Lithobates Fitzinger, 1843

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Ranidae > Genus: Lithobates
50 species

Lithobates Fitzinger, 1843, Syst. Rept.: 31. Type species: Rana palmipes Fitzinger, 1843 (= Rana palmipes Spix, 1824), by original designation. See discussion by Dubois, 1981, Monit. Zool. Ital., N.S., Suppl., 15: 249, and Dubois, 1992, Bull. Mens. Soc. Linn. Lyon, 61: 330.

Ranula Peters, 1859, Monatsber. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1859: 402. Type species: Ranula gollmeri Peters, 1859, by monotypy. Junior homonym of Ranula Schumacher, 1817, and therefore unavailable. Synonymy with Rana by Peters, 1873, Monatsber. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1873: 622, and in Lithobates by implication. See discussion by Pauly, Hillis, and Cannatella, 2009, Herpetologica, 65: 115-128; and Frost, McDiarmid, and Mendelson, 2009, Herpetologica, 65: 136-153.

Pohlia Steindachner, 1867, Reise Österreichischen Fregatte Novara, Zool., Amph.: 15. Type species: Rana palmipes Spix, 1824, by monotypy. Synonymy in Rana by Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 7.

Trypheropsis Cope, 1868, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 20: 117. Type species: Ranula chrysoprasina Cope, 1866, by original designation. Synonymy (with Hylarana) by O'Shaughnessy, 1878, Zool. Rec., 13: 17; with Rana by Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 7. See comments by McCranie and Wilson, 2002, Amph. Honduras: 496, Pauly, Hillis, and Cannatella, 2009, Herpetologica, 65: 115-128; and Frost, McDiarmid, and Mendelson, 2009, Herpetologica, 65: 136-153, regarding the status of this taxon.

Levirana Cope, 1894, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 46: 197. Type species: Levirana vibicaria Cope, 1894, by monotypy. Synonymy by Boulenger, 1920, Proc. Am. Acad. Arts Sci., 55: 462-464. See Pauly, Hillis, and Cannatella, 2009, Herpetologica, 65: 115-128; and Frost, McDiarmid, and Mendelson, 2009, Herpetologica, 65: 136-153, for discussion.

Chilixalus Werner, 1899, Zool. Anz., 22: 117. Type species: Ixalus warszewitschii Schmidt, 1858, by monotypy. Synonymy with Trypheropsis by Dubois, 1999, Alytes, 17: 85.

Anchylorana Taylor, 1942, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull., 28: 199-235. Type species: Rana moorei Taylor, XXX. Synonymy by Martín, Alonso-Zarazaga, and Sanchíz, 2012, Graellsia, 68: 159-180.

Sierrana Dubois, 1992, Bull. Mens. Soc. Linn. Lyon, 61: 330. Type species: Rana sierramadrensis Taylor, 1939, by original designation. Proposed as a subgenus of Rana. See comments by McCranie and Wilson, 2002, Amph. Honduras: 488, regarding the status of this taxon. See Pauly, Hillis, and Cannatella, 2009, Herpetologica, 65: 115-128; and Frost, McDiarmid, and Mendelson, 2009, Herpetologica, 65: 136-153, for discussion.

Zweifelia Dubois, 1992, Bull. Mens. Soc. Linn. Lyon, 61: 330. Type species: Rana tarahumarae Boulenger, 1917, by original designation. Proposed as a subgenus of Rana. See Frost, McDiarmid, and Mendelson, 2009, Herpetologica, 65: 136-153, for discussion of nomenclature.

Aquarana Dubois, 1992, Bull. Mens. Soc. Linn. Lyon, 61: 331. Type species: Rana catesbeiana Shaw, 1802, by original designation. Proposed as a subgenus of Rana. See Frost, McDiarmid, and Mendelson, 2009, Herpetologica, 65: 136-153, for discussion of nomenclature.

Pantherana Dubois, 1992, Bull. Mens. Soc. Linn. Lyon, 61: 331. Type species: Rana pipiens Schreber, 1782, by original designation. Proposed as a subgenus of Rana. See Pauly, Hillis, and Cannatella, 2009, Herpetologica, 65: 115-128; and Frost, McDiarmid, and Mendelson, 2009, Herpetologica, 65: 136-153, for discussion of nomenclature.

Novirana Hillis and Wilcox, 2005, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 34: 311. Type species: Rana pipiens Schreber, 1782. See Dubois, 2006, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 42: 317-330, Hillis, 2007, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 42: 331-338, and Dubois, 2007, Cladistics, 23: 390-402, Pauly, Hillis, and Cannatella, 2009, Herpetologica, 65: 115-128; and Frost, McDiarmid, and Mendelson, 2009, Herpetologica, 65: 136-153, for relevant discussion of nomenclature. Dubois, 2007, Cladistics, 23: 392, discussed and considered this name a nomen nudum and an objective synonym of Pantherana Dubois, 1992, under the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (1999).

Torrentirana Hillis and Wilcox, 2005, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 34: 312. Type species: Rana tarahumarae Boulenger, 1917. See Dubois, 2006, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 42: 317-330, Hillis, 2007, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 42: 331-338, Dubois, 2007, Cladistics, 23: 390-402, Pauly, Hillis, and Cannatella, 2009, Herpetologica, 65: 115-128; and Frost, McDiarmid, and Mendelson, 2009, Herpetologica, 65: 136-153, for relevant discussion of nomenclature. An objective synonym of Zweifelia Dubois, 1992, according to Dubois, 2007, Cladistics, 23: 392, under the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (1999).

Stertirana Hillis and Wilcox, 2005, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 34: 311. Type species: Rana montezumae Baird, 1854. See Dubois, 2006, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 42: 317-330, Hillis, 2007, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 42: 331-338, Dubois, 2007, Cladistics, 23: 390-402, Pauly, Hillis, and Cannatella, 2009, Herpetologica, 65: 115-128; and Frost, McDiarmid, and Mendelson, 2009, Herpetologica, 65: 136-153, for relevant discussion of nomenclature.  Dubois, 2007, Cladistics, 23: 392, discussed and considered this a nomen nudum under the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (1999).

Lacusirana Hillis and Wilcox, 2005, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 34: 311. Type species: Rana megapoda Taylor, 1942. See Dubois, 2006, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 42: 317-330, Hillis, 2007, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 42: 331-338; Dubois, 2007, Cladistics, 23: 390-402; Pauly, Hillis, and Cannatella, 2009, Herpetologica, 65: 115-128; and Frost, McDiarmid, and Mendelson, 2009, Herpetologica, 65: 136-153, for relevant discussion of nomenclature.

Nenirana Hillis and Wilcox, 2005, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 34: 311. Type species: Rana areolata Baird and Girard, 1852. See Dubois, 2006, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 42: 317-330, Hillis, 2007, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 42: 331-338, and Dubois, 2007, Cladistics, 23: 390-402, for relevant discussion of nomenclature.

Scurrilirana Hillis and Wilcox, 2005, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 34: 311. Type species: Rana berlandieri Baird, 1854. See Dubois, 2006, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 42: 317-330, Hillis, 2007, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 42: 331-338, and Dubois, 2007, Cladistics, 23: 390-402, for relevant discussion of nomenclature.

Nomina inquirenda - Name(s) unassigned to a living or extinct population

Rana missuriensis Wied-Neuwied, 1839, Reise Innere N. Am. 1832–1834, 1 (Heft 7–14): 548. Types: Originally in Wied collection, but now lost. Type locality: "Windsor's Creek" [near O'Fallon, a suburb of St. Louis], Missouri, USA. Considered a nomen dubium by Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 7. See also Wied-Neuwied, 1865, Nova Acta Phys. Med. Acad. Caesar Leopold Carol., Halle, 32: 115.

English Names

American Water Frogs (Frost, McDiarmid, and Mendelson, 2008, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 37: 7; Frost, McDiarmid, Mendelson, and Green, 2012, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 39: 16; Frost, Lemmon, McDiarmid, and Mendelson, 2017, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 43: 13).

North American Water Frogs (Liner and Casas-Andreu, 2008, Herpetol. Circ., 38: 15).

North American True Frogs (Collins and Taggart, 2009, Standard Common Curr. Sci. Names N. Am. Amph. Turtles Rept. Crocodil., ed. 6: 8).

Distribution

North, Central, and South America south to southern Brazil.

Comment

Considered a subgenus of Rana by Dubois, 1992, Bull. Mens. Soc. Linn. Lyon, 61: 330, Dubois, 1992, Bull. Mens. Soc. Linn. Lyon, 61: 330, and by Pauly, Hillis, and Cannatella, 2009, Herpetologica, 65: 115-128 (although the specific arrangement of these latter authors was not accepted by Frost, McDiarmid, and Mendelson, 2009, Herpetologica, 65: 136-153. Frost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 248, resurrected Lithobates as a genus, placing it as the sister taxon of a redelimited Rana, and rejecting the system of Dubois, 1992, Bull. Mens. Soc. Linn. Lyon, 61: 305-332. Species groups follow Hillis, Frost, and Wright, 1983, Syst. Zool., 32: 132-143; Webb, 1978, Contrib. Sci. Nat. Hist. Mus. Los Angeles Co., 300: 1-13; and Case, 1978, Syst. Zool., 27: 219-311. The literature of Lithobates is so intertwined with that of Rana that that account should be examined for relevant literature. Webb, 2001, Mesoam. Herpetol.: 20-43, reviewed the species of the Rana tarahumarae group (expanding on the earlier discussion by Hillis, Frost, and Webb, 1984, Copeia, 1984: 398-403). Savage, 2002, Amph. Rept. Costa Rica: 398-405, provided a key and accounts for the species in Costa Rica. Pace, 1974, Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan, 148: 1-140, reviewed the Rana pipiens complex of the eastern USA. Hillis, 1988, Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst., 19: 39-63, reviewed the history of classification and the state of taxonomy of the Rana pipiens complex. Hillis and de Sá, 1988, Herpetol. Monogr., 2: 1-26, discussed the phylogeny and taxonomy of the Rana palmipes group. Greding, 1977, Bull. Chicago Herpetol. Soc., 12: 58-59, compared immunologically some of the Central American species. Zaldívar-Riverón, León-Regagnon, and Nieto-Montes de Oca, 2004, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 30: 38-49, provided a molecular phylogenetic analysis of the Rana pipiens group rejecting some of the results previously suggested by Hillis, Frost, and Wright, 1983, Syst. Zool., 32: 132-143. Pytel, 1986, Herpetologica, 42: 273-282, discussed phylogenetic relationships among North American species. Austin, Lougheed, Moler, and Boag, 2003, Biol. J. Linn. Soc., 80, reported on the phylogenetics and zoogeography of the Rana catesbeiana group. Hillis and Wilcox, 2005, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 34: 299-314, reported on the phylogenetics of Lithobates (as Rana containing two subsidiary clades, Laurasiarana [Rana of this catalogue] and Novirana [a subjective synonym of Lithobates of this catalog]), as well as providing new names for other monophyletic taxa coined in the original publication to meet both the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (1999) and the needs of a phylogenetic taxonomy. Dubois, 2006, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 42: 317-330, criticized aspects of this taxonomy, noting that at least some of the names were nomina nuda and others had been applied outside of the dictates of the Code. Hillis, 2007, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 42: 331-338, responded, and Dubois, 2007, Cladistics, 23: 390-402, responded to his response as part of a more general discussion of nomenclatural practice. Che, Pang, Zhao, Wu, Zhao, and Zhang, 2007, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 43: 1-13, in a large study of ranids, recognized Lithobates as a genus, the sister taxon of Rana, and together the sister taxon of Pseudorana. Wiens, Sukumaran, Pyron, and Brown, 2009, Evolution, 63: 1217-1231, corroborated the monophyly of this taxon, but did not employ this taxonomy. Pauly, Hillis, and Cannatella, 2009, Herpetologica, 65: 115-128, suggested that the earlier taxonomies by Hillis and Wilcox, 2005, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 34: 299-314, and Hillis, 2007, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 42: 331-338, were consistent with the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (1999) and that Lithobates must be restricted to the Lithobates palmipes group. This was not accepted by Frost, McDiarmid, and Mendelson, 2009, Herpetologica, 65: 136-153 (see also Dubois, 2006, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 42: 317-330, and Dubois, 2007, Cladistics, 23: 390-402, for earlier rejections of Hillis' assertion). Tennessen and Blouin, 2010, Immunogenetics, 62: 333–343, provided an analysis based on a very reduced number of terminals for purposes of comparing skin peptides.  Pyron and Wiens, 2011, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 61: 543-583, in their study of Genbank sequences confirmed the monophyly of this taxon and its sister-taxon relationship to Rana as well as confirming most previous work on relationships among the group, although this is difficult to appreciate because they adopted an antiquated and nonmonophyletic taxonomy. Powell, Collins, and Hooper, 2011, Key Herpetofauna U.S. & Canada, 2nd Ed.: 51-57, provided a key to the species of the United States and Canada. Conlon, Kolodziejek, Mechkarska, Coquet, Leprince, Jouenne, Vaudry, Nielsen, Nowotny, and King, 2014, Comp. Biochem. Physiol., Part D, 9: 49-57, suggested phylogenetic relationships of some of the species on the basis molecular evidence. Yuan, Zhou, Chen, Poyarkov, Chen, Jang-Liaw, Chou, Matzke, Iizuka, Min, Kuzmin, Zhang, Cannatella, Hillis, and Che, 2016, Syst. Biol., 65: 824–842, recognized Lithobates in the sense of this catalog as an unnamed monophyletic taxon within Rana, comprising Lithobates sylvaticus and the subgenera Aquarana, Pantherana, Zweifelia, and Lithobates

Contained taxa (50 sp.):

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