Pelobates syriacus Boettger, 1889

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Pelobatidae > Genus: Pelobates > Species: Pelobates syriacus

Pelobates syriacus Boettger, 1889, Zool. Anz., 12: 145. Syntypes: SMF (2 specimens); SMF 1437.1a reported as a type by Boettger, 1892, Kat. Batr. Samml. Mus. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges.: vi; SMF 1722 (formerly 1437.1a) designated lectotype by Mertens, 1967, Senckenb. Biol., 48(A): 38. Type locality:"Haiffa in Syrien", now Haifa, Israel.

Pelobates syriacus boettgeri Mertens, 1923, Senckenb. Biol., 5: 122. Holotype: SMF 1725 (formerly 1437.2a) according to Mertens, 1967, Senckenb. Biol., 48(A): 38. Type locality:"Belesuwar, südwestlich vom Machmudtschalasi-See, unweit der russisch-persischen Grenze, Transkaukasien", Azerbaijan. Subspecific distinction from Pelobates syriacus syriacus rejected by Eiselt and Schmidtler, 1973, Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien, 77: 184, and Başoğlu and Özeti, 1973, Türkiye Amphibileri: 129.

Pelobates syriacus syriacusMertens, 1923, Senckenb. Biol., 5: 122.

Pelobates syriacus balcanicus Karaman, 1928, Bull. Soc. Sci. Skopkje, Sect. Sci. Nat., 4: 130. Type(s): Mus. Zool., Skopkje, Macedonia, current status unknown. Type locality: Environs of the Lakes of Prespa at Dojran, as well as of Skilje and Stip [Serbia]; restricted to Doiran Lake, Macedonia, by Mertens and Müller, 1940, Abh. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges., 451: 16. Status rejected by Eiselt, 1988 "1986", Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien, Ser. B, 90: 51-59.

Pelobates transcaucasicus Delwig, 1928, Zool. Anz., 75: 27. Syntypes: SMF (10 specimens), including ZIK Amph A5/A (2164) according to Pisanets, 2001, Cat. Types Specimens Ukran. Acad. Sci., 1: 91. Type locality: Transcaucasia. Synonymy by Eiselt and Schmidtler, 1973, Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien, 77: 183.

Pseudopelobates transcaucasicusPasteur, 1958, C. R. Hebd. Séances Acad. Sci., Paris, 247: 1037.

English Names

Syrian Spade-foot Toad (Flower, 1933, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1933: 838).

Eastern Spadefoot (Arnold and Burton, 1978, Field Guide Rept. Amph. Brit. Eur.: 67; Stumpel-Rienks, 1992, Ergänzungsband Handbuch Rept. Amph. Eur., Trivialnamen der Herpetofauna Eur.: 52; Kuzmin, 1999, Amph. Former Soviet Union: 174; Tarkhnishvili and Gokhelashvili, 1999, Adv. Amph. Res. Former Soviet Union, 4: v; Arnold, 2002, Rept. Amph. Eur., Ed. 2: 70; Arekelyan, Danielyan, Corti, Sindaco, and Leviton, 2012, Herpetofauna of Armenia: 39).

Soutwest Asian Spadefoot (Ananjeva, Borkin, Darevsky, and Orlov, 1988, Dict. Amph. Rept. Five Languages: 108).

Syrian Spadefoot Toad (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 96; Sofianidou, 1997, in Gasc et al. (eds.), Atlas Amph. Rept. Eur.: 113).


Northern Israel; Lebanon; northern Syria; northern Iraq; Turkey; Caspian Iran (West Azarbaijan, East Azarbaijan, Gilan, Mazandaran, and Golestan Provinces); eastern Transcaucasia; eastern Serbia and Macedonia, Bulgaria, southeastern Romania, and parts of Greece, Russia, Bulgaria, to western Turkey.


See accounts by Eiselt and Schmidtler, 1973, Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien, 77: 182, and Kuzmin, 1999, Amph. Former Soviet Union: 221-225. Uğurtaş, 2001, Asiat. Herpetol. Res., 9: 139-141, reported on geographic variation of dorsal color pattern and morphometrics in Turkey. Sofianidou, 1997, in Gasc et al. (eds.), Atlas Amph. Rept. Eur.: 112-113, discussed relevant literature and distribution. Uğurtaş, Ljubisavljević, Sidorovska, Kalezić, and Džukić, 2002, Israel J. Zool., 48: 13-32, discussed geographic variation of this species and found the Balkan population to be quite distinctive from the Asia Minor population (Pelobates syriacus syriacus), and the Balkan populations (Serbia and Macedonia + Bulgaria) to form two also distinctive populations (Pelobates syriacus balcanicus and an unnamed subspecies). Disi, Modry, Necas, and Rifai, 2001, Amph. Rept. Hashemite Kingdom Jordan: 99-101, provided an account for the Jordanian population. Özeti and Yilmaz, 1994, Türkiye Amfibileri: 114-120, provided an account for Turkish populations. Baloutch and Kami, 1995, Amph. Iran: 108-110, provided an account for Iran. Delfino, Bar-Oz, and Weissbrod, 2007, Zool. Middle East, 40: 45-52, reported the species extralimitally in Bronze-Age archeological site from the lower Galilee area, implying substantial environmental change. Mazanaeva and Askenderov, 2007, Russ. J. Herpetol., 14: 161-166, discussed the range in Dagestan, Russia. Valakos, Pafilis, Sotiropoulos, Lymberakis, Maragou, and Foufopoulos, 2008, Amph. Rept. Greece: 135-138, provided an account for Greece. Anderson, 1978, Herpetol. Rev., 9: 21, provided records for Mazandaran Province, Iran, and commented on the more westerly records for Caspian Iran. Kami and Vakilpoure, 1996, Herpetol. Rev., 27: 149, provided additional records for Iran. Düsen and Urhan, 2008, Russ. J. Herpetol., 15: 189-192, provided a record for western Anatolia, Turkey. Nöllert and Nöllert, 1992, Die Amph. Eur.: 279-281, provided an account and polygon map for Europe. Stojanov, Tzankov, and Naumov, 2011, Die Amph. Rept. Bulgariens: 175-179, provided a fairly detailed account and range map for Bulgaria. Arekelyan, Danielyan, Corti, Sindaco, and Leviton, 2012, Herpetofauna of Armenia: 39–40, provided a brief account for Armenia and environs. Cogǎlniceanu, Székely, Samoilă, Iosif, Tudor, Plăiaşu, Stănescu, and Rozylowicz, 2013, ZooKeys, 296: 35–57, provided a dot map for Romania. Kamali and Malekzadeh, 2013, Russ. J. Herpetol., 20: 238–239, provided a record for northern Iran and discussed the range in that country. Safaei-Mahroo, Ghaffari, Fahimi, Broomand, Yazdanian, Najafi-Majd, Hosseinian Yousefkani, Rezazadeh, Hosseinzadeh, Nasrabadi, Rajabizadeh, Mashayekhi, Motesharei, Naderi, and Kazemi, 2015, Asian Herpetol. Res., 6: 257–290, reported on distribution and conservation status in Iran.  Speybroeck, Beukema, Bok, and Van Der Voort, 2016, Field Guide Amph. Rept. Brit. Eur.: 141–142, provided a brief account and range map for Europe. 


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