Kalophrynus Tschudi, 1838

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Microhylidae > Subfamily: Kalophryninae > Genus: Kalophrynus
26 species

Kalophrynus Tschudi, 1838, Classif. Batr.: 48, 86. Type species: Kalophrynus pleurostigma Tschudi, 1838, by monotypy.

Calliphryne Agassiz, 1846, Nomencl. Zool., Fasc. 12: 59. Injustified emendation of Kalophrynus Tschudi, 1838.

CalophrynusCope, 1867, J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, Ser. 2, 6: 195. Incorrect subsequent spelling.

Berdmorea Stoliczka, 1872, Proc. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, 1872: 146. Type species: Engystoma interlineatum Blyth, 1855 "1854", by original designation. Synonymy by Günther, 1874, Zool. Rec., 9: 80; Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 157.

Nomina inquirenda - Name(s) unassigned to a living or extinct population

Bufo studeri Isenschmid, 1903, Mitt. Naturforsch. Ges. Bern, 1903: 77. Types: not stated; presumably in NHM. Type locality: "Palembang, Sumatra", Indonesia. Synonymy with Kalophrynus pleurostigma by Boulenger, 1905, Zool. Rec., 41: 36; Boulenger, 1912, in Robinson (ed.), Vert. Fauna of the Malay Peninsula: 258; Bourret, 1942, Batr. Indochine: 497. Ohler and Grosjean, 2005, Herpetozoa, Wien, 18: 99-106, in their discussion of applicable names, left this name unassociated with any recognizable biological population. Matsui, Eto, Belabut, and Nishikawa, 2017, Curr. Herpetol., Kyoto, 36: 84–85, discussed the history of confusion of identifications in the Kalophrynus interlineatus/Kalophrynus pleurostigma similarity grouping of species. 

English Names

Grainy Frogs (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 90).


Southern China to Java and Philippines; Assam, India.


See Inger, 1966, Fieldiana, Zool., 52: 126-140, for synonymies, key, and review of Bornean species. Malkmus, Manthey, Vogel, Hoffmann, and Kosuch, 2002, Amph. Rept. Mount Kinabalu: 119, provided a key to the species of Borneo. Formerly in the Old World component of Microhylinae; Frost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 225, removed Kalophrynus from any subfamily pending resolution of its phylogenetic placement. Due to the uncertainty of the application of names (Ohler and Grosjean, 2005, Herpetozoa, Wien, 18: 99-106) many works dealing with Kalophrynus are not immediately associatable with named populations: see Inger, 1956, Fieldiana, Zool., 34: 396; and Inger, 1966, Fieldiana, Zool., 52: 133-136, for Bornean population. See also Berry, 1975, Amph. Fauna Peninsular Malaysia: 112-113. Matsui, Chan-ard, and Nabhitabhata, 1996, Copeia, 1996: 440-445, removed Kalophrynus interlineatus from synonymy and questioned the status of the population on Java (subsequently named as Kalophrynus minusculus). See account by Iskandar, 1998, Amph. Java Bali: 54-55. Recorded for Thailand by Khonsue and Thirakhupt, 2001, Nat. Hist. J. Chulalongkorn Univ., 1: 77; this requires confirmation. Lim and Lim, 1992, Guide Amph. Rept. Singapore: 40-41, provided a brief account. See brief account and photo by Manthey and Grossmann, 1997, Amph. Rept. Südostasiens: 54-55. Escobar, Grismer, and Youmans, 2002, Herpetol. Rev., 33: 318, provided a record from the Serabuat Archipelago. Nutphund, 2001, Amph. Thailand: 157, provided a brief characterization and photograph. Malkmus, Manthey, Vogel, Hoffmann, and Kosuch, 2002, Amph. Rept. Mount Kinabalu:123-124, provided an account. Chan-ard, 2003, Photograph. Guide Amph. Thailand: 98-99, provided a very brief account, map for Thailand, and photograph. Fei, Hu, Ye, and Huang, 2009, Fauna Sinica, Amph. 2: 949-957, provided a key and accounts for the species of China. Vassilieva, Galoyan, Gogoleva, and Poyarkov, 2014, Zootaxa, 3796: 401–434, reported on the molecular phylogenetics of populations in Indochina. Zug, 2015, Proc. California Acad. Sci., Ser. 4, 62: 135–190, reformulated the taxonomy of the Kalophrynus interlineatus/Kalophrynus pleurostigma group and provided an identification key to all species of the genus. 

Contained taxa (26 sp.):

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