Pyxicephalus edulis Peters, 1854

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Pyxicephalidae > Subfamily: Pyxicephalinae > Genus: Pyxicephalus > Species: Pyxicephalus edulis

Pyxicephalus edulis Peters, 1854, Ber. Bekannt. Verhandl. K. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1854: 626. Syntypes: ZMB 3349 (2 specimens; Moçambique), 3350 (2 specimens; Moçambique), 10056 (2 specimens; Tette) and 10057 (2 specimens; Sena), according to Channing, Du Preez, and Passmore, 1994, J. Zool., London, 234: 144. Bauer, Günther, and Klipfel, 1995, in Bauer et al. (eds.), Herpetol. Contr. W.C.H. Peters: 49, also mentioned ZMB 10058 (not located), 50260, 50290, and 50301-02, presumably formerly duplicates of the earlier numbers. One of these may be the BMNH specimen from "Mossambique" mentioned by Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2:34, as "typical of Pyxicephalus edulis" and received from W. Peters. Gassó Miracle, van den Hoek Ostende, and Arntzen, 2007, Zootaxa, 1482: 54, also considered RMNH 2274 as a syntype. Scott, Visser, Yetman, and Oliver, 2013, Zootaxa, 3599: 201-228, designated ZMB50301 (formerly 10056) as lectotype and discussed the provenance of specimens previously considered to be part of the syntypic series. Type locality: "Mossambique, Boror, Tette"; restricted to "Tete" by Loveridge, 1953, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 110: 375.

Maltzania bufonia Boettger, 1881, Abh. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges., 12: 417. Holotype: NHMW 18162, according to Häupl and Tiedemann, 1978, Kat. Wiss. Samml. Naturhist. Mus. Wien, 2: 24, and Häupl, Tiedemann, and Grillitsch, 1994, Kat. Wiss. Samml. Naturhist. Mus. Wien, 9: 28. Type locality: "Uferloch an einer Pfütze bei Rufisque", Senegal. Synonymy (with Pyxicephalus adspersus sensu lato) by Barbour and Loveridge, 1928, Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., 50: 200. Assignment to this restricted synonymy is provisional.

Rana maltzanii Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 34. Substitute name for Maltzania bufonia Boettger, 1881.

Phrynopsis boulengerii Pfeffer, 1893, Jahrb. Hamburg. Wiss. Anst., 10: 101. Syntypes: ZMH 750-754, 905, destroyed according t o XXX. Type locality: "Quilimane" (= Quelimane), Mozambique. Synonymy by Loveridge, 1936, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 79: 372.

Pyxicephalus flavigula Calabresi, 1916, Monit. Zool. Ital., 27: 34. Holotype: MZUF. Type locality: "Oroflillo", Somalia. Synonymy by Loveridge, 1936, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 79: 372; Loveridge, 1957, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 117: 344.

Rana bufoniaNoble, 1924, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 49: 341.

Phrynopsis usambarae Ahl, 1924, Mitt. Zool. Mus. Berlin, 11: 271. Holotype: ZMB, not numbered in the original publication. Type locality: "Usambara", Tanzania. Synonymy by Loveridge, 1936, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 79: 372.

Rana flaviculaScortecci, 1932, Atti Soc. Ital. Sci. Nat. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Milano, 71: 60. Misspelling.

Rana (Pyxicephalus) flavigulaScortecci, 1933, Atti Soc. Ital. Sci. Nat. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Milano, 72: 19.

Rana adspersa edulisLoveridge, 1950, J. E. Afr. Nat. Hist. Soc., 19: 255; Loveridge, 1953, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 110: 375.

Rana adspersa maltzaniiLoveridge, 1950, J. E. Afr. Nat. Hist. Soc., 19: 255.

Rana (Pyxicephalus) reiensis Monard, 1951, Mem. Inst. Franç. Afr. Noire, 1: 181. Syntypes: LCFM (7 specimens), by original designation. Type locality: "Rei Bouba", Cameroon. Synonymy by Perret and Mertens, 1957, Rev. Suisse Zool., 64: 77.

Rana (Pyxicephalus) adspersa reiensisPerret and Mertens, 1957, Rev. Suisse Zool., 64: 77.

Pyxicephalus adspersus edulis —Laurent in Gans, Laurent, and Pandit, 1965, Ann. Mus. R. Afr. Cent., Tervuren, Ser. Octavo, Sci. Zool., 134: 18; Parry, 1982, Ann. Natal Mus., 25: 285.

Pyxicephalus adspersus edulis —Laurent In Gans, Laurent, and Pandit, 1965, Ann. Mus. R. Afr. Cent., Tervuren, Ser. Octavo, Sci. Zool., 134: 18; Parry, 1982, Ann. Natal Mus., 25: 285.

Pyxicephalus edulisPerret, 1966, Zool. Jahrb., Jena, Abt. Syst., 93: 329.

Pyxicephalus edulisPerret, 1966, Zool. Jahrb., Jena, Abt. Syst., 93: 329; Channing, 2001, Amph. Cent. S. Afr.: 349.

Rana (Pyxicephalus) adspersa edulisDubois, 1981, Monit. Zool. Ital., N.S., Suppl., 15: 233, by implication.

Pyxicephalus maltzani —  Channing, Rödel, and Channing, 2012, Tadpoles of Africa: 347, provisional arrangement noting availability of a name.

English Names

Lesser Bull-frog (Van Dijk, 1978, J. Herpetol. Assoc. Afr., 17: 15).

Peter's Bullfrog (Lambiris, 1990 "1989", Monogr. Mus. Reg. Sci. Nat. Torino, 10: 81).

Edible Bullfrog (Channing, 2001, Amph. Cent. S. Afr.: 349; Cook and Minter, 2004, in Minter et al. (eds.), Atlas Frogs S. Afr. Lesotho and Swaziland: 303-305).

Edible Frog (Emms, Jambang, Bah, Mankali, Rödel, and Barnett, 2005, Herpetol. Bull., London, 94: 11).

African Bullfrog (Du Preez and Carruthers, 2009, Compl. Guide Frogs S. Afr.: 416).

Distribution

Floded grasslands from Senegal, Mauritania, and Nigeria to Somalia, Kenya, Tanzania, Mozambique, Malawi, Zimbabwe, Angola, eastern half of Botswana, northern Zambia, and northeastern Rep. South Africa; Swaziland.

Comment

Elevated from subspecies status under Pyxicephalus adspersus by Channing, Du Preez, and Passmore, 1994, J. Zool., London, 234: 141-148, where it had been placed by Peters, 1882, Naturwiss. Reise Mossambique, Zool. 3: 152, Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 33; and Loveridge, 1953, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 110: 375. Most of the literature of "Pyxicephalus adspersus" applies to this species. See Channing, Du Preez, and Passmore, 1994, J. Zool., London, 234: 141-148, for a discussion of the biology and summary of previous literature confusion. Rödel, 2000, Herpetofauna W. Afr., 1: 72-75, provided an account and noted that Pyxicephalus edulis may be composite. Du Preez and Carruthers, 2009, Compl. Guide Frogs S. Afr.: 416-417, provided an account for southern Africa. The status of the northern populations, tentatively assigned to Pyxicephalus edulis, is questionable (DRF). See comment by Lanza, 1990, Biogeographia, 14: 410-411, regarding the status of populatins in Somalia. Channing and Howell, 2006, Amph. E. Afr.: 322-323, provided an account and noted confusion with Pyxicephalus adspersus in Kenya and Tanzania. Padial and De la Riva, 2004, Rev. Esp. Herpetol., 18: 94-95, provided records from Mauritania. Nago, Grell, Sinsin, and Rödel, 2006, Salamandra, 42: 93-108, provided a record for Benin, discussed the range, and noted that the taxonomic status of West African populations is unclear. Emms, Jambang, Bah, Mankali, Rödel, and Barnett, 2005, Herpetol. Bull., London, 94: 6-16, provided a record for Gambia. Pickersgill, 2007, Frog Search: 106-109, provided an account. Blackburn, 2008, Herpetol. Rev., 39: 364, reported Pyxicephalus sp. from Niger and briefly discussed the taxonomic difficulty of assigning names to West African populations. Channing, Rödel, and Channing, 2012, Tadpoles of Africa: 345, provided information on comparative larval morphology and noted an unnamed species masquerading under this name. Harper, Measey, Patrick, Menegon, and Vonesh, 2010, Field Guide Amph. E. Arc Mts. Tanzania and Kenya: 284–285, provided a brief account and photograph. Ohler and Frétey, 2014, J. E. Afr. Nat. Hist., 103: 102, provided a brief discussion of a collection from northern Mozambique. 

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