Kaloula pulchra Gray, 1831

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Microhylidae > Subfamily: Microhylinae > Genus: Kaloula > Species: Kaloula pulchra

Kaloula pulchra Gray, 1831, Zool. Misc., Part 1: 38. Type(s): Not designated; presumably BMNH, but not identified by Parker, 1934, Monogr. Frogs Fam. Microhylidae: 86. Type locality: "China".

Hylaedactylus bivittatus Cantor, 1847, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, 16: 1064. Holotype: Presumably ZRC or BMNH but not mentioned by Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 171. Type locality: "field near Malacca", Malaya, Malaysia. Synonymy by Günther, 1859 "1858", Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus.: 123; Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 170; Bourret, 1942, Batr. Indochine: 487.

Callula pulchraGünther, 1864, Rept. Brit. India: 437.

Caloula pulchraStoliczka, 1870, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, 39: 155.

Calohyla pulchraPeters and Doria, 1878, Ann. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Genova, 13: 429.

Callula macrodactyla Boulenger, 1887, Ann. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Genova, Ser. 2, 5: 485. Holotype: MSNG 29467, according to Capocaccia, 1957, Ann. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Genova, Ser. 3, 69: 219. Type locality: "Kaw-ka-riet, about 30 miles from Moulmein, at the foot of the Dawn Chain", Tenasserim, Myanmar. Synonymy by Parker, 1934, Monogr. Frogs Fam. Microhylidae: 85; Bourret, 1942, Batr. Indochine: 488.

Kaloula pulchraBarbour, 1909, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 61: 405.

Callula (Kallula) pulchraBourret, 1927, Fauna Indochine, Vert., 3: 263.

Kaloula pulchra pulchraParker, 1934, Monogr. Frogs Fam. Microhylidae: 33-34, 85.

Kaloula pulchra hainana Gressitt, 1938, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, 51: 127. Holotype: MVZ 23189, by original designation. Type locality: "Kachek [= Qionghai County], alt. 25 meters, east central Hainan Island, South China Sea (lat. 18° 50′ N., long. 110° 30′ E.)", China.

Kaloula pulchra macrocephala Bourret, 1942, Batr. Indochine: 490. Syntypes: Lab. Sci. Nat. Univ. Hanoi 35-36, now MNHNP. Type locality: "Tonkin: ? (pas de localité indiquée)".

Kaloula macrocephalaOhler, 2003, Alytes, 21: 100. See comment.

English Names

Beautiful Kaloula (Kaloula pulchra: Gray, 1831, Zool. Misc., Part 1: 38).

Malaysian Narrowmouth Toad (Kaloula pulchra: Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 90).

Asiatic Painted Frog (Kaloula pulchra pulchra: Karsen, Lau, and Bogadek, 1986, Hong Kong Amph. Rept.: 34).

Malayan Bullfrog (Kaloula pulchra: Ananjeva, Borkin, Darevsky, and Orlov, 1988, Dict. Amph. Rept. Five Languages: 97).

Ceylon Kaloula (Kaloula pulchra: Ananjeva, Borkin, Darevsky, and Orlov, 1988, Dict. Amph. Rept. Five Languages: 97).

Digging Frog (Kaloula pulchra: Ananjeva, Borkin, Darevsky, and Orlov, 1988, Dict. Amph. Rept. Five Languages: 97).

Hainan Digging Frog (Kaloula pulchra hainana: Fei, 1999, Atlas Amph. China: 298).

Piebald Digging Frog (Kaloula pulchra pulchra: Fei, 1999, Atlas Amph. China: 300).

Painted Bullfrog (Das and Dutta, 1998, Hamadryad, 23: 64).

Banded Bullfrog (Lim and Lim, 1992, Guide Amph. Rept. Singapore: 39; Chan-ard, 2003, Photograph. Guide Amph. Thailand: 100).

Malaysian Bullfrog (Schleich, Anders, and Kästle, 2002, in Schleich and Kästle (eds.), Amph. Rept. Nepal: 79).

Painted Frog (Shrestha, 2001, Herpetol. Nepal: 72; Dinesh, Radhakrishnan, Gururaja, and Bhatta, 2009, Rec. Zool. Surv. India, Occas. Pap., 302: 52).

Painted Burrowing Frog (Nutphund, 2001, Amph. Thailand: 159).

Painted Balloon Frog (Ahmed, Das, and Dutta, 2009, Amph. Rept. NE India: 32).

Painted Microhylid Frog (Mathew and Sen, 2010, Pict. Guide Amph. NE India: 64).

Banded Bullfrog (Grismer, 2012, Field Guide Amph. Rept. Seribuat Arch.: 55).

Distribution

Northeastern India (Meghalaya, Bihar, Assam, Nagaland, Tripura, Mizoram, and Manipur) east through Bangladesh and Myanmar and Thailand to southern China (southern Yunnan, Guangxi, Hainan and Guangdong, and Taiwan), south to Singapore; Sumatra; Borneo; Sulawesi; introduced into Philippines (Luzon, Cebu, Marinduque, Mindanao, and Palawan).

Comment

Apparently introduced into Borneo and Sulawesi according to R.F. Inger in Frost, 1985, Amph. Species World: 384, and Lever, 2003, Naturalized Rept. Amph. World: 200-201. See Berry, 1975, Amph. Fauna Peninsular Malaysia: 114-116, for account of Malayan population. Chinese population discussed by Liu and Hu, 1961, Tailless Amph. China: 293-295; see also Liu, Hu, Fei, and Huang, 1973, Acta Zool. Sinica, 19: 400-401, for Hainan population. Thailand population discussed by Taylor, 1962, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull., 43: 563-566. See also account for Indonesian populations by Mertens, 1930, Abh. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges., 42: 236. See comment under Kaloula taprobanica. See accounts by Yang, 1991, Amph. Fauna of Yunnan: 231-233; Ye, Fei, and Hu, 1993, Rare and Economic Amph. China: 349; and Fei, 1999, Atlas Amph. China: 298-302. See Dey and Gupta, 2001 "2000", Hamadryad, 25: 214-215, for Assam record. Lim and Lim, 1992, Guide Amph. Rept. Singapore: 39, suggested that the population in Singapore is introduced. Karsen, Lau, and Bogadek, 1986, Hong Kong Amph. Rept.: 34, provided a brief account. Chanda, 2002, Handb. Indian Amph.: 35, provided a brief account. See brief account and photo by Manthey and Grossmann, 1997, Amph. Rept. Südostasiens: 56-58. Zhang and Wen, 2000, Amph. Guangxi: 141, provided an account for Guangxi. Orlov, Murphy, Ananjeva, Ryabov, and Ho, 2002, Russ. J. Herpetol., 9: 99, provided a statement for the range in Vietnam. See also brief account by Zhao and Yang, 1997, Amph. Rept. Hengduan Mountains Region: 134-135. Hooroo, Khongwir, and Gupta, 2003 "2002", Hamadryad, 27: 147-148, reported the species for Meghalaya, northeastern India. See account by Shrestha, 2001, Herpetol. Nepal: 72-73. Reported for southwestern Cambodia by Ohler, Swan, and Daltry, 2002, Raffles Bull. Zool., 50: 465-481. Nutphund, 2001, Amph. Thailand: 159, provided a brief characterization and photograph. Malkmus, Manthey, Vogel, Hoffmann, and Kosuch, 2002, Amph. Rept. Mount Kinabalu:126-127, provided an account. Stuart, 1999, in Duckworth et al. (eds.), Wildlife in Lao PDR: 49, reported the species in Laos. Chan-ard, 2003, Photograph. Guide Amph. Thailand: 100-101, provided a very brief account, map for Thailand, and photograph. Nguyen, Ho, and Nguyen, 2005, Checklist Amph. Rept. Vietnam: 43, provided specific localities for Vietnam. Lue, Tu, and Hsiang, 1999, Atlas Taiwan Amph. Rept.: 54-55, provided a brief account for Taiwan. Devi and Shamungou, 2006, J. Exp. Zool. India, 9: 317-324, provided a record for Manipur, northeastern India. Sailo, Kharbuli, and Hooroo, 2005, Cobra, Chennai, 62: 25-28, provided a record for Mizoram, northeastern India. Yang, 2008, in Yang and Rao (ed.), Amph. Rept. Yunnan: 121-122, provided a brief account for Yunnan, China. Charles, 2008, Herpetol. Rev., 39: 478-479, provided the first record for Brunei. Fei, Hu, Ye, and Huang, 2009, Fauna Sinica, Amph. 2: 926-935, provided an account and spot map for China and assigned this species to their Kaloula pulchra group. Christy, Clark, Gee, Vice, Vice, Warner, Tyrrell, Rodda, and Savidge, 2007, Pacific Sci., 61: 469-483, reported incidental specimens from Guam but did not think that the species was established. Das, 2009, Herpetol. Rev., 40: 361, provided a record for Sarawak and commented on the introductions in Borneo. Ahmed, Das, and Dutta, 2009, Amph. Rept. NE India: 32, provided a brief account for northeastern India. Dinesh, Radhakrishnan, Gururaja, and Bhatta, 2009, Rec. Zool. Surv. India, Occas. Pap., 302: 52, reported the species to only occur in Meghalaya, India. Fidenci, 2009, Herpetol. Rev., 40: 446, reported the species in Palawan, Philippines, and commented on the range in the Philippines. Mathew and Sen, 2010, Pict. Guide Amph. NE India: 64, provided a brief characterization and photographs and, without explanation, included southern and eastern India (e.g., Kerala, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Orissa) within the range. Mahony, Hasan, Kabir, Ahmed, and Hossain, 2009, Hamadryad, 34: 80-94, discussed the vouchered range in Bangladesh. Fei, Ye, and Jiang, 2010, Colored Atlas of Chinese Amph.: 491 (Kaloula pulchra hainana), 492-493 (Kaloula pulchra pulchra), provided brief accounts for China including photographs of specimens. Siler, Welton, Siler, Brown, Bucol, Diesmos, and Brown, 2011, Check List, 7: 182-195, discussed this introduced species in Aurora Province, Luzon Island, Philippines. Shi, 2011, Amph. Rept. Fauna Hainan: 57-58, provided an account for Hainan. Wanger, Motzke, Saleh, and Iskandar, 2011, Salamandra, 47: 17-29, reported the species from central Sulawesi, Indonesia. Shah and Tiwari, 2004, Herpetofauna Nepal: 37, in their brief account for Nepal, noted that the record by Dubois, 1978, Senckenb. Biol., 59: XXX, requires re-examination. Pauwels and Chérot, 2006, Hamadryad, 30: 172-175, discussed the synonymy of Kaloula aureata with Kaloula macrocephala, suggested provisionally by Ohler, 2003, Alytes, 21: 100. They did not comment on the suggested species status of Kaloula macrocephala, treating it instead as a subspecies of Kaloula pulchra. See brief account by Grismer, 2012, Field Guide Amph. Rept. Seribuat Arch.: 55-56, for the Seribuat Archipelago, West Malaysia. Fei, Ye, and Jiang, 2012, Colored Atlas Chinese Amph. Distr.: 578-581, provided accounts (as Kaloula pulchra hainana and Kaloula pulchra pulchra), photographs, and range maps for China. Sy, 2013, Herpetol. Rev., 44: 621, provided new records and discussed range in Philippines. Sy and Malabana, 2015, Herpetol. Rev., 46: 212, provided a record for Marinduque Island, Philippines, and briefly discussed the range in that country. Reported from the Phi Phi Archipelago of peninsular Thailand by Milto, 2014, Russ. J. Herpetol., 21: 272. Sy, Cielo, Soniega, Hulog, Bacalando, and Quibod, 2016, Herpetol. Rev., 47: 248, provided a record from Calapan City, Oriental Mindoro Province, Mindanao, Philippines. See account, photograph, and map for Vietnam in Vassilieva, Galoyan, Poyarkov, and Geissler, 2016, Photograph. Field Guide Amph. Rept. Lowland S. Vietnam: 70–71. 

External links:

Please note: these links will take you to external websites not affiliated with the American Museum of Natural History. We are not responsible for their content.