Guyana, Surinam,French Guiana, and Brazil to northern Mato Grosso; isolated populations in in Brazil in Rio Grande do Norte, and south to Sergipe; Bahia, western Goiás, and southern Piauí, Brazil.

Comment

In the subgenus Lithobates of Dubois, 1992, Bull. Mens. Soc. Linn. Lyon, 61: 329-330. The Rana palmipes group of Hillis and de Sá, 1988, Herpetol. Monogr., 2: 1-26, who provided an account. Rodríguez and Duellman, 1994, Univ. Kansas Mus. Nat. Hist. Spec. Publ., 22: 78, provided a brief account for the Iquitos region of northeastern Peru. Lescure and Marty, 2000, Collect. Patrimoines Nat., Paris, 45: 286-287, provided a photo and brief account for French Guiana. Gorzula and Señaris, 1999 "1998", Scient. Guaianae, 8: 84, commented on range in Venezuela. Acosta-Galvis, 1999, Rev. Acad. Colomb. Cienc. Exact. Fis. Nat., 23: 214-225, discussed Colombian populations. Kenny, 1969, Stud. Fauna Curaçao and other Caribb. Is., 29: 61- 63, and Murphy, 1997, Amph. Rept. Trinidad Tobago: 97-98, provided brief accounts for Trinidad. Canedo and Bilate, 2005, Herpetol. Rev., 36: 334, provided records for Alagoas, Bahia, Mato Grosso, and Pará, Brazil, and briefly discussed the range of the species. See comment under Lithobates vaillanti. Hillis and Wilcox, 2005, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 34: 308, noted that the population from Venezuela likely represents a distinct species for which the name Ranula gollmeri Peters is available. Oliveira, Maciel, and Vaz-Silva, 2010, Herpetol. Notes, 3: 277-278, provided a record for an apparently isolated record in western Goiás, Brazil. Ferreira and Faria, 2011, Herpetol. Notes, 4: 139-140, provided a record for Sergipe, Brazil. Ramalho, Viana, Benevides, Silva, and Alves-Silva, 2011, Herpetol. Notes, 4: 249-251, provided a record for Piauí, Brazil, and provided a range map for the species. See account for Surinam population by Ouboter and Jairam, 2012, Amph. Suriname: 296-298. Rodrigues, Barros, Noronha, and Almeida, 2013, Herpetol. Notes, 6: 391-393, provided a map and discussion of range. Santa Cruz, Delgado C., Salas, and von May, 2016, Amph. Rept. Conserv., 10(1, Special Section): 16–20, provided new records for the extreme western part of the Amazon drainage in Peru, and discussed the range, ecology, and conservation status. 

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