Xenopus borealis Parker, 1936

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Pipidae > Genus: Xenopus > Species: Xenopus borealis

Xenopus laevis borealis Parker, 1936, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., Ser. 10, 18: 596. Syntypes: BMNH (5 specimens) (Marsabit), 1901.1.3.34-36 (Lake Nakuru), 1910.10.31.26 and 1909.11.15.4-7 (Nairobi), 1929.10.13.3-6 and 1913.4.24.17 and 1932.5.2.36-38 (Lake Naivasha), 1935.11.2.11-12 (Mt. Elgon), 1912.11.8.4-12 (Leikipia). MCZ 22302 (Marsabit) and 22303 (Mt. Elgon) (on exchange from BMNH, according to Barbour and Loveridge, 1946, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 96: 212), according to R.C. Tinsley in Frost, 1985, Amph. Species World: 427. Lang, 1990, Doc. Trav., Inst. R. Sci. Nat. Belg., 59: 11, regarded IRSNB 1.094 (exchanged from BMNH) as a syntype. Type locality: "Marsabit"; "hot spring of Lake Nakuru"; "Nairobi"); "Lake Naivasha"; "Mt. Elgon, 6000 feet"; "Leikipia, 7-8000 feet", Kenya.

Xenopus borealisTymowska and Fischberg, 1973, Chromosoma, Berlin, 44: 336.

Xenopus (Xenopus) borealisKobel, Barandun, and Thiebaud, 1998, Herpetol. J., 8: 13.

English Names

Marsabit Clawed Frog (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 97).

Kenya Smooth Clawed Frog (Ananjeva, Borkin, Darevsky, and Orlov, 1988, Dict. Amph. Rept. Five Languages: 110).

Northern Clawed Frog (Channing and Howell, 2006, Amph. E. Afr.: 240).


Savanna in northern Tanzania, and central and northern Kenya, above 1350 m elevation. One record for southern Tanzania.


Tymowska and Fischberg, 1973, Chromosoma, Berlin, 44: 336, distinguished Xenopus borealis from the Xenopus laevis group by chromosome morphology and suggested closer affinities with Xenopus muelleri. Channing and Howell, 2006, Amph. E. Afr.: 240-241, provided an account and map. Pickersgill, 2007, Frog Search: 55, provided a brief account. Malonza, Lötters, and Measey, 2010, J. E. Afr. Nat. Hist., 99: 54, commented on range, life history, and conservation status in the Taita Hills region of Kenya. Measey, Malonza, and Muchai, 2009, Amph. Taita Hills: 14-15, provided a very brief account and photo for the Taita Hills, Kenya. Channing, Rödel, and Channing, 2012, Tadpoles of Africa: 293–294, provided information on comparative larval morphology. Harper, Measey, Patrick, Menegon, and Vonesh, 2010, Field Guide Amph. E. Arc Mts. Tanzania and Kenya: 252–253, provided a brief account and photograph. In the Xenopus muelleri group of Evans, Carter, Greenbaum, Gvoždík, Kelley, McLaughlin, Pauwels, Portik, Stanley, Tinsley, Tobias, and Blackburn, 2015, PLoS One, 10(12): e0142823: 29.  

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