Pelobates vespertinus (Pallas, 1771)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Pelobatidae > Genus: Pelobates > Species: Pelobates vespertinus

Rana vespertina Pallas, 1771, Reise Vers. Prov. Russ. Reich, 1: 458. Type(s): Not designated. Type locality: Not designated; given as "Sibiria" by Schneider, 1799, Hist. Amph. Nat.: 225; given as Sarbai River in the area of Ilmen Village, Samara (Kuibyschew), Russia by Kuzmin, 1999, Amph. Former Soviet Union: 212. 

Bufo vespertinusSchneider, 1799, Hist. Amph. Nat.: 225.

Pelobates fuscus vespertinus — Crochet and Dubois, 2004, In Gasc et al. (eds)., Atlas Amph. Rept. Europe, Ed. 2: 498; Crottini, Andreone, Kosuch, Borkin, Litvinchuk, Eggert, and Veith, 2007, Mol. Ecol., 16: 2750.

Pelobates vespertinusSuryadnaya, 2014, Vestn. Zool., Kiev, 48: 511. 

English Names

Pallas' Spadefoot Toad (Speybroeck, Beukema, Bok, and Van Der Voort, 2016, Field Guide Amph. Rept. Brit. Eur.: 139). 


Extreme southern and eastern Ukraine and the Crimea east and north and west to western Kazakhstan. 


Removed from the synonymy of Pelobates fuscus by Suryadnaya, 2014, Vestn. Zool., Kiev, 48: 511, where it had been placed by Fatio, 1872, Fauna Vert. Suisse, 3: 376; Schreiber, 1875, Herpetol. Eur.: 90; Kuzmin, 1996, Adv. Amph. Res. Former Soviet Union, 1: 54. Still considered a subspecies of Pelobates fuscus by some authors; there is a hybrid zone in northeastern Ukraine and the Russian province of Kursk. Most literature dealing with this species is covered in the comment under Pelobates fuscus, which in the strict sense is found west of Pelobates vespertinus. See accounts by Nöllert, 1990, Die Knoblauchkrote, Wittenburg: 1-144, Kuzmin, 1999, Amph. Former Soviet Union: 212-221. Borkin, Litvinchuk, Milto, Rosanov, and Khalturin, 2001, Dokl. Biol. Sci., 376: 86-88, and Borkin, Litvinchuk, Rosanov, and Milto, 2002 "2001", Amphibia-Reptilia, 22: 387-396, presented evidence suggested that two species are covered under the name Pelobates fuscus fuscus, with the boundary between the two in eastern Ukraine and European Russia, and noting that the oldest name for the eastern form would be Pelobates vespertinus (Pallas, 1771), should the two populations prove to be different species. Nöllert and Nöllert, 1992, Die Amph. Eur.: 275-278, provided an account and polygon map. Borkin, Litvinchuk, Rosanov, Khalturin, Lada, Borissovsky, Faizulin, Kotserzhinskaya, Novitsky, and Ruchin, 2003, Russ. J. Herpetol., 10: 111-118, refined the geographic distribution of the two populations. Nöllert, 1997, in Gasc et al. (eds.), Atlas Amph. Rept. Eur.: 110-111, discussed relevant literature and distribution. Lanza, 1983, Guide Reconoscimento Spec. Animali, Anf. Rett.: 93-97, reported on the Italian populations. Gislén and Kauri, 1959, Acta Vert., Stockholm, 1: 262-271, reported on Swedish populations. Pikulik, 1996, Zemnavodnyia Pauzuny: 131-133, provided an account for the Belarus population. Mazanaeva and Askenderov, 2007, Russ. J. Herpetol., 14: 161-166, discussed the range in Dagestan, Russia. Crottini, Andreone, Kosuch, Borkin, Litvinchuk, Eggert, and Veith, 2007, Mol. Ecol., 16: 2734-2754, reported on phylogeographic relations. See detailed account for Italy by Andreone, Gentilli, and Scali, 2007, in Lanza et al. (eds.), Fauna d'Italia, 42 (Amph.): 352-362. Crombaghs, van Eijk, and Creemers, 2009, in Creemers and van Delft (eds.), Amph. Rept. Nederland: 154-163, provided a detailed account for the species in the Netherlands. Stojanov, Tzankov, and Naumov, 2011, Die Amph. Rept. Bulgariens: 169-174, provided a fairly detailed account and range map for Bulgaria. Cogǎlniceanu, Székely, Samoilă, Iosif, Tudor, Plăiaşu, Stănescu, and Rozylowicz, 2013, ZooKeys, 296: 35-57, provided a dot map for Romania. Litvinchuk, Crottini, Federici, de Pous, Donaire-Barroso, Andreone, Kalezić, Džukić, Lada, Borkin, and Rosanov, 2013, Organisms Divers. Evol., 13: 433451, reported on the biogeography and narrow contact zone of two historical lineages, which they termed Pelobates fuscus fuscus and Pelobates fuscus vespertinusSuryadnaya, 2014, Vestn. Zool., Kiev, 48: 511–520, noted karyological differences between the two nominal races (Pelobates fuscus fuscus and Pelobates fuscus vespertinus) and considered the two taxa as species with a narrow hybrid zone. Speybroeck, Beukema, Bok, and Van Der Voort, 2016, Field Guide Amph. Rept. Brit. Eur.: 139–140, provided a brief account. 

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